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  1. 1. Chapter 14 Managing E-Business and Network Systems
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Managing e-business systems and their underlying infrastructure is a critical success factor for managers </li></ul><ul><li>In the e-business world, networks are the key ingredient linking, systems, processes, and people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks add value and complexity to information infrastructures </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. System Operational Disciplines
  4. 4. Managing Batch Systems <ul><li>Batch systems processing involves receiving and aggregating incoming transactions and distributing the resulting output data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regularly scheduled applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications are commonly executed on centrally located computer facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts payable, inventory, ledger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications commonly use computer scheduling because of interjob dependencies </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Network Systems Management <ul><li>Networks form the basis for many well known and emerging businesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon, eBay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network technology enables and encourages restructuring and re-engineering processes </li></ul><ul><li>Web technology adds new dimensions to a firm’s systems and management processes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Network Management’s Scope <ul><li>Network management’s focus is broad and diffuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers are responsible for owned as well as leased assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries are also blurred between data and voice applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network managers must provide seamless support for customers while tracking and solving problems across the enterprise as well as those involving outside vendors </li></ul>
  7. 7. Managers’ Expectations of Networks <ul><li>Growth in networked applications demands increased network management capability </li></ul><ul><li>Users expect networks to be capable, reliable, and cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Unfulfilled expectations are an important source of difficulty for IT managers; networks can be a prime source of failure </li></ul>
  8. 8. Network Management Disciplines <ul><li>Disciplined techniques are critical for network management success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLAs incorporate customer expectations of reliability, responsiveness, and availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers must focus on problem, change, and recovery management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance planning and analysis, capacity planning, and configuration management are also important </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Disciplines of Network Management
  10. 10. Network Service Levels <ul><li>Users view networks as a unified entity, so the SLAs must treat applications, computer and network hardware, network links, and user workstations as an integrated whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLAs must include measures of availability, service quantities, and reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They must include some measures of workload </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Configuration Management <ul><li>Configuration management includes a database containing an accurate record of the network’s physical and logical connections and configurations </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration management’s scope includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical Topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment (inventory and specifications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor Data </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Fault and Change Management <ul><li>Fault management is similar in many ways to problem management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks can be created with monitoring to automatically flag failures and attempt to reconfigure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faults can arise from hardware, software, or configuration failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting these failures requires the skills of network engineers and technicians and access to configuration databases </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Recovery Management <ul><li>Network managers must plan to recover from local disasters as well as disasters affecting vendors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy in name (using different carriers for reliability) may not be redundancy in fact (the carriers use the same physical ROW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers must remain aware of this problem and explicitly address it when initiating SLAs with telecom vendors </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Network Management Systems <ul><li>Automated tools that help manage and operate networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather statistics from routers and switches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SNMP traps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist as hardware embedded in the network to create diagnostic logs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor network usage and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vendors offer integrated monitoring and management packages </li></ul>
  15. 15. Performance Management <ul><li>Techniques for defining, planning, measuring, analyzing, reporting, and improving on infrastructure performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System tuning </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Defining Performance <ul><li>System performance is the volume of work accomplished per unit of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU throughput, network transmission bandwidth, number of transactions posted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In e-business applications, system response time is a critical performance measure for end user satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With rapidly improving hardware performance, managers are shifting from increasing HW efficiency to improving end user satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Performance Planning <ul><li>Establishes objectives for human/ computer system throughput </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workload characterization is the cornerstone of all performance and capacity programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System performance and associated factors must be well understood prior to system capacity increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System tuning (optimization) can also yield performance increases without capacity expansion </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Measuring and Analyzing Performance <ul><li>Measuring response time and system throughput under a variety of workloads is critical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction service time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transaction rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average response time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These measurements are used to judge delivery of SLAs, capacity trends, and tuning results </li></ul>
  19. 19. Network Performance Assessment <ul><li>Network managers must monitor performance to exceed SLAs </li></ul><ul><li>As usage and loading changes, network bottlenecks occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without some system of monitoring, resolution of these problems is delayed with user satisfaction declining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network availability is a calculation derived from MTBF and MTTR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability = (MTBF)/(MTBF + MTTR) X 100 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. System Tuning <ul><li>System tuning or optimization can be used to create performance increases without capital expense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks of performance tuning include the risk of change as discussed earlier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes limiting access to a resource, while decreasing capacity, improves throughput </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuning of complex systems can be very time consuming and tedious </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Capacity Management <ul><li>Process by which IT managers plan and control the quantity of system resources needed to satisfy user needs </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to match available system resources with those needed to meet service levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must also anticipate future needs and plan for increased usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must also identify obsolete or underutilized hardware and services </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Capacity Analysis <ul><li>Managers must perform a detailed analysis of current system resource requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as a benchmark for proposed changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to identify daily workload peaks as well as peak loading for weekly and monthly timeframes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity assessment and monitoring must be a continuous process in rapidly growing e-businesses </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Capacity Planning <ul><li>Managers must anticipate future need and plan accordingly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques range from simple to complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers must pick the correct metrics to follow, as technology changes so do needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning must be grounded in fact and logic, not hunches and guesswork </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Additional Planning Factors <ul><li>Changes in the organization’s strategic directions that might modify or increase IT services </li></ul><ul><li>Business volume changes (either increases or decreases) </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational changes (always a potential impact on IT resources) </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the number of people using IT services </li></ul>
  25. 25. Additional Planning Factors <ul><li>Changing financial conditions within the firm or industry </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in service-level agreements or service-level objectives that might have a bearing on system performance requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio management actions that might impact system throughput, such as the addition of new applications or enhancements to current applications </li></ul>
  26. 26. Additional Planning Factors <ul><li>Testing new applications or making modifications to current applications that require additional system resources </li></ul><ul><li>Application schedule changes initiated by operations or user managers </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule alterations for system backup and vital records processing </li></ul><ul><li>System outage data and job rerun times from the problem management system </li></ul>
  27. 27. Linking Plans to Service Levels <ul><li>Periodically the performance and capacity management processes must be reviewed to assess their effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did forecasts agree with actual demand? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did capacity needs match capacity resources? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were service levels met? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Were budgets adequate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are customers satisfied? </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Management Information Reporting <ul><li>Reporting is an essential role – it creates transparency to IT operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The intent of reporting is to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote organizational learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engage customers in dialog that generates results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication increases trust and confidence between participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports are essential not only to providers but also customers </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Network Manager <ul><li>Network managers need to be skilled generalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their duties transcend organizational, political, cultural, and geographic boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology adoption enables and mandates structural changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They must be capable tacticians, understanding where they need to take the firm and how to get there </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Summary <ul><li>Centralized batch systems and network applications depend critically on network performance and computer resources </li></ul><ul><li>There exists a strong link between system performance and system capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Quality IT business processes must be an overriding consideration in the IT organization </li></ul>

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