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Professional Report


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Professional Report

  1. 1. Financial Management Line of Business Migration Planning Guidance (Version 1) Chapter 6: Glossary and Acronyms This chapter provides definitions for terms and acronyms used as part of the transition from an agency’s existing financial systems and/or operations to a shared service provider (SSP). Table of Contents Glossary................................................................................................................................1 Acronyms...........................................................................................................................12
  2. 2. Section 6.1 Glossary This section provides definitions for terms used as part of the transition from an agency’s existing financial systems and/or operations to a shared service provider (SSP). Glossary Term Definition Active User An individual login which has been logged into the financial management (FM) system for at least 25% of available business days within the past month. Application All costs associated with outsourcing development, maintenance, Management and support services (including coding, testing, and systems Costs integration services) for complex mission-critical software applications, including administrative and support costs, specialists/FTEs, software licensing fees, etc. Application The ability to control any application to ensure that the availability, Performance performance and other aspects of the end user experience of the Management system are acceptable. Application Application Performance metrics are used to describe and Performance determine the achievement of each critical success factor Metrics associated with application management, such as :  Transaction processing throughput capacity,  Expected workstation client response time by transaction type,  Data storage capacity, and  Limitations on concurrent user connectivity. Application Security that controls access to the application. Security Management Applications Services to maintain, enhance, and manage all types of software Management applications. This service might include maintenance, upgrades Services and performance analysis. Certification C&A is an assessment process that results in the official and authority to operate an information system based on the Accreditation implementation of a defined- set of security controls. This (C&A) accreditation is required by OMB Circular A-130, Appendix III. The process evaluates the security features of an IT system, including its operating environment and network connectivity, to determine its compliance with specified security 1
  3. 3. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Term Definition requirements. By accrediting an information system, an Agency official accepts responsibility for the security of the system and is accountable for any adverse impacts to the Agency if a breach of security occurs. Change Change management is the process of employing systematic Management processes to help align an organization’s people and culture with changes in business strategy, organizational structure, business processes and systems. Change management involves the following interdependent activities: (1) building consensus among customers and stakeholders on specific changes designed to better meet their needs; (2) defining and instilling new values, attitudes, norms, and behaviors within an organization that support new ways of doing work and overcomes resistance to change; and (3) planning, testing, and implementing all aspects of the transition from one organizational structure or business process to another to enable beneficial changes to be made, with minimum disruption to services. Confidentiality System and data confidentiality refers to ensuring that information is accessed by authorized people and protected from unauthorized disclosure. The impact of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information can range from the jeopardizing of national security to the disclosure of Privacy Act data. Unauthorized, unanticipated, or unintentional disclosure may result in loss of public confidence, embarrassment, or legal action against the organization. Configuration The continuous control of changes made to a system’s hardware, Management software, and documentation throughout the development and (CM) operational life of the system. CM is conducted using the two interrelated functions: Configuration control and baseline management. Configuration control addresses CM policy and procedures, while baseline management is used to record changes over the life cycle. Contracting Contracting costs include all external costs associated with the Costs delivery of the process or service. Contracting costs are typically fees paid to third party firms to manage a process or activity, and not the total cost of all the resources used in supplying a service. Contracting costs are not necessarily outsourcing costs. In addition, it excludes temporaries and contractors under the direction and management of the agency. Contractor Person or entity that is under contract to provide the Federal Government with services, supplies, or other needs. 2
  4. 4. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Term Definition Core Federal core financial systems consist of five modules- general Financials ledger management (GL), Payment Management (AP), Receivables management (AR), funds management, cost management and reporting. They provide consistent and standardized information for program managers, financial managers, agency executives and oversight organizations. Customer An agency that is being supported by a Shared Service Provider agency (SSP). (see Migrating Agency) Customization A change to the core functionality of a commercially available software application. Data Clean-Up A set of processes to increase the accuracy and consistency of data and facilitate the update of physically implemented data structures. Data clean-up involves several steps, including: identifying data accuracy, consistency, and redundancy problems (referred to as “dirty data”), correcting or eliminating dirty data by means such as normalizing data to eliminate data redundancy,. And establishing mechanisms to prevent dirty data from recurring. Data The act of moving data from one software environment to another Conversion in such a way that it operates under the new software environment in the same manner as the old software environment. Data Integrity The system attribute that ensures the data has not been altered and is consistent. Duration The total number of work periods required to complete a schedule (with respect to activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually Project expressed as workdays or workweeks. Planning) Enterprise The practice of applying a comprehensive and rigorous method Architecture for describing a current and future business and technology (EA) infrastructure for an organization's processes, information systems, and personnel so that they align with the organization's core goals and strategic direction. While considered a information technology practice, an enterprise architecture more broadly relates to the business optimization and includes business architecture, performance management and process architecture as well The primary purpose of an enterprise architecture is to ensure that business strategy and IT investments are aligned. As such, enterprise architecture allows traceability from the business strategy down to the underlying technology investments. Error Those noted defects that are made in the dissemination of billing (submittal of invoicing for Accounts Receivable), in paying invoices received within Accounts Payable and in those errors 3
  5. 5. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Term Definition associated with Accounting and Reporting on assets and liabilities' transactions processing within the Finance organization. Extension The addition of new functionality (in the form of additional functionality supported, or new views, reports tables or interfaces) that does not affect the core functionality of the system or violate the software maintenance agreements of the software product. Federal A collection of reference models that develop a common Enterprise taxonomy and ontology for describing services and IT resources Architecture that promote sharing of information and resources across federal agencies, to reduce costs, to improve citizen services, and to help agencies comply with the Clinger-Cohen Act . The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) reference models include the Performance Reference Model (PRM), the Business Reference Model (BRM), the Service Component Reference Model (SRM), the Data Reference Model (DRM), and the Technical Reference Model (TRM). An agency’s enterprise architecture should define relationships to the Federal Enterprise ArchitectureFEA. Feeder system Any system that feeds information/data into the core financial system or receives information from the core financial system . The systems interact with one another via an “interface”. Financial An organization within the General Services Administration (GSA) Systems charged with three major areas of responsibilities: (1) continuing Integration its primary role of core financial system requirements Office (FSIO) development, testing, and certification; (2) providing support to the Federal financial community by taking on special priority projects as determined by the OMB Controller, CFO Council, and the FSIO Executive Director, and (3) conducting outreach through the annual financial management conference and other related activities. FSIO was formerly known as the JFMIP staff office (see definition below). Financial Any occurrence having financial consequences to the Federal Transaction government related to the receipt of appropriations or other financial resources; acquisition of goods or services; payments or collections; recognition of guarantees, benefits to be provided, or other potential liabilities; or other reportable financial activities. (See "financial event" in JFMIP "Framework for Federal Financial Management Systems.") Finish (with A point in time associated with the schedule activity’s completion. respect to Project Planning) FM FTE A full-time equivalent engaged in Financial Transactions. Funds Control The funds control process records transactions affecting the 4
  6. 6. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Term Definition resources and status accounts in the budgetary section of the U.S. SGL. It also provides appropriate warnings and controls to ensure that budgetary limitations are not exceeded. The funds control process consists of the following activities: • Funds Availability Editing • Commitments • Obligations • Analysis. Funds Funds transferred from the agency towards the fulfillment of an Expended obligation, regardless of the source of said funds. Gap Analysis A migration phase that identifies any gaps between the Migrating Agency’s current operating environment, its requirements, and the capabilities of the SSP’s financial system or SSP’s current business processes Governance The management framework used by stakeholders to make and implement decisions in a way that ensures efficient execution, guidance, and oversight for business transformation and compliance activities. The framework includes an organizational structure that outlines roles, authorities, responsibilities, boundaries, and communication; and a goals framework that outlines scope of purpose, performance measures, milestones and tasks. Help Desk Services that handle a company’s internal queries and operational Management problems about IT related issues. This service might include Services hardware and software support, logging of problems, dispatch of service technicians or parts, training coordination, etc Hosting Services that house, serve, and maintain files, software Services applications, and databases. Servers are either owned and managed by the client or by the vendor, and are either dedicated or shared. Independent Verification and validation of development and modernization and Verification migration work products and activities performed by an individual and Validation or organization that is technically, managerially, and financially (IV&V) independent of the development organization. (See definitions of ‘verification’ and ‘validation’ below). Integration/End End to end testing of system and related interfaces and feeder to End testing systems conducted to evaluate whether systems or components pass data and control correctly to one another. Integrity Integrity refers to the requirement that information be protected from improper modification. Integrity is lost if unauthorized changes are made to the data or IT System by either intentional or accidental acts. If the loss of System or Data Integrity is not corrected, continued use of the contaminated System or corrupted data could result in inaccuracy, fraud, or erroneous decisions. Also, violation of Integrity may be the first step in a 5
  7. 7. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Term Definition successful attack against System Availability or Confidentiality. For all these reasons, loss of Integrity reduces the assurance of an IT System. Interagency An interagency agreement clearly identifies the workload, agreement (IA performance levels, the method of quality surveillance, and the or IAA) cost for performance between two Federal agencies that are entering an agreement for services. Interface The processes by which two systems transport or share information from one system to the other. The processes may require hardware, software, and interactions among personnel. Interface A document that outlines a conceptual model for how an interface Design will operate to allow two systems to transport and share information. IT Security The concepts, techniques, technical measures, and administrative measures used to protect information assets from deliberate or inadvertent unauthorized acquisition, damage, disclosure, manipulation, modification, loss, or use. Joint Financial A program designed to promote strategies and guide financial Management management improvement across government, review and Improvement coordinate central agencies activities and policy promulgations, Program and act as catalyst and clearinghouse for sharing and (JFMIP) disseminating information about good financial management practices. The JFMIP was renamed as the Financial Systems Integration Office (FSIO) and reassigned (see definition of FSIO above). Lines of Lines of Business develop business-driven common solutions that Business span across the federal government, such as consolidating duplicative financial management systems by using centers of excellence or shared service centers/providers to provide services. Lines of Lines of Business are Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Business initiatives to develop business-driven solutions for major business functions that are common across the federal government. The goal of the Lines of Business is to identify opportunities to reduce the cost of government and improve services to citizens through business performance improvements. The first set of Lines of Business initiatives identified in 2004 included: human resource management, financial management, budget formulation, grants management, case management, and federal health. In 2006, the following additional Lines of Business initiatives were added: budget formulation, IT security, IT infrastructure, and geospatial. For more information, please refer to: 6
  8. 8. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Term Definition omb/egov/c-6-lob.html. Log File Audit trail of actions and/or exceptions. Major Primary functions of the Financial Management system, e.g. Functions Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, Funds Management, Reporting. Managed A service that manages an organization’s security, including all or Security some of the following: design consultation, installation, managed Services firewalls, data encryption, anti-vandal and anti-viral filtering, intrusion detection and response, vulnerability assessments, security administration and technical support. Measure The numeric result of assessing performance against a metric. A measure result demonstrates the magnitude (how much) against a meaning (what) (the metric). An example measure might be 1000 where the metric is number of invoices processed per month. Memorandum The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) sets forth the basic of principles and guidelines under which the SSP and migrating Understanding agencies will work together. MOUs are legally binding agreements between agencies and federal SSPs, but are not legally binding agreements between agencies and private SSPs. Metadata Data that represents information about the data that typically exists in a database for software. Metadata about data could include value constraints, naming rules, etc. Metadata about database tables could include: sizes and number of rows in each table, a summary of columns in the database and what tables they are used in. Metric A parameter or quantitative way of looking at a process, service or activity that is to be measured. Metrics define what is to be measured and over what period. An example of a metric is number of errors generated per month. (Also, see ‘performance metric.’) Migrating An agency that is planning to migrate their financial operations to Agency a common solution that is cross-servicing multiple agencies. A Migrating Agency is also known as a Customer Agency. Milestones A scheduled event (i.e. deliverable or a set of deliverables) for which some individual is accountable. A milestone is typically used to measure progress. Mission Critical Any system or transaction necessary to ensure prompt and accurate processing of Financial Transactions Modification A change to existing functionality (whether it is to a view, table or report etc) that does not alter the core functionality of the system or violate the software maintenance agreements of the software product. For example, changes to a system configuration table allow an agency to tailor the functionality of the software without 7
  9. 9. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Term Definition requiring software coding changes. Network An open communications medium, interconnected telephone wire, the Internet, or other means, that is used to transport messages between computers. Network Administrative and consultative services performed to manage, Management control, plan, allocate, build, deploy, coordinate, and monitor the Services resources of a Network. Operating Day-to-day practices and policies to ensure security, consistency, Rules and service standards. Operational A review of the state of a new system to be placed into production Readiness operations. This review determines the ability of an organization Review to fully operate and maintain the new system. Opportunity An event that presents the possibility of positive advantage or gain. Organization A systematic process for determining between the organization’s Needs optimal and actual human capital needs. It is used to ensure that Assessment organizations have staff with the skills to succeed in a performance-based financial management environment and a financial system outsourcing environment. Performance A target level of performance over time expressed as a tangible, Goal measurable objective, against which actual achievement can be compared, including a goal expressed as a quantitative standard, value or rate. A performance goal is comprised of a performance measure with targets and timeframes. Performance The process by which Performance Metrics are identified, Measurement benchmarked, and used to evaluate the performance of FM systems by comparison with historical performance, established benchmarks, and similar FM systems. Performance See metric. Metric Performance See performance goal. Objective Performance Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or Testing component with specified performance requirements Ping time A ping is a tool that servers use to measure the amount of time between the sending of a command and the acknowledgement. When a server pings another server, the responding server responds with a pong, which is sent back to the initial server. The amount of time it takes for a ping to be sent, and a pong to be received, is referred to as the ping time. Planned Unavailability of system that is scheduled and for which the Downtime customer and Active Users of a system are notified.. Privacy Impact Privacy Impact Assessments are required by the E-Government Assessment Act of 2002 whenever “developing or procuring information (PIA) technology . . . or initiating a new collection of information . . . in 8
  10. 10. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Term Definition an identifiable form . . . .” The purpose of a Privacy Impact Assessment is to ensure there is no collection, storage, access, use or dissemination of identifiable personal information (and for some organizations business information) that is not both needed and permitted. Program An organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities Management to centralize and coordinate management of the projects under its Office (PMO) domain. Project Charter A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of the project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. Project Start A point in time associated with the schedule activity’s start. Quality Quality assurance is an integrated system of management Assurance activities involving planning, implementation, assessment, and (QA) corrective action to ensure that a process, item, or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the client. Regression Software is under routine testing and under ongoing change Testing during the development life cycle. When problems are detected and fixed, regression testing confirms that the fix is accurate and verifies that the fix has not introduced or reintroduced new or previously discovered problems. Reimbursable Same as an interagency agreement (IAA). A statement from a Agreement migrating agency to an SSP that outlines the specific services to (RA) be provided on their behalf and how the SSP will be reimbursed for cost. Also, an agreement and an order under such an agreement for goods and services to be provided by an agency to another entity in return for payment; also known as a “customer order.” Requirements Statements that describe functionality or operating characteristics that a system is to provide an agency, or statements that describe activities and deliverables that an entity is to provide an agency. Requirements A term used to describe the discrete activities of both Analysis Requirements Gathering and Gap Analysis. Requirements A formal statement of what is needed. It is the quantifiable and Definition documented needs of the stakeholders for a system or process. Requirements Researching, collecting, documenting and prioritizing stakeholder Gathering needs for scoping and defining a new or altered system or process. An important part of the software engineering process where critical needs or requirements are identified and documented. Resolution Action taken to repair the root cause of an incident or problem, or to implement an acceptable workaround. Resolution Elapsed time between the reporting time for an incident and the Time trouble ticket close time (i.e.: complete issue resolution), as 9
  11. 11. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Term Definition reported back to the incident reporter. Reopened tickets (e.g. due to an unsatisfactory resolution) should be counted as Open, ie: with no trouble ticket close time. Risk An uncertain event that if it occurs has a negative effect (a threat) or a positive effect (an opportunity) on the project’s objective, cost or timeframe. Risk The process of analyzing the possibility of a risk occurring (the Assessment likelihood that specific threat will affect a particular vulnerability or that specific opportunity will arise). Risk The process of determining which risks might affect the project Identification and documenting their characteristics. Service An defined grouping of services. Specific service categories in Category this Migration Planning Guidance document are Technology Hosting and Administration, Application Management, Business Process Services, System Implementation Services, and Additional Professional Services Service Level A mutually binding agreement between a customer agency and Agreement an SSP, used to establish level of service and standards of performance. It specifies, as appropriate, guaranteed service level targets, and the responsibilities of the SSP and the Customer. In addition, it includes escalation provisions, enforcement or penalty provisions for services not provided, and a specified level of customer support. Shared Service Same as a Shared Service Provider (SSP). However, the FMLoB Center (SSC) uses the term SSP. Shared Service An SSP is a separate and distinct organization established to Provider (SSP) provide technology hosting and administration, application management services, business process services, and system implementation services for other entities efficiently and effectively Stakeholder(s) Person(s) and organization(s), such as customers, sponsors, performing organization, vendors, Congress and the public, that are actively involved in the project or migration effort. Stakeholders have interests that may be positively or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project. They may also exert influence over the project and its deliverables. System System Implementation Services involves providing consulting Implementation services to help an agency through a migration of their current Services financial management operations to a new environment, regardless of the level of hosting it involves. System Testing Testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. Systems The modification of a system to correct faults, to improve Maintenance performance, or to adapt the system to a changed environment or changed requirements. Systems Services that manage routine housekeeping activities of a 10
  12. 12. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Term Definition Management customer's IT infrastructure rather than application processes Services Included are hardware diagnostics, software distribution, backup and recovery, file and disk integrity checking, performance monitoring, and virus scanning diagnostics and troubleshooting, configuration management, system repair management and generation of management reports. Target Quantifiable or otherwise measurable characteristic that tells how well a program must accomplish a performance measure. Threat An event that presents the possibility of suffering harm or loss. Total Financial Per OMB Circular A-11, §52, Finance Costs include costs related Cost to Asset Management, Accounting and Reporting, Audits of Financial Statements, and FM Systems. Total IT All costs directly attributable to IT infrastructure, hardware, Hosting & communications, professional development, IT-specific facilities, Administration and software (limited to that which is necessary to operate and Costs maintain the aforementioned). Total Operating No single definition – would define as “Sum total of all costs Cost directly attributable to the FM function of an agency, including FTE, outsourcing, materials, and facilities.” Unplanned Unavailability of system either 1) without 3 business days' notice, Downtime or 2) beyond previously scheduled downtime. Total Operating The sum all costs directly attributable to the FM function of an Cost agency, including FTEs, outsourcing, materials, facilities, and applied overhead.” Unplanned Unavailability of system either 1) without adequate (i.e. ‘3 Downtime business days') notice; or 2) beyond previously scheduled downtime. User User directed testing of financial system compliance with Acceptance requirements Testing (UAT) Formal testing conducted to determine whether or not a system satisfies its acceptance criteria and to enable the customer to determine whether or not to accept the system Validation The technique of evaluating a component or product during or at the end of a phase or project to ensure it complies with the specified requirements. Verification The technique of evaluating a component or product at the end of a phase or project to assure or confirm it satisfies the conditions imposed. Work A deliverable-oriented hierarchal decomposition of the work to be Breakdown executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives Structure (WBS) and create the required deliverables. It organizes and defines the total scope of the project. 11
  13. 13. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Section 6.2 Acronyms This section provides definitions for acronyms used as part of the transition from an agency’s existing financial systems and/or operations to a shared service center. Acronyms Acronym Definition AAMS Automated Acquisition Management System AGA Association of Government Accountants AR Accounts Receivable ARC Administrative Resource Center BRM Business Reference Model (BRM) C&A Certification and Accreditation CAO Chief Acquisition Officer CCMA Configuration and Change Management Agreement CCR Central Contractor Registration CFO Chief Financial Officer CFOC Chief Financial Officer’s Council CGAC Common Government-wide Accounting Code CGFM Certified Government Financial Manager CHCO Chief Human Capital Officer CIO Chief Information Officer CIP Construction in Process CM Configuration Management CO Contracting Officer COE Center of Excellence COOP Continuity of Operations Plan COTR Contracting Office Technical Representative COTS Commercial Off- the-Shelf CPE Continuing Professional Education DBA Database Administrator DOI Department of the Interior DOT Department of Transportation DME Development Modernization and Enhancement DRM Data Reference Model DRP Disaster Recovery Plan EA Enterprise Architecture ERP Enterprise Resource Planning ES Earned Schedule 12
  14. 14. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Acronym Definition ESC Executive Steering Committee ESC Enterprise Service Center EST Eastern Standard Time EVM Earned Value Management FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAQ Frequently Asked Questions FAR Federal Acquisition Regulations FBS Full Budget Service FBWT Funds Balance with Treasury FEA Federal Enterprise Architecture FMFIA Federal Financial Managers Financial Integrity Act of 1982 FFMIA Federal Financial Management Improvement Act of 1996 FISC Financial Information Services Center FISMA Federation Information Security Management Act FM Financial Management FMLOB Financial Management Line of Business FMS Financial Management System FOIA Freedom of Information Act FOC Federal Operations Center FSIO Financial Systems Integration Office FTE Full Time Equivalent FY Fiscal Year GAAP General Accepted Accounting Principles GAO General Accountability Office GL General Ledger GPRA Government Performance Results Act GSA General Services Administration IA Please see IAA Definition IAA Inter-Agency Agreement (may also be shown as IA or IAG for the purposes of this document IAA is the accepted acronym) IAE Integrated Acquisition Environment IAG Please see IAA Definition IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IRS Internal Revenue Service ITMRA Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996 IV&V Independent Verification and Validation JFMIP Joint Financial Management Improvement Program LOB Line of Business MOU Memorandum of Understanding MS Microsoft MT Mountain Time 13
  15. 15. FMLoB MIGRATION PLANNING GUIDANCE (PUBLIC COMMENT VERSION 1) Acronym Definition NBC National Business Center NIST National Institute of Science and Technology OMB Office of Management and Budget OPM Office of Personnel Management PE Program Executive PIA Privacy Impact Assessment PM Performance Measurement PMI Project Management Institute PMO Program Management Office PO Purchase Order PRM Performance Reference Model POC Point of Contact QA Quality Assurance QASP Quality Assurance Surveillance Plan RA Reimbursable Agreement RFI Request for Information RFP Request For Proposal SAP Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing SAS Statement of Accounting Standards SDLC System (or Software) Development Life Cycle SEI Software Engineering Institute SLA Service Level Agreement SLO Service Level Objective SME Subject Management Expert SRM Service Component Reference Model SS Steady State SSA Security Services Agreement SSC Shared Service Center SSP Shared Service Provider TBD To Be Determined TRM Technical Reference Model UAT User Acceptance Testing UPI Unique Project Identifier USSGL United States Standard General Ledger WBS Work Breakdown Structure WCF Working Capital Fund XML Extended Markup Language 14