Performance Appraisals Evaluating how well employees are working


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Performance Appraisals Evaluating how well employees are working

  1. 1. Performance Appraisals Evaluating how well employees are working
  2. 3. Performance Appraisals <ul><li>What are Performance Appraisals (a.k.a. Evaluations)? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of Performance Evaluations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation of Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay, Promotion, and other decisions </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Performance Criteria <ul><li>Need to have a standard by which to compare “good” behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Recall Predictors and Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictors: what we are looking for when we hire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria: the “evidence” of a good employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical (ideal) vs. actual criteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>QG: What happens if performance evaluations are not fair or accurate? </li></ul>
  4. 5. Issues with Criteria <ul><li>Criterion Relevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the actual criteria close to the theoretical criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criterion Contamination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biases and unrealiability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criterion Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with content validity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criterion Usefulness </li></ul><ul><li>QG: Examples of these in your job </li></ul>
  5. 6. Types of Appraisals <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absences, lateness, accidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity and Quality of Output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>May have problems of criterion deficiency </li></ul>
  6. 7. Types of Appraisals <ul><li>Subjective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rankings of employees and ratings of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May have problems with criterion contamination and criterion relevance </li></ul><ul><li>QG: What are objective and subjective criteria in your jobs? </li></ul>
  7. 8. Where do appraisals come from? <ul><li>Self-appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>Peer appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>360 degree feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From all around the employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-rater reliability/more fair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership focused </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Specific appraisals: Comparative <ul><li>Ranking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors rank employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forced Distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GE’s Top and Bottom 10% </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Specific appraisals: Individual <ul><li>Graphic Rating Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating of dimensions from job analyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>QG: Example of Teacher Rating Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths and weaknesses as a performance evaluation tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn in! </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Specific appraisals: Individual <ul><li>Behaviorally Anchored Rating scales (BARS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses actual listing of behaviors of poor and good performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think back to our job analysis and critical incidents technique </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral observation scores (BOS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How often they perform this behavior </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Sources of Error in Appraisals <ul><li>Severity, Average or Leniency Rating Error </li></ul><ul><li>Halo Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both positive and negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recency Effect </li></ul>
  12. 13. Sources of Error in Appraisals <ul><li>Causal Attribution Errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme ratings for perceived effort over perceived ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actor-observer bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comes from the fundamental attribution error </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actor “blames” environment for failures and credits self for successes. Observer does the opposite </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Sources of Error in Appraisals <ul><li>Personal Biases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You’d be surprised </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational training programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Purpose of Feedback <ul><li>Performance appraisals help employee learn about strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Employees want to know what they’re being evaluated on </li></ul><ul><li>Performance appraisals should motivate employees to improve </li></ul><ul><li>QG: What happens when employees don’t get feedback or get poor feedback? </li></ul>
  15. 17. Improving the appraisal process <ul><li>Improve performance appraisal techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Train the appraisers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should know biases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple evaluations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-rater reliability! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appraise the appraisers </li></ul><ul><li>Performance appraisals should be regular and often </li></ul><ul><li>Review and revise performance appraisals </li></ul>
  16. 18. How to give feedback <ul><li>Sandwich!! </li></ul><ul><li>Employees participate in process </li></ul><ul><li>Appraiser positive, constructive, supportive </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on specific job problems </li></ul><ul><li>Employee and supervisor jointly reach goals </li></ul><ul><li>Employee can challenge evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Salary and Rank discussions linked </li></ul>