Healthcare Human Resource Management Flynn Mathis Jackson Langan


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Healthcare Human Resource Management Flynn Mathis Jackson Langan

  1. 1. Healthcare Human Resource Management Flynn Mathis Jackson Langan Performance Management in Healthcare Organizations Chapter 9 PowerPoint Presentation by Tonya L. Elliott, PHR
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>After you have read this chapter, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the importance of the performance appraisal process </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the administrative and development uses of performance appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>Review the informal versus systematic appraisal processes </li></ul><ul><li>Identify who should conduct appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the various methods of appraising performance </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the various rater errors that occur during the appraisal process </li></ul>
  3. 3. Job Criteria <ul><li>Job Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Factors employees must meet for satisfactory job performance </li></ul>
  4. 4. Job Criteria Relevance <ul><li>Ensure job description is accurate and appropriately tied to performance standards before conducting an evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Deficient – omitting significant criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated – including irrelevant criteria </li></ul>
  5. 5. Performance Appraisals <ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>The process of evaluating an employee’s performance </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding discrimination – appraisals must be: </li></ul>Objective Job Related
  6. 6. JCAHO and Performance Appraisals <ul><li>Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Standards affecting performance appraisals: </li></ul><ul><li>Management of human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Improving organization performance </li></ul><ul><li>Components of JCAHO-acceptable performance appraisal systems include: </li></ul><ul><li>Job descriptions identifying duties and required competencies </li></ul><ul><li>A performance evaluation process and supporting documents </li></ul><ul><li>Competency assessment checklists </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conflicting Roles for Performance Appraisal Figure 9-1
  8. 8. <ul><li>Informal appraisal process </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted at manager’s discretion </li></ul><ul><li>Used to praise good work </li></ul><ul><li>Used to motivate to improve behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Formal appraisal process </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically defines an organization’s policies & procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Official form used to document important aspects of job and employee’s performance </li></ul>Informal vs. Systematic Appraisal
  9. 9. <ul><li>Supervisor Subordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Team/Peer Team/Peer </li></ul>Who Conducts Appraisals Supervisor typically conducts review in face-to-face meeting Some organizations have employees rate their managers <ul><li>Teams or peers generally have first-hand knowledge of one another’s performance, while managers may not </li></ul><ul><li>Team members must feel comfortable in offering honest feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Downside includes potential disagreements in peer group </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Self-Rating </li></ul><ul><li>Employees rate themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Requires they examine their own strengths & weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Outside Raters </li></ul><ul><li>Organization may employ an outside expert to evaluate an employee’s performance </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-source Ratings </li></ul><ul><li>“ 360-degree appraisal” </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback on performance provided from many individuals (peers, subordinates, self, and manager) </li></ul>Who Conducts Appraisals (cont’d)
  11. 11. <ul><li>Comparative Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compares employees against each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forced distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of statistics to sort rated employees along a bell curve </li></ul></ul>Performance Appraisal Methods X ------------------- Y Employee order: #1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10… Category Methods <ul><li>Graphic-rating scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A continuum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checklist method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check items that describe employee’s performance </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Narrative Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Essays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes employee performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documenting incidents that are highly favorable and unfavorable representations of employee’s performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field-review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside party reviews manager’s comments about each employee and then rates each employee </li></ul></ul>Performance Appraisal Methods (cont’d)
  13. 13. <ul><li>Behavioral/Objective Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee behavior is measured against a scale of performance levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management by objectives (MBO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies performance goals that the employee & manager agree to complete within a defined period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually tied to organizational objectives </li></ul></ul>Performance Appraisal Methods (cont’d)
  14. 14. <ul><li>Recency </li></ul><ul><li>Using only recent events to judge employees’ performance </li></ul><ul><li>Central-Tendency </li></ul><ul><li>Rating all employees with a narrow range </li></ul><ul><li>Leniency </li></ul><ul><li>Giving all employees high ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Strictness </li></ul><ul><li>Giving all employee low ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Rater Bias </li></ul><ul><li>When manager has a bias against a certain employee or employee group based on manager’s own values or prejudices </li></ul>Rater Errors
  15. 15. <ul><li>Halo effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a manager rates an employee high or low on all job standards based on one characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrast errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a manager compares employees to each other rather than to job performance standards </li></ul></ul>Other Rater Errors
  16. 16. Feedback Systems The Feedback Process Figure 9-6
  17. 17. <ul><li>Reactions of managers </li></ul><ul><li>Significant time commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Balance judging performance with supporting development and mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of reactions to their appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>Need manager’s support on self-development & improvement </li></ul>The Appraisal Interview Key Factors Preparation Effective communication
  18. 18. Dealing with Performance Problems Figure 9-7
  19. 19. <ul><li>Performance Improvement Plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on information managers receive about an employee’s performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented when manager & employee meet to discuss expectations and construct the improvement plan </li></ul></ul>Performance Improvement Plans
  20. 20. <ul><li>Key Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Description of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Clear job expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Plan that improves performance </li></ul><ul><li>Resources available to the employee </li></ul><ul><li>Process to evaluate performance </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences if performance does not improve </li></ul>Performance Improvement Plans (cont’d)