Airport Authority, Certified Airfield Auditors


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  • Delegate Notes To support OHSAS 18001, OHSAS 18002 gives guidance on the inputs needed to deliver OHSAS 18002. It does not, however, tell you how to do it. Guidance on how to is given in BS 8800 and OHSAS 18002 gives the intent behind the “shall” statements in OHSAS 18001. It also gives typical inputs, process and outputs behind each requirement BS 8800 also includes an initial status review and more comprehensive guidance on hazard identification and risk assessment
  • Delegate Notes Case in favour of an IMS Case for retaining largely independent systems Organizational pre-requisites for integration Factors to consider - the process of integration Maintenance & development of an IMS Scope of integration Possible route for integration Some integration essential Superficially case in favour overwhelming But ‘downside’ less obvious Benefits carry penalties - view issues from both sides of argument - some repetition Preferred option for many, depending on the Quality / Environment / OH&S balance Organizations most likely to succeed
  • Delegate Notes Senior managers may have very broad job descriptions - or none at all!
  • Airport Authority, Certified Airfield Auditors

    1. 1. Safety Management Principles Training of Certified Airfield Safety Auditors by The Hong Kong Polytechnic University & Airport Authority Hong Kong
    2. 2. Course Outline <ul><li>Day 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Ir. Patrick S.K. Poon Module 1: Safety Management Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Fenkins Chow Module 2: Risk Management Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Day 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Lawrence Law Module 3: Local & ICAO Safety Audit Requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Lawrence Law Module 4: Airfield Activities Safety Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Day 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. YK Kam Module 5: Development of safety audit protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. YK Kam Module 6: Safety Audit Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Day 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Law & Kam Fieldwork project (Airfield Audit) presentation </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Course Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A comprehensive understanding of the safety and risk management principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A mastery of the safety audit techniques and competence to conduct “safety audits” of the airfield activities </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. What is safety?
    5. 5. What is safety? <ul><li>Safety is the state in which the risk of harm to persons or property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and risk management . </li></ul><ul><li>-- ICAO (2005) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Historical Development
    7. 7. Safety Perspectives <ul><li>Safety is often viewed from different perspectives: </li></ul><ul><li>as an externally-imposed obligation (law) </li></ul><ul><li>as an engineering problem (technology) </li></ul><ul><li>as a psychological problem (people’s belief) </li></ul><ul><li>as a behavioural problem (people’s behaviour) </li></ul><ul><li>as a cultural issue (organization) </li></ul>
    8. 8. The fable of boiled frog
    9. 9. ICAO Purposes <ul><li>Safety has always been the most important issue in all aviation activities. </li></ul><ul><li>This is reflected in the aims and objectives of ICAO as stated in Article 44 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Doc 7300) , which charges ICAO with ensuring the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Safety audits ( 安全稽核 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety performance monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Safety occurrences </li></ul>Safety Assurance
    11. 11. Safety Management in Hong Kong
    12. 12. Safety Management in HK <ul><li>Legislation on safety management (2002)# </li></ul><ul><li>OSH Ordinance, Cap 509 (1997)* </li></ul><ul><li>General Duties (1997)* </li></ul><ul><li>Liabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Safety audits or reviews at regular intervals </li></ul><ul><li># The Regulation provides a legal framework for the implementation of safety management system. It requires certain high-risk industrial undertakings, including construction sites, with a workforce of 50 or more , or a construction project with a contract value of HK$100 million (US$12.8 million) or more , to implement safety management systems of varying complexity. The Regulation also requires these industrial undertakings to conduct safety audits or reviews at regular intervals . </li></ul><ul><li>* In 1997, the government enacted the Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance which extended safety and health protection to practically all economic sectors. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Laws related to safety management <ul><li>Factories and Industrial Undertakings(Safety Management) Regulation , Cap 59AF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most sections have come into force, leaving the Part 3 of Schedule 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, Cap 59, Section 6A, since 1997: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General duties of a proprietor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance , Cap 509, Sections 6 and 7, since 1997: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers to ensure safety and health of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupier of premises to ensure safety and health … </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Safety Audit - a short history <ul><li>Sections about registration as safety auditors (his function is to audit existing SMS ) commenced on 19 Jun 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Then, most of the sections commenced on 1 April 2002, except Part 3 of Schedule 4 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Who are affected <ul><li>Proprietor of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>factory , shipyard business, electricity industry, town gas / LPG gas industry, or container handling industry, and with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 or above workers in a day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contractor of construction work with 50 or above workers in a day </li></ul><ul><li>Contractor of construction work with contract value of HK$100 million or higher </li></ul>References <ul><li>Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Safety Management) Regulation, Section 2 and Schedule 3 </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><ul><li>D evelop, implement and maintain a S afety M anagement S yste m (SMS) which contains the specified elements </li></ul></ul>What shall the “proprietor” do? Reference <ul><li>Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Safety Management) Regulation, Section 8 </li></ul>
    17. 17. What shall the Non-construction Proprietor with 50 – 99 workers do? <ul><li>D evelop, implement and maintain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an SMS which contains the first 8 elements (Part 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A ppoint a competent safety review officer to conduct a Safety Review annually </li></ul><ul><li>R ead, countersign and date the Safety Review Report </li></ul><ul><li>D raw up and submit a plan based on the recommendations </li></ul>References <ul><li>Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Safety Management) Regulation, Sections 8, 19 and 22 </li></ul>
    18. 18. What shall the Non-construction Proprietor with > 99 workers do? <ul><li>D evelop, implement and maintain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an SMS which contains the first 1 0 elements (Parts 1 & 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A ppoint a registered safety auditor to conduct a Safety Audit annually </li></ul><ul><li>R ead, countersign and date the Safety Audit Report </li></ul><ul><li>D raw up and submit a plan based on the recommendations </li></ul>References <ul><li>Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Safety Management) Regulation, Sections 8, 13 and 16 </li></ul>
    19. 19. General Duties of A Proprietor <ul><li>Factories and Industrial Undertaking Ordinance, Section 6A (General duties of a proprietor): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) It shall be the duty of every proprietor of an industrial undertaking to ensure, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>so far as is reasonably practicable, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the health and safety at work of all persons employed by him at the industrial undertaking </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. General Duties of A Proprietor <ul><li>FIUO, OSH Ordinance, Section 6A(2) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So far as is reasonably practicable to ensure S&H at work of all employees, 5 elements of duties but not limited to imposed on proprietor under Section 6A(1): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plant and systems of work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use, handling, storage or transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information, instruction, training and supervision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>means of access and egress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>working environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Legal Liability <ul><li>Which of the following is the most important consideration when discharging employer’s general duties? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zero risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 elements of general duties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonably practicable </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 23. What does reasonably practicable mean? <ul><li>A self-regulatory approach </li></ul><ul><li>Up to the proprietor’s discretion to design or use any SMS of international recognized standard or even look to FIU(SM)Reg </li></ul><ul><li>One critical point should be borne in mind is the compliance of reasonably practicable requirement </li></ul>
    23. 24. Edwards Vs National Coal Board [1949] <ul><li>'Reasonably practicable ' is narrower term than 'physically possible' and seems to me to imply that a computation must be made by the owner, in which the quantum or risk is placed on one scale and the sacrifice involved in the measures necessary for averting the risk (whether in money, time or trouble ) is placed on the other; and that if it be shown that there is a gross disproportion between them - the risk being insignificant in relation to the sacrifice – the defendants discharge the onus on them. Moreover, this computation falls to be made by the owner at a point of time anterior to the accident . </li></ul>
    24. 25. Likelihood of Injury Cost of safety Edwards Vs National Coal Board, 1949 Self-regulatory approach: The law will aim at balancing through reasonably practicable
    25. 26. Liabilities after Accident <ul><li>In case your fellow got seriously injured, will you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>be shocked, uncomfortable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>know what to do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be busy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be sued? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be blamed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be leaving? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be asked for compensations? </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Uninsurable Costs <ul><li>Fine of max $500K </li></ul><ul><li>Legal fees </li></ul><ul><li>Increased insurance premiums </li></ul><ul><li>Lost / reduced production </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to plant / equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of time for other employees </li></ul><ul><li>Training of replacement employees </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to company’s good will </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of business </li></ul>
    27. 29. <ul><li>Who is responsible for ensuring safety at workplace? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace-in-charge </li></ul></ul></ul>Question
    28. 30. General Duties <ul><li>Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance, Cap 509, Sections 6 and 7, since 1997: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers ( 僱主 ) to ensure safety and health of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupier ( 佔用人 ) of premises to ensure safety and health … </li></ul></ul>
    29. 31. <ul><li>5 elements of duties </li></ul><ul><li>Non-compliance offence with fine of 200K </li></ul><ul><li>Mens rea (intentionally, knowingly, recklessly) offence with fine of 200K and 6 mths in prison </li></ul><ul><li>Note: all charges go to employer </li></ul>General Duties of Employer References <ul><li>Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance, Section 6 </li></ul>
    30. 32. Duty of Care applicable to Employee <ul><li>Take reasonable care for the health and safety of himself and of other persons </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operate with proprietor, employer </li></ul>References <ul><li>Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Safety Management) Regulation, Section 6B </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance, Section 8 </li></ul>
    31. 33. <ul><li>Ensure safety and without risks to health of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Premises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Means of access and egress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant or substances kept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-compliance offence with fine of 200K </li></ul><ul><li>Mens rea (intentionally, knowingly, recklessly) offence with fine of 200K and 6 mths in prison </li></ul><ul><li>Note: all charges go to occupier </li></ul>General Duties of Occupier References <ul><li>Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance, Section 7 </li></ul>
    32. 34. Safety Management Principles
    33. 35. What areas does an organization need to manage? It depends on scope and nature of activities, complexity and size but typically: <ul><li>product/service realization </li></ul><ul><li>customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>quality </li></ul><ul><li>occupational health and safety </li></ul><ul><li>environmental management </li></ul><ul><li>security </li></ul><ul><li>people issues </li></ul><ul><li>finance </li></ul>
    34. 36. Options Considered By ISO
    35. 37. Integration or Alignment OH&S E CORE CORE CORE CORE E OH&S Q
    37. 39. Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Also commonly known as the Demming wheel, named after W. Edwards Demming, a Quality Management pioneer DO ACT PLAN CHECK
    38. 40. <ul><li>A plan can be to initiate a new process or improve an existing one </li></ul><ul><li>it should be based upon customer needs, and </li></ul><ul><li>resolve to more effectively fulfill the organization’s mission </li></ul>Plan
    39. 41. <ul><li>Implementing the proposed change on an incremental basis </li></ul>Do
    40. 42. <ul><li>Review the gathered data to determine if the planned and implemented change has created the quality improvement intended </li></ul>Check
    41. 43. <ul><li>Take action, either to implement the change or change variables to see if the process can be made more effective, or </li></ul><ul><li>“ Standardize” the new, successful process </li></ul>Act
    42. 44. <ul><li>Define the scope of work </li></ul><ul><li>Missions are translated into work, expectations are set, tasks are identified and prioritized, and resources are allocated. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards are associated with the work identified, analyzed, and categorized. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and implement controls </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable standards and requirements are identified and agreed-upon, controls to prevent/mitigate hazards are identified, the safety envelope is established, and controls are implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform work within controls </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness is confirmed and work is performed safely. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback and continuous improvement </li></ul>5 core safety management functions
    43. 45. Requirements of - ISO 14001 Environmental Policy Planning Implementation & Operation Management Review Checking & Corrective Action Continual Improvement
    44. 46. OHSAS 18001 This is a specification - a “shall” document that is not a standard It is certifiable It is not accredited All the major certification bodies have adopted it and certification is going ahead world-wide.    
    45. 47. Continual Improvement (Initial Status Review) OH&S Policy Planning Implementation & Operation Checking & Corrective Action Management Review OHSAS 18001
    46. 48. <ul><li>ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out an annual review of causal factors for accidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify disparities in accident rates between Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update, on a yearly basis, a table of safety related tasks aimed at improving safety </li></ul></ul>GLOBAL AVIATION SAFETY PLAN (GASP)
    47. 49. <ul><li>ELEMENTS (cont) </li></ul><ul><li>Review and improve existing safety database systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address shortcomings and deficiencies identified in the Air Navigation field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce improvements to safety identified by the USOAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborate with regulatory and industry to identify additional safety measures </li></ul></ul>GLOBAL AVIATION SAFETY PLAN (GASP)
    48. 50. In an Ideal World Safety Management Systems Standards would: <ul><ul><li>Be generically applicable world-wide, e.g. ILO/OSH 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use common terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the same definitions for similar terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a common methodology - where this is possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a common architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow a consistent auditing approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate ease of use for those adopting them </li></ul></ul>
    49. 51. ISO Guide 72 Approach <ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Management Review </li></ul>
    50. 52. The Need for Integration Guidance <ul><ul><li>Reactive to pro-active management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards for OH&S, quality & environmental management - contrast, e.g., risk management, fire and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations should in any event now be considering the development of an IMS </li></ul></ul>
    51. 53. Policy Top management should ensure that the stated policy a) is appropriate to the organization b) includes a commitment to comply with all relevant requirements and continually to improve the effectiveness of the management system c) provides a framework for establishing and reviewing objectives d) is communicated, where appropriate, and is understood within the organization, and e) is reviewed for continuing suitability
    52. 54. <ul><li>Identification of aspects and risks </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of significant aspects to be addressed </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives and targets </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of organizational structures, roles, responsibilities and authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Planning of operational control </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency preparedness for foreseeable events </li></ul>Planning
    53. 55. Key areas of planning that are distinct: 1. The organization should establish a process for identifying those aspects of its operation which need to be controlled and/or improved in order to satisfy the relevant interested party(ies). This includes research and design Where appropriate, legal requirements should be identified 2. The organization should establish a process for prioritising its aspects, so that those that would have a significant impact are readily identified for control measures where this is appropriate. 3. The organization should establish and maintain a process for identifying and responding to any potential emergency situation. The process should seek to prevent and mitigate the consequences of any occurrence . Planning
    54. 56. 1. Operation 2. Management of Human Resources 3. Management of other resources 4. Documentation and its control 5. Communication 6. Relationship with suppliers/contractors Implementation and Operation
    55. 57. Key issues for the SMS to be effective <ul><li>CONTROL - is there an adequate structure? </li></ul><ul><li>CO-OPERATION - are there adequate arrangements? </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS - are the arrangements effective? </li></ul><ul><li>COMPETENCE - are the systems and competencies available? </li></ul>HSE - 1995
    56. 58. <ul><ul><li>Clear definition of responsibilities : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include in job descriptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>authority and resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>arrangements: accountability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reporting arrangements: clear and unambiguous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>where personal appraisal: include IMS performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior managers should demonstrate commitment by active involvement </li></ul></ul>Structure & Responsibilities
    57. 59. Why SMS succeed? Case Example
    58. 60. Why SMS succeed? <ul><li>The OHSMS is directly aimed at managing critical risks </li></ul><ul><li>Senior managers or owners/operators practice what they preach and make decisions to eliminate or reduce hazards. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors and employees understand their role in the system and are closely involved in its development and operation. </li></ul><ul><li>The system is commensurate with the risks to be managed and is absolutely tailored to the organization’s requirements . </li></ul><ul><li>The OHSMS is able to withstand, and welcomes, robust questioning and review from everyone involved. </li></ul>
    59. 61. Why SMS fail?
    60. 62. Why SMS fail? <ul><li>Management support is irregular and inconsistent . </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone treats the system as “ paper warfare ” and follow procedures to keep the bosses happy regardless of their effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>The OHSMS is established in response to external demands and never really “owned” or understood by those subject to it. </li></ul><ul><li>The system is imposed without effective participation by those who have to make it work. </li></ul><ul><li>The effort to build an organization specific system is not made and “off the shelf” solutions are applied that have little relevance to the culture of the workplace . </li></ul>
    61. 63. AA’s OHS Priority <ul><li>CEO expects “ that safety must always be given the highest priority ” and; </li></ul><ul><li>in particular that “ managers and supervisors are accountable for the safety practices of employees and safety performance in their area of responsibility ”. </li></ul>
    62. 64. Major Considerations Safety & Health Risk Commitment Staff Participation Legal Liability Cost-Benefit
    63. 65. Degree of accomplishment in safety performance 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent Policy, Leadership and Worker Empowerment Roles, Responsibilities and Accountability Competence Commensurate with Responsibility Balanced Priorities and Implementation Planning Standards and Requirements Hazard Control and Implementation Performance Evaluation and Feedback Highest Level (Scale of 4) High Level (Scale of 3) 74 55 54 72 53 70 56
    64. 66. Review of SMS <ul><li>Encouraging results found in following key performance areas: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Policy, Leadership and worker empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Priorities and implementation planning </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Hazard control and implementation </li></ul>
    65. 67. Review of SMS (cont’d) <ul><li>Safety clearly seen as the first priority. However, relatively weak performance areas in: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Roles, responsibilities and accountability </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Competence commensurate with responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Standards and requirements </li></ul><ul><li>4.  Performance evaluation and feedback </li></ul>
    66. 68. Implications of IPBRM (Integrated Performance-based Risk Management) <ul><li>Integrated with other business functions and external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Safety review/audit an essential tool for monitoring safety performance </li></ul><ul><li>Need to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strengthen existing 2-tiered SM structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strengthen the role of Corp. SM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empower LM and depts. to assume self-regulatory SMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LM to devise risk control and safety audit/review strategies for contractors, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    67. 69. Integrated Performance-based Safety Management <ul><li>In line with current trends RBSMS could be enhanced by adopting an integrated performance-based approach </li></ul><ul><li>AA could now move into the next continuous improvement phase, following by adopting the recommendations of the current review  </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-based strategy can be integrated with a performance enhanced safety management system utilizing : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Safety audits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Monitoring task performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Performance monitoring tools  </li></ul></ul>
    68. 70. System Approach Integrated Performance-based Risk Management
    69. 71. <ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Regulating Agencies/units </li></ul>The External Environment Continuous Improvement Integration Safety Management Review Communication Audit / Review System Evaluation of Performance OSH Policy Goals & Objectives Performance Standards System Planning/Development Manual & Procedures Formulation OSH Process Training System Hazard Control System Prevent / Correct Actions Procurement / Contractors Implementation / Operations <ul><li>OSH Goals & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Illness & Injury Rates </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce Health </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Overall Organization Performance </li></ul>Safety Management System Airport Authority Corporate Safety Management Management Commitment and Resources Safety Policy, Goals & Objectives Safety Section OSH Advisor Overall Planning and Performance Monitoring Initiation (OSH inputs) L1 L2 L3 Contractors Line Departments Employee Participation Contractors Contractors Integrated Performance-based Risk Management Safety Performance (Outputs)
    70. 72. Conclusion <ul><li>In considering a conclusion to the presentation it became apparent that a closing argument for SMS isn’t needed. </li></ul><ul><li>SMS clearly speaks for itself </li></ul><ul><li>To manage your organisational risks with a resilient risk management system. </li></ul>
    71. 73. Thank you