CHAPTER OBJECTIVESDiscuss the reasons for the emergence of newreligious movements.Explain the difference between a cult and a sect.Describe major examples of alternative religion.Discuss the roles that new religious movementsplay
ORIGINS OF NEW RELIGIONS (PAGE 490 – 492)Forces Prompting change in religions: Religions, like culture and life are constantly changing. Followers of one religion move into another culture and their religion mixes with another locally established religion thus creating a hybrid faith. Social problems sometimes create new religion, one that helps people cope and understand these social issues.
ORIGINS OF NEW RELIGION (PAGE 490 – 492) Followers of a religion argue with each other and break up, sometimes creating a new branch( i.e. protestant reformation) or sometimes creating an entirely new religion. An individual have life-changings insights, attract followers, and create new religion around themselves. It is important to realize that many of the major religions and denominations of today began under similar circumstances.
ORIGINS OF NEW RELIGIONS (PAGE 490 – 492) Developmental Relationships between new religious movements and established traditions: Often emergences of religious variants are close enough to their origins to be considered a modern interpretation of an older religion. For example, in Christianity there are now followers of Mormons and Christian Science There are movements that begin within one religion and take on such independent forms that they are considered a new religion. For example Baha’i grew out Shiite Islam but now is considered its own religion.
ORIGINS OF NEW RELIGIONS (PAGE 490 – 492) Quite often a new religious movement is syncretic- a blend of religions. In this section we see this predominantly in Cao Dai
Pop Quiz1/ The term _______ is used to describe the mixture ofvarious elements from different religious A. polytheism B. imminent C. transcendent D. syncretic
Pop Quiz2/ A new religion can be formed by an individualwho have life-changing insight. A – True B – False
New Religions VS Old ReligionsNew religious movements often generate andsuspicion and tension with larger and older religions,because: They are small and different New religions are sometimes looked down upon by members of larger and older religions ( New movement wins converts from an established religion) The term, “Cults” and “Sects” are formed to describe new religions movements.
Definition“Sects”: Literally means division. Suggest a dangerous threat to social unity Scholars nowadays define the term “Sects” to be somewhat loosely structured
Definition“Cults”: From the Latin meaning is cultivate and culture Frequently used to describe a small group that is isolated and under the control of a charismatic and dictatorial leaders
New religious movements should be viewed with caution while others with tolerance Some religious beliefs and leaders can indeed wield dangerous power over their followers. At the same time, we view different new religious movements as dangerous simply because they are different. However, back in the past, people viewed Christianity and Buddhism were dangerous import from Jewish Cult, and from India Cult. Therefore, scholars try to find new terms that are emotionally neutral to describe new religions.
CONTEMPORARY PAGANISMRefers to religious movements that attempt to returnto nature-based on the early cultures of Europe.Although pagan was used in a demeaning way, itactually means “countryside” because the religionsexisted in the rural areas of Europe.The most common forms of Contemporary Paganismdraws from Celtic mythology for its foundation.
WICCAWicca is an old English word that has an association with magic,separation and holiness.Modern Wicca is referred to as the Craft or the Old Religion. Wiccans worship both goddesses and gods whose imagery is rootedin nature.Wicca has various branches and traditions that share many pint . sWomen play a prominent role as bearers of knowledge and asleaders of ritual in Wicca.
WICCAThey receive their structure from the movement of the moon and sunThe solar cycle is celebrated by as many as eight seasonal turningpoints (Sabbats) that include the Solstices and equinoxes.Wicca also celebrates the new and full moons. Esbats celebrate thefull moon.Wicca has three stages of knowledge, where the second and thirdallows the practitioner to start an independent worship group. Bothmale and female Wiccans call themselves Witches.
WICCAWiccan Rede is the Wiccans primary commandment, and states“An [if] it harm none, do what you will. The individual can doanything as long as it doesn’t harm others”Wicca has a strong respect for nature so many are vegetarianand have strong moral interests in protection of the environment.
DRUIDISMThe Druid movement is particularly popular in England, and began inthe 18th century to reintroduce the religion practiced by the Celts2000 years ago.Modern Druidism has had to borrow from the data of literature andarcheology as well as recreate organization and ritual.Druids recognize three paths of practice, similar to the Wiccanstages of knowledge. These paths are bards, ovates, and druids.Druids follow the same eight-part seasonal calendar as Wiccans.Stonehenge is commonly associated with the modern Druids whouse it to celebrate the summer solstice.
OVERVIEW OF WICCA AND DRUIDISMMargaret Murray: an anthropologist who gave strong evidence thatearlier forms of Witchcraft existed in Europe.Wiccan writer Leo Martello’s work helped start the practice of Wiccain North America and his knowledge traces back to his Sicilianancestors.Gerald Gardner, Alex Sanders, and Doreen Valiente recommend andcreate rituals, phrases, and other elements that are part of modernWicca.Information about ancient Druid practices comes from classicalRoman literature, including the writings of Julius Caesar andhistorian Tacitus.
Pop Quiz1/ ____________ is a general name for religiousmovements attempting to return to earlier,nature-based religions.
Pop Quiz2/ One of eight seasonal turning points, the ____is marked by Wiccans and Druids A. Sabbat B. Sabbath C. Conclave D. Day of labor.
The Book Of Shadows Traditionally, it was held that only one book of shadows was to exist in a coven, and kept by the high priestess or high priest. However, this rule proved to be unfeasible, so now, generally, each Witch has their personal copy. It was customary that the Witchs copyhad to be hand copied by the Witchfrom the copy of the high priestess or priest. But, as with all things changes do occur; now days it is not uncommon for a copy of thebook of shadows to be copied from a computer floppy disk.Source:http://www.themystica.org/mystica/articles/b/book_of_shadows.html
Background Information When people from one culture enter another they bring aspects of their religion with them. The Santeria, Voodoo, and Candomblé religions all have roots in the indigenous Yoruba tradition of Africa. Enslaved Africans, primarily from West Africa, carried their religions to South America, the Caribbean, and North America and new mixtures of religions arose as their indigenous religions blended with the colonizers’ Christianity. The Yoruba people’s religions were among the most influential in the New World.
Background Information All three religions are mixtures of Roman Catholicism with native African religions The synthesis of the religions was not happy; it was one of coercion and fear Slaves were forcibly baptized and their own religion was suppressed Despite this their beliefs did not die out; the religions changed to appear to conform to Catholic belief They would use saints as representations of their native gods
Synthesis or Dissumulation?Raul Canizares, a priest of Santería, describesthe merging of the religions not a synthesis butrather a dissimulationThis is because those practicing the nativereligion often deliberately hid their beliefs andpractices We see this most in their supposed veneration of the Catholic saints
Similarities between the YorubaReligion and Roman CatholicismBoth believe in: A single High God Supernatural beings who mediate between God and humans Existence of spirits of the dead Power if ritualIt was easy to adapt the Catholic calendar of saints’days to the worship of their native deities
Differences seen in the Yoruba Tradition The Yoruba God has no interest in individual human affairs Human beings must approach the High God People can only gain power by contacting invisible supernatural beings called orishas
Orishas In Santería they are called ochas In Voodoo they are called Ioa or Iwa In Candomblé they are called orixas Orishas are sometimes called gods, similar to the Greek and Roman gods Orishas have individual humanlike characteristics Gentle, playful, etc… They are in charge of certain aspects of nature and they know specialized crafts Oceans, lightning, etc.. Metalworking…
Orishas To keep the orishas happy or to procure favors from them people have to keep them fed Sacrifice of animals is a part of some rituals Santería’s sacrificial practices have been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court Some use drink and food as substitutes for animals now Orishas may “mount” a believer who will go into a trance and magically “become” the god Orishas are considered divine whereas saints are not
OrishasPeople are initiated under the protection of oneorisha and that orisha becomes the person’sguardian deityInitiations are performed by priests Male priest: santero Female priest: santera Currently only men can become high priests In Santería high priests are called babalawos
SanteríaInfluenced by Spanish colonial CatholicismDeveloped in CubaSantería means “saint-thing” or “saint-way”Santería is also known as Lukimí or Lucimí whichis from the Yoruba Language
Major Orishas (Ochas) of SanteríaElegguá (aka Elegbara or Eshu) Oshún Has knowledge of destiny Goddes of love, fertility, and marriage First orisha to be prayed to in ritual Associated with rivers Messenger god &Trickster Symbols are boats and mirrors Associated with turning points Colors are yellow and white Colors are black and red Catholic parallel is Our Parallel Catholic saint is Lady of Charity usually Saint Anthony
Major Orishas (Ochas) of Santería Shangó (Changó) Babalú-Ayé Thought to be a Yoruba king Compassionate old man who was deified with a crutch Young, passionate, powerful, handsome, and vain He is called to heal Associated with powerful serious bodily afflictions storms, lightning, and thunder Symbol is the two-edged axe Symbol is a crutch Colors are red and white Colors are white and blue Saint Barbara is his closest Catholic parallel Parallel is Saint Lazarus
Major Orishas (Ochas) of Santería Obatalá OchosiAssociated with itelligence A hunterHe formed the earth andhuman beings at God’s Color is purplecommand Symbol is a crossbowSymbol is the horsetailwhisk, a symbol of Parallel is Saint Norbert.authorityColor is whiteParallel is Our Lady ofMercy
Major Orishas (Ochas) of Santería Oggún Yemayá Metalworker Protector of women Symbols are the knife and pick Help with motherhood Patron of barbers, butchers, Associated with the ocean and all who work with knives and metal Symbols are coral and Responsible for war and seashells vehicle accidents Colors are white and blue Colors are black and green Parallel is Our Lady of Parallel is Saint Peter Regla
Major Orishas (Ochas) ofSanteríaOyá Associated with high winds, death, and cemeteries Can give protection from dying Symbol is the horsetail Colors are white and burgundy Parallel is Our Lady of Candelaria
VoodooInfluenced by French CatholicismDeveloped in HaitiVoodoo comes from the Fon word “vodun” whichmeans mysterious powerBecause of the negative connotationsassociated with the word “voodoo” some preferto call the religion Voudun
CandombléInfluenced by Portuguese CatholicismDeveloped in Brazil
Where are these religions now?Candomblé has been recognized as an officialreligion in BrazilEmigration from the Caribbean has broughtSantería and Voodoo to the some large cities inthe U.S. Miami, New York, Los Angeles…Voodoo has a long history in new Orleans
Pop Quiz1/ In Santeria, any deity is called a (n) _________
Pop Quiz2/ ________, a religion that developed in Frenchcolonial Haiti, is a mixture of Yoruba religionsand Catholicism A. Santeria B. Candomble C. Voodoo
BackgroundTheosophy is a religious movement that isrooted in the indigenous religions and drawsupon the traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism.This movement began in the 19th Century andhas an emphasis on mystic teachings.
Founding TheosophyBlavatsky claimed that “ascended masters”which are spirits of highly evolved humanbeings, as well as her travels, gave her theinformation she used to write in her book.
Theosophists view of RealityTheosophists view that reality is basicallyspiritual in nature and that the spiritual nature ofreality can be experienced by meditation andtrance states. Theosophists are interested in exploring powersthat are hidden in the nonhuman world andhuman beings.
J. KrishanamutriAt first, Krishnamurti accepted his role of “worldteacher” that Blavatsky had prophesized, andwas trained to take over as leader of theTheosophical society but he eventuallyabandoned that role and began to teach thateach person must be his or her own guru.
Offshoots of TheosophyAnthroposophy- Anthroposophy is an influential branch ofTheosophy. Steiner began his first Waldorf School, where itscurriculum taught traditional academics, agriculture, art, andinterpretive dance (Eurhythmy). Waldorf schools promoteAnthroposophy’s focus on practical means to achieve humanspirituality.Church Universal and Triumphant was started by Elizabeth ClareProphet, and is a contemporary branch of Theosophy, whichbelieves the Church gets help from the ascended masters. ThisChurch blends Catholic Christianity with Asian beliefs. Forexample it encourages the use of the bible, the rosary anddevotion to the saints, but also teaches reincarnation andincludes the Buddha, Jesus, and his mother Mary among itsascended masters.
Influence of TheosophyBlavatsky’s books have influenced othermovements, such as New Thought, the UnityChurch, and Christian Science. Blavatsky hasalso led to investigations by others intoautomatic writing (writing done in trancestates), hypnotism, and the paranormal.Blavatsky and Theosophy also began mostmodern Western interest in Hinduism and theentire New Age movement.
Quiz 1/ Theosophists view that reality is basically _______ in nature.
Pop Quiz 2/ Madame Blavatsky is one of the cofounders of Theosophy Christian Science Reflexology Scientology
The Church of ScientologyRoots in Indian spiritualityFounded in 1954 by L. Ron Hubbard Hubbard was a science-fiction author
Background Hubbard created a system to help people clarify their understanding of the human process of knowing Named this system Scientology Scientia- Latin for “knowledge” Logos- Greek for “reason,” “understanding” Scientologists believe that if we can come to understand the human process of perceiving and reacting to the world then we will be able to see reality more clearly and respond to the world more rationally
Beliefs The Church of Scientology believe that at the core of the human being there is a soul or spiritual reality called the thetan Scientologists believe that the thetan is imprisoned in the material world The material world is called MEST (matter, energy, space, and time) The thetan longs to be free of the MEST
Parallels with otherReligions Scientologists believe in rebirth and having to overcome things that harmed them in their past lives that continue to affect their current lives This is similar to Indian teaching about karma and reincarnation Like Hindu and Buddhism there is the idea that each individual’s goal is a sort of psychological liberation that comes from insight While moksha, nirvana, and enlightenment are not specific terms used in Scientology their meanings are reflected in Scientologist beliefs
Steps towards Liberation The Church of Scientology offers stages for people to accomplish Each subsequent stage brings one closer to understanding and liberation These steps are shown on an illustrated chart called the Bridge to Total Freedom At the beginning of the Bridge a person is called a pre-clear. Once a person has reached a state of mental liberation, clear, they are then known as an operating thetan
Path of Mental Liberation People can proceed on this path alone but it is recommended that they have the help of a spiritual counselor who is called an auditor The auditor guides one through exercises called processes which use questions and mental images These processes help one learn new ways of mental focusing The auditor helps the pre-clear person find blockages to their growth These blockages are caused by earlier painful experiences and are called engrams
Sometimes the auditor uses an e-meter to helpdetect blockages The e-meter is an electronic machine that reads a person’s galvanic skin responseAuditors charge fees for the processes Sometimes services for the organization can be substituted for payments
Scientology and OtherReligions The Church of Scientology believes that Scientology can be practiced along with other religions Still the amount of time followers devote to Scientology makes this difficult Scientology centers do not look like churches or temples Scientologists meet on Sundays
A Typical ScientologyService Readings or videotapes of Hubbard’s writings or speeches A sermon by a minister Ministers also conduct naming ceremonies, weddings, and funerals. A sharing of viewpoints and announcements The ceremony ends with a closing prayer written by Hubbard
Celebrity Scientologists John Travolta & Kelly Preston Kristie Alley Tom Cruise & Katie Holmes
Pop Quiz 1/ In Scientology, a fully liberated person is referred as A. Clear B. a pre – clear C. an operating thetan D. an engram
Pop Quiz 2. In Scientology, the world in which the sprits of human beings must live is called: A. MEST B. Santeria C. Rede D. Santero
BACKGROUNDOne of the youngest religion in China, wasfounded by Li HongzhiQigong is a system of exercises based onChinese Martial arts that are thought to bringabout increased health and strength. Themovement called Falun Gong.
Definition Falun Gong means “law-wheel energy” The falun, or the wheel has begun to turn in one direction, is believed to draw energy from the universe. When the wheel turns in the opposite direction, it sends that energy out in purified from through the body of practitioner, bringing benefits to practitioner and to others.
Strands of Traditional Chinese Religions Practice are utilized in Falun GongFalun Gong is reminiscent of several strands ofChinese religious practiced that we havestudied, such as Buddhist meditation, Daoistphysical exercise and Confucian self-cultivation.
The Benefits for followers of Falun GongFollowers practice five series of physicalexercises while standing and sitting.They gain health and strengthThey gain paranormal powers, such as physicalinvulnerability and the power to see and hearthings at a great distance
Falun Gong VS Chinese GovernmentThe practice of Falun Gong is banned in China.In the past, some religious in China have destabilizedthe governments.Some followers have attempted to bring attention totheir religious position through variety of publicmediasHowever, Chinese governments captured them intojail.
Pop Quiz 1/ Falun Gong or “law-wheel energy” (Chinese) is a modern Chinese religion that uses meditation and physical exercises: A. True B. False
Pop Quiz 2/ The Breathing and visualization exercises of Qigong that circulate energy through the body are further enhanced in Falun Gong when a master A. ritually eliminates bad karma of the disciple B. activates an invisible spiritual wheel in the lower of the disciple C. projects the image of large eyes inside a triangle into the disciple’s mind D. trains the disciple to be “mounted” by beings from a higher realm.
Background What is Cao Dai? Blends elements of Daoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and Chinese belief in spirits with Christian monotheism Pope and organizational structure Cao Dai: title for God “high palace” Title of respect
Background Ngo Van Chieu Government prefect of a Vietnamese island 1921: God revealed to Chieu Spiritism (ritualistic calling on spirits) Image of large eye 1924: went to Saigon His followers contacted with spirits Supreme Being 1928: Chieu’s followers announced the new religion
Teachings of Cao Dai All religions are based on revelations of God however earlier revelations have suffered from human misunderstanding All great religious founders and teachers have been inspired by God God’s revelation has occurred in three great phases (alliances)
Teachings of Cao Dai First Alliance First period of revelation Mystic figures incarnation of Laozi and early Buddha (Dipankara) brought divine revelation to the world Second Alliance thousand-year period of religious ferment that gave birth to Laazo, Confucius ,Siddhartha Gautama , Jesus and Muhammad
Teachings of Cao Dai Third Alliance nineteenth century continued in the revelations to Ngo Van Chieu and his followers when God’s speaking clearest
Cao Dai’s belief revelation has not ended divine realm contact human beings through revelations God and heavenly spirits
Factors Belief in God the Father (Cao Dai) a celestial Universal Mother heavenly spirits souls of the living and the dead Buddhist influence Found in: Karma Reincarnation Nirvana (state of liberation)
Factors Confucianism influence Virtues Self-cultivation Family responsibility Social harmony Attention to duty Blend of religions Symbolized by four colors Yellow: Buddhism Blue: Daoism Red: Confucianism White: pope, legislators, and ordinary laypeople
Practices Attending services at Cao Dai churches Pray at individual home altars Special services New moon and full moon Individual path of self-perfection Meditation and breathing exercises
Structure Hierarchical structure similar to Catholicism Led by pope and cardinals Headquarters called Holy See Center and large cathedral Southern Vietnam in Tay Ninh Five million followers worldwide Most live in Vietnam or in Vietnamese-immigrant communities
Pop Quiz 1/ What type of images did Ngo Van Chieu see as he practiced Spiritism? A. Buddhist B. Eye C. Jesus D. None of these above
Pop Quiz 2/ A primary teaching of Cao Dai is that all religions are based on ___________
Background Arose in Jamaica in the 1930s and strongly influenced by Christianity. Anticolonial feelings lead to distinctly local culture. At first was sharply radical, but has softened over the decades. Focus on the ideals of human unity and on harmony with the environment.
Marcus Garvey (1887-1940) Born in Jamaica and organized the Universal NegroImportant Improvement Association (UNIA) in 1914. Figures In the 1920s he preached in Kingston, Jamaica’s capitol. Longed for the day when African culture would be taught in schools and wrote several plays to illustrate his ideas, including The Coronation of the King and Queen of Africa. Taught his followers to look to Africa for the crowning of a native king who would be their redeemer. In 1930, a noble man named Ras Tafari was crowned emperor of Ethiopia.
Ras Tafari (1891-1975 Took a new name when he became ruler of Ethiopia: Emperor HaileImportant Selassie (“Holy Trinity”) Believed to have descended from the Figures biblical King Solomon and Queen of Sheba. Some believed Haile Selassie was a new appearance of Jesus and that he was divine. In 1938 he founded the Ethiopian World Federation and granted it five hundred acres of land in Ethiopia intended for people of African descent who wish to resettle there. Believed to still be alive in his spiritual body and remains a symbol of liberation. He is prayed to under the name of Ras Tafari, which explains the name of the Rastafarians and makes understandable their focus of him as a center of their religious belief.
Shared Beliefs Rastafarianism is not a single, organized church but is rather a diffuse movement that continues to produce new branches. These include: Congress, and Twelve Tribes of Israel. Several beliefs and practices that are shared by most Rastafarians: There is one God, referred to by the biblical name Jah (the name is related to Yahweh and Jehovah). Haile Selassie, called King of Kings and Lion of Judah, was (and is) divine. The Bible is not only the word of God but that it also has hidden meanings that are important for people of African descent. People of African descent must seek liberation from any society that oppresses them
Other Practices Sacramental use of ganja (marijuana) called the “holy herb” Allowing one’s hair to grow into long coils, called dreadlocks. Avoid pork and shellfish and foods containing preservative, additives, pesticides and herbicides. Many Rastafarians are vegetarian.
Symbolic Colors Rastafarians have adopted the symbolic use of four colors: Black: to represent people of African origin Green: to represent the hills of Jamaica and hope for the future Red: to represent the blood that was shed by the martyrs for the cause Gold: to represent Ethiopia, a focus of African pride
Mainstream Culture Drumming for religious purposes Development of reggae music and songs after 1960 that spread Rasta ideas and vocabulary. Jimmy Cliff, Bob Marley, and Ziggy Marley are the best-known reggae musicians. Rastafarianism and its influence have spread throughout the Caribbean and to England, Canada, and the United States.
Pop Quiz 1/ ______ is the most important early figure of Rastafarianism. A. W. E. B. Dubois B. Martin Luther King Jr. C. Marcus Garvey D. Zaydis
Pop Quiz 2/ The biggest influence of Rastafarianism on mainstream culture has been A. Regae music B. Cao Dai and Santeria C. Rastafarianism and Falun Gong D. Rastafarianism and Scientology
Features of Shiite Islam that are significant to the emergence of Baha’i: The origins of the Baha’I faith can be traced to the Shiite Isalm of Persia, or Iran. Shiite Islam see divine authority as residing in the line Imams the hereditary successors of Ali, the son in law of the prophet Muhammad. Many Shiite Muslims believe that last Imam did not die and instead lives in another realm and he will return someday. This expectation of the Imam returning was the context of the 19th century religious movements in Persia. This movement grew around a man named Siyyid Ali Muhammad (1819-1850) who claimed he was long awaited last Imam.
Features of Shiite Islam that are significant to the emergence of Baha’i: He took a religious name “Bab” he preached that a figure after him of greater stature would come bring a full revelation of Allah- which would bring a golden age of unity and peace. The Bab was executed in 1850 because of his conflict with orthodox muslims. One of the Bab’s followers was Mirza Husayn Ali (1817-1892) later become known Baha’u’llah continued the Bab’s teaching and later claimed he was the figure the Bab had prothesised about. He also wrote greatly about ethical issues, the Baha’i faith, and the world community.
Baha’is understanding of other religions:The Baha’i faith is among the most universalistic and open of thereligions.Baha’i teaches that all religions in some fundamental, are one, andfollowers look forward to the day when divisions between religionswill disappear.Readings of Baha’u’llah are considered scriptural, followers alsoread scriptures of other world religions in their services.Baha’i strives to create harmony between the religions, they also tryto overcome the differences between other religions and science.
Baha’i teachings about the after- life:It is reminiscent of other monotheistic religions butdeliberately left undefined.Each individual has an immortal soul that after theirdeath can go on developing in realms beyond earth.Rewards and Punishment in the afterlife exist- butare explained in terms of closeness or distance fromGod.
Ways Baha’i would improve the human experience in the world:Rather than focusing on an after-life Baha’Ifollowers try to improve this world.They seek complete equality between men andwomen, an end to poverty, and education for all.They want to end prejudice, by encouraginginterracial marriage.
Why Baha’I advocates for an auxiliary world language and a single world government: International language to augment and not replace regional languages for use as an international communication tool. Followers support the United Nations and other international groups that they believe foster world harmony. The ultimate is goal is the creation of a world government that followers believe will be able to end world. Followers of Baha’i do not become politicians but they support groups and work in other ways to achieve these goals.
Practices or Behaviors of the Baha’i religion:The Baha’i faith has unique calendar system created by the Bab himself. Its madeup of 19 months each nineteen days long with four extra days added at the lastmonth.The last month of the year is a period of fasting similar of Ramadan in Islam whereno food or drink can be consumed during the day time.Followers are not allowed to drink alchohol and are discouraged from smokingtobacco.Baha’I has no priesthood rather it is governed by assemblies that operate on thelocal, national and international level.Each continent has one large temple like house of prayer. The internationalheadquarters and governing body, the universal house of justice are in Haifa Israel.
Pop Quiz 1/ Baha’I is a religion that blends elements from French Catholism and African religions. A. True B. False
Pop Quiz 2/ In practicing their religion, both Baha’I and Muslims A. engage in periods of fasting and undertake pilgrimages B. Observe a lunar calendar and abstain from drinking alcohol C. abstain from alcohol and engage in periods of fasting. D. Meet in nine-sided mosques or temples.
Throughout the Chapter 11What traits make these movements attractive topeople?What do they say about where religion is movingin the twenty first century?
Four elements of many new religiousmovements are attractive to peopleThey are small and their members usually meetin small groupsWomen are able to express their point of viewsthrough these new religious movementsThe important of an active devotional lifeSelf-development
What do they say about where religion is moving in the twenty first century? The new religious movements fulfill human needs that may be unmet in the older mainstream religions. They also tells us about larger trends in the future of world religions.
What do they say about where religion is moving in the twenty first century? Mr. Sanchez’s opinion: “ Hey guys, you know what! This chapter is Rock & Roll, because it will be a bridge to our discussion in the FINAL CHAPTER, of modern religious search”
ReferencesVideos : www.youtube.comImages: www.google.comContent: Molloy, Michael – Experiencing The World’s Religions, Tradition, Challenge, and Change – Chapter 11 (pg. 488-524). Published by Mc. Graw Hill, 2010. (www.mhhe.com/molloy5e)