The life span-- begins at about age 2, increases until start of school, where a slight dip is recorded. Viewing increases during elementary school years, decreases during high school and college, and increases in adulthood, with a slight increase as viewers enter retirement. Seasonal-- contrary to conventional wisdom, seasonal variations are quite minor-- only about a 10% drop in summer (quite small considering increased outdoor activities, reruns, vacations, travel (and these viewers tend to be undercounted), as do children and teens-- who increase viewing in summer. Weekly-- TV is almost always abandoned when more attractive activities are available. Adult audience for Friday and Saturday nights dips almost 15%. The number of kids increases by 20% on Friday evenings, Saturdays, and Sundays. Daily-- Daily viewing is influenced by those available in the audience at particular times; kids are absent during school hours; men don’t appear until prime-time; stay-at-home parents watch daytime…
Our Future is Our Past
• Why do people watch TV?
• When do they watch and how much time is
• How often will people watch TV outside the
• How does TV fit into peoples’ schedules?
• How will these viewing patterns translate to
HH devices, if at all?
Why do people watch
• 1) Diversion
– To escape our problems and stress
• 2) Social Comparison
– How do we measure up to others?
• 3) Keeping aware of what’s happening
in the world
– News, Entertainment, Sports, Politics, etc.
Types of Viewing
• Watching is determined by available time
• We choose an acceptable program
• Most of our TV viewing is ritualistic
Types of Viewing
• Driven by desire to see particular content
• If not available, individual won’t watch
• We are all, at times, instrumental viewers
• Counts for less of the audience and less
viewing time than ritualistic viewers
How much TV and when?
• In era of digital media, TV viewing is at
an all-time high
• KFF reports that the amount of time
kids spent watching regularly scheduled
TV declined, BUT overall consumption
of TV has increased to 4.5 hours per
When do we watch TV?
• Patterns that influence viewing include:
• The life span
• Seasonal variation
• Weekly cycle
• Daily cycle
• Old model of video distribution based on
“movie theater” paradigm-- programs
scheduled at specific times to attract
• Time-shifting is having a real effect.
• Always an assumption that people
watched at home and in the evenings.
• Viewing outside the home accounts for
nearly 10% of all viewing
• More than 1/3 of adults report watching
TV outside the home
• 41% (almost 2 hours per day) of 8-18
year-olds time-shift their TV viewing.
How will these patterns
affect TV’s future?
• Many major players in mobile-TV
market (HH devices, laptops, etc.) seem
to be completely unaware of the
research on why and how people watch
• Making many faulty assumptions.
FLO TV Promo:
• Imagine a world where consumers are able to have
live television delivered to their wireless mobile
devices at all times. Wherever they go and whenever
they want it. No more missing their favorite show
while waiting in the airport, or on the train. No
more missing their favorite baseball game, or their
favorite radio talk show. The ability to stay tuned in
to everything you care about – when you care about
it (Qualcomm, 2005).
• FLO TV has announced that it is ending its
• Watching live TV on HH devices is unlikely to
• HH devices are far more
• On-demand, short clips, highlights-- all
appropriate (keeping up with what’s going on)
• Knowing how and why we have
watched TV in the past is crucial to our
understanding of how we’ll be watching
TV in the future (in light of all the new