ISPA Instructors Methods of Instruction


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The presentation accompanies the ISPA Methods of Instruction Manual.

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ISPA Instructors Methods of Instruction

  1. 1. ISPAMethods of Instruction Jack Dale ISPA Instructor Evaluator #1205 1
  2. 2. Student profile Age Education Skill Level Pressures Attitude Learning Goals Expectations2
  3. 3. Adult Learners Dignity and respect Problem - centered, practical Want to know why Experiential, experimental Safe from ridicule, embarrassment3
  4. 4. Adult Learners Constructive feedback Experience recognized and used Motivated to learn Want some influence on class organization Expect instructor to lead by example4
  5. 5. Differences Among Students Need for detail and tolerance for risk Visual Auditory Physical learning styles Need for structure5
  6. 6. Need for Detail Tolerance for Risk HighDetail Low Low High Tolerance for Risk 6
  7. 7. Input Channels Visual Learners  Learning by seeing Auditory Learners  Learning by hearing Physical (Kinesthetic) Learners  Learning by doing See, Hear, Do7
  8. 8. Engaged Learning Authentic Busy Collaborative Ongoing, performance-based assessment8
  9. 9. Consciousness / Competence “You don’t know what you don’t know”  Unconscious Incompetence “You know what you don’t know”  Conscious Incompetence “You know what you know”  Conscious Competence “You don’t know what you know”  Unconscious Competence9
  10. 10. Level 1 - Unconscious Incompetence  the person is not aware of the existence or relevance of the skill area  the person is not aware that they have a particular deficiency in the area concerned  the person might deny the relevance or usefulness of the new skill  the person must become conscious of their incompetence before development of the new skill or learning can begin  the aim of the trainee or learner and the trainer or teacher is to move the person into the conscious competence stage, by demonstrating the skill or ability and the benefit that it will bring to the persons effectiveness 10
  11. 11. Level 2 - Conscious Incompetence the person becomes aware of the existence and relevance of the skill the person is therefore also aware of their deficiency in this area, ideally by attempting or trying to use the skill the person realises that by improving their skill or ability in this area their effectiveness will improve ideally the person has a measure of the extent of their deficiency in the relevant skill, and a measure of what level of skill is required for their own competence the person ideally makes a commitment to learn and practice the new skill, and to move to the conscious competence stage 11
  12. 12. Level 3 - Conscious Competence the person achieves conscious competence in a skill when they can perform it reliably at will the person will need to concentrate and think in order to perform the skill the person can perform the skill without assistance the person will not reliably perform the skill unless thinking about it - the skill is not yet second nature or automatic the person should be able to demonstrate the skill to another, but is unlikely to be able to teach it well to another person the person should ideally continue to practise the new skill, and if appropriate commit to becoming unconsciously competent at the new skill practise is the singlemost effective way to move from stage 3 to 4 12
  13. 13. Level 4 - Unconscious Competence the skill becomes so practised that it enters the unconscious parts of the brain - it becomes second nature common examples are driving, sports activities, typing, manual dexterity tasks, listening and communicating it becomes possible for certain skills to be performed while doing something else, for example, knitting while reading a book the person might now be able to teach others in the skill concerned, although after some time of being unconsciously competent the person might actually have difficulty in explaining exactly how they do it - the skill has become largely instinctual this arguably gives rise to the need for long-standing unconscious competence to be checked periodically against new standards 13
  14. 14. Level 5 - Reflective Competence Good Instruction? Good Instructor?14
  15. 15. Structured Learning Organized plans Well-structured lessons15
  16. 16. Best Practice Sailing skills based on best practice  Examples  MOB  Linehandling  Knots  Docking Instructional skills based on best practice  Manuals at all levels  Skills follow scope and sequence16
  17. 17. Qualities of an Effective Instructor  What are the qualities of an effective instructor? 17
  18. 18. Instructor Integrity Knowledge Honesty Responsibility Choice Encouragement / Restraint Review progress18
  19. 19. Presentation SkillsAppearanceMovementMannerismsVoice CommandNervousness RapportAttitude Confidence19
  20. 20. Good Questions Open Questions  Open a discussion  Draw out information  What, Where, When, Why, How Closed questions  Focus a discussion  Close a discussion  Do you, Would you, Are they, Should they …20
  21. 21. Questions to Avoid Multiple questions Leading questions Attack questions21
  22. 22. Handling Student Questions Repeat question to clarify Establish relevance Answer when appropriate  End of lesson, if not relevant  Later, if more appropriate Do not waffle, if you do not know There are no dumb questions Encourage questions22
  23. 23. Student-Centered Learning Match learning styles and teaching styles Techniques  Lecture  Demonstration  Discussion  Problem-solving  Role-playing  Experientiallearning  Brain-storming23
  24. 24. Teaching AidsBoatChalkboardFlip chart Charts, books, picturesModels, actual parts Overhead projectorCDs, DVDs Slide projectorLCD projector Video equipment24
  25. 25. Mnemonics Memory Aids “Red sky at night …” Others?25
  26. 26. PlanningCourse Planning Lesson Planning Scope and sequence Greeting / Resources introductions Assessment Review How Questions Where Overview When Lesson Preview Questions26
  27. 27. Outline Lesson PlanCourseObjectiveTime Techniques / Aids Opening Body Presentation Confirmation ClosingReminders 27
  28. 28. Step-by-Step Teaching Demonstrate complete skill Break down into logical steps Ensure steps are understood Put steps together28
  29. 29. Review and Refine Seek feedback  What worked?  What needs improvement? Be critical of own instruction Do not get caught in a rut “Success teaches nothing.”29
  30. 30. Using the Logbook At start of course  Review first three pages  Sign and seal page 1 At end of each day  Students check off what was completed  Instructor plans what needs to be covered At end of course  Sign and seal each module  Sign and seal each standard30
  31. 31. Certificate of Competency Web site   Login  Create New General Member (if needed)  Register course(s)  Register student in course(s)31