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Ar report

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Ar report

  1. 1. 1 1.0 Introduction. 1.1) Introduction Oral communication is the ability to talk with others, to give and exchange information & ideas, such as asking questions, giving directions, explaining and persuading. It is essential for researchers to equip respondents with oral communication skills so that respondents can communicate effectively in English in order to share and exchange their ideas, feelings and thoughts. Even when their literacy abilities are formed, oral communication is the most important bind with the outside world. Through it, children are able to share ideas, acquire new concepts, organize old ones, compose stories and create new worlds. Likewise, oral language takes children on a journey into the world of imagination where they can truly live the adventure of using language for communication. It is our role as teachers to make this journey a meaningful and enjoyable one. Primary school years are crucial for the respondents to develop effective oral communication skills. It is the time where respondents are exploring language, learning about emotions and building their self- esteem. Based on the learning standard for Year Three Standard School Curriculum (KSSR) yearly scheme of work, pupils must be able to give simple direction in school. Hence it is crucial for the researcher to find the right activities that can make respondents to be able to give correct direction to places as the process can be difficult without using the right method. Therefore, the researcher chose to use role play information gap activities as a medium to develop her respondent’s oral
  2. 2. 2 communication skills by means of giving direction to places. According to Ladousse (1987) , people is compulsion to receive and to pass on information has been brought into communicative classroom in recent years, and developed into a technique called information gap. Role play itself is based on this technique as different pupils are given different role cards. According to Carol Read (2007 p. 17 ) , it is important to provide frameworks for communication activities which encourage them to use English for real purposes which they can relate to, rather than simply practice language for its own sake. Role plays are essential in developing oral communicative skills as they give respondents an opportunity to communicate in various social contexts and roles. According to Brown (2001 p. 183), "role-play minimally involves (a) Giving a role to one or more members of a group and (b) Assigning an objective or purpose that participants must accomplish." Brown suggested role-play can be conducted with a single person, in pairs or in groups, with each person assigned a role to accomplish an objective. By involving the respondents in role play activities, they will have time to listen and absorb the sounds of English before participating actively. 1.2) Reflection on Previous Teaching and Learning Process Through the researcher’s experience teaching her respondents during practicum, most of her respondents had problems to use the correct verb and preposition when giving direction to places in school. Other than that, they also had problems in spoken interaction where it was hard for them to ask and answer
  3. 3. 3 questions and handle exchanges with others. For example, during one of her lessons for Unit Eleven, In School, she asked her respondents to interact with their group members to practice giving simple directions to places in the school. Unfortunately, they were not able to do it because they were confused with verbs like turn left, turn right, walk along, and go up and down. The respondents took a lot of time to come out with directions during the conversation as they usually think of the words in Bahasa Malaysia first before they were to say the full sentence. Furthermore, the respondents had limited range of vocabulary hence restraining them from speaking in English. Other than that, the researcher found that the respondents had limited time for oral practice in classroom and the lack of conversational opportunities outside for them, especially in the English language setting. Year Three textbook was not much of a help because the information about preposition verb was only shown through dialogues without any picture. Hence the respondents were not able to visualize the real movement and setting of the place. Therefore, the researcher is interested to inquire ways to develop giving direction skills by using role play information gap activities. 1.3 Related Theory and Literature The theory underpinning this research is a theory by Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition. This theory consists of five hypothesis but the researcher would want to focus on one of the proposed hypothesis which is the Affective Filter Hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation, low self-esteem, and debilitating anxiety can combine to 'raise' the
  4. 4. 4 affective filter and form a 'mental block' that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition. In other words, when the filter is 'up' it impedes language acquisition. On the other hand, positive affect is necessary, but not sufficient on its own, for acquisition to take place. Ladousse (1987) states that, the most important reason for using role play is that, it is fun. Once the pupils can comprehend what they are expected to do for the task, they will truly enjoy exploring their imagination. Based on the researcher’s previous teaching experience at three different schools, she realized that most of her pupils whether they are from urban or rural school loved to do role play the most. Even though no scientific evidence that can prove that enjoyment can lead to better learning, the researcher believes that it somehow is able to motivate the pupils to excel in learning English. This is because, when the pupils have fun while learning English language through role play, their anxiety level will be low and they will not feel intimidated to learn the English language. According to Krashen (1987), the best methods are therefore those that supply 'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear. These methods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are 'ready', recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production. Ladousse (1987) also states that role play helps many shy students by providing them with a mask as the pupils are liberated by role play because they no longer feel that their own personality is implicated. Role play lightens up the atmosphere and brings liveliness in the classes. Students learn to use the language in a more realistic, and practical way. Imaginative
  5. 5. 5 play not only aids intellectual development but also improves children’s social skills and their creativity. In addition it gives children a chance to play out events that they have observed or experienced in real life. By preparing for a situation using role- play, it helps to build up experience and self-confidence with handling the situation in real life, and respondents can develop quick and instinctively correct reactions to situations. When respondents memorize their scripts for the role play, they are able to memorize the structure of the sentence and broaden their range of vocabulary. Hence, they are able to apply it in real life. Imaginative play not only aids intellectual development but also improves children’s social skills and their creativity. In addition, it gives children a chance to play out events that they have observed or experienced in real life. By preparing for a situation using role-play, it helps to build up experience and self-confidence with handling the situation in real life, and respondents can develop quick and instinctively correct reactions to situations. An information gap activity is an activity where learners are missing the information they need to complete a task and need to talk to each other to find it. The activity takes place between students, not between a student and a teacher, though a teacher can certainly demonstrate the activity. The two pupils will be asking each other questions to which they don’t know the answer; these questions are called referential questions. The goal of the activity is for the students to discover certain information, whether about the other person or related to a specific activity. According to Burke (1958), curiosity is the most superficial of all the affections as it changes its object perpetually. Stern (1973) states that curiosity has
  6. 6. 6 been consistently recognized as a critical motive that influences human behavior in both positive and negative ways at all stages of life cycle. It has been identified as a driving force in child development. Teachers are encouraged to stimulate curiosity by providing guidelines for doing so. Ladousse (1987) states that one of the mainsprings of human activity is curiosity, and most people enjoy finding things out. In other words, curiosity and the desire to spread knowledge are two complementary facets of human deprivation. By doing role play, respondents will naturally become someone or something else. Role play stimulates their imagination and “enhanc(es) their social development, encourag(es) friendship through cooperation, listening and turn taking”(Ute,2013). Respondents can learn how to be co-operative and be empathetic with others through role play. They also can learn about other cultures and improve their language and movement skills. However, the researcher must be creative to get the right scripts and situations for the respondents to do their role play. It is best if the respondents are given situations that they are familiar with like a role play to tell their friends about direction to places which they know and are familiar with. Hence, respondents can practice the situation outside the classroom and as the respondents get used to it, they will use the knowledge in everyday life. Information gap role play is really a worthwhile learning experience for both the students and the researcher. Not only can students have more opportunities to act and interact with their peers trying to use the English language, but also students' English language speaking, listening, and understanding skills will improve. Thus they can become more aware of the usefulness and practicality of English. Role play
  7. 7. 7 is indeed a useful teaching technique which should be experimented and applied by English as Second Language researchers more often in the ESL classrooms.
  8. 8. 8 2.0 FOCUS OF INVESTIGATION/ ISSUE OF CONCERN 2.1 Problem Statement The problem of this study was, six of the Year Three Amanah pupils in Sekolah Kebangsaan Hosba did not managed to communicate orally with their group members to give direction to places in school. Based on the learning standard for Year Three KSSR yearly scheme of work, pupils must be able to give simple direction in school. Hence, the general focus of this study is on developing respondent’s oral communication skills in terms of giving direction to places by using role play information gap activities. During the lesson for Unit Eleven, In School, the researcher did several activities with the pupils which required them to give direction to their friends to go to places in school. However, six of the respondents failed to perform in any of the tasks given. The respondents were very shy to speak in English and they often use their mother tongue when giving direction. In general, shyness brings on feelings of apprehension and anxiety when a student is placed in the spotlight. When the researcher asked them to speak in front of the classroom, they were likely to either not speak at all or speak very quietly and be uncertain in their replies. Several times the respondents blushed, trembled and perspired when they did not know the answers. During group discussion, the researcher had to keep asking the respondents to be more active and join their group members to come out with ideas. They
  9. 9. 9 preferred to isolate themselves and do their own activities that they like instead such as reading book or colouring. Other than that, the respondents had problems in receptive language as it was challenging for them to follow instructions and did not respond appropriately to questions and requests. The difficulties in understanding lead to attention and listening difficulties and behavioural issues. Unfortunately, Year Three textbook was not much of a help to teach the specific topic. This is because, the exercise given did not include pictures to show the movements and pictures of places in the school. 2.2 Preliminary Investigation 2.2.1 Distribute the script The researcher handed out role play parts to the pupils a week before the role play exercise. Pupils had to practice their role play with their group members and consulted the researcher regarding their role play a day before their presentation. The scripts that the researcher gave to them were simple yet it emphasized on giving direction to places. For example: Ana : Excuse me, may I know where the canteen is? Sara : Sure, walk along the corridor. Then turn left. The canteen is opposite the classroom.
  10. 10. 10 Ana: Oh, thank you. Sara: You are welcome. The topic of the role play was depended on which unit the pupils were currently learning. For example, the above script was used while the pupils are learning Unit Eleven, In School. 2.2.2 Teach the dialogues for the role play The researcher pre taught the dialogues given to the pupils to make sure that the respondents understood word by word of the script. The researcher asked pupils to jot down the difficult words with their meanings in a small notebook specified for role play activities to improve their vocabulary. 2.2.3 Practice the role play Pupils were given a week to practice with their group members. A day before presentation, each group had to consult the researcher first to correct or to improve their performance before presenting in front of the class. If the pupils manage to master the drill of the role play, the researcher improved the scripts to make it more challenging for the respondents. During the role play, the researcher observed the pupils and gave comments at the end of the role play. 2.2.4 Evaluate the respondents Based on the researcher’s observation, the researcher had to give comments on pupils’ performance in terms of pupils’ pronunciation and check whether they managed to understand the meaning of vocabulary in the dialogue. For example, the
  11. 11. 11 researcher made oral tests after each role play and asked pupils to answer questions regarding the role play. 2.2.5 Diagnostic test The researcher gave several worksheets to the pupils to answer. The questions were based on giving direction to places. For the first worksheet, the pupils had to replace direction signs with the right answers and the researcher marked their test papers. For their second worksheet, the pupils had to refer to a map to answer five questions regarding on giving direction. 2.3 Analysis of Preliminary Investigation 2.3.1 Analysis of Role Play Observation Table 1.0 Analysis of Role Play Observation According to the table above, it showed that the six respondents were not able to do the role play activities. Their results were highly different than the rest of the classmates. The respondents did not managed to use preposition correctly. During the Proficiency Level Respondents Result A B C D E F Descriptions √ X √ X √ X √ X √ X √ X 1. Able to use preposition correctly. / / / / / / 2. Able to enjoy communicating with peers. / / / / / / 3. Able to communicate with confidence. / / / / / /
  12. 12. 12 role play activities, the respondents were very silent and often hid behind their group members. They spoke very slowly during presentation and avoid eye contacts with the audience. 2.3.2 Analysis of Diagnostic Test 1 Table 1.1 Diagnostic Test 1 Analysis No Respondents Marks/6 Percentage (%) 1. A 0 0 2. B 0 0 3. C 1 16 4. D 1 16 5. E 0 0 6. F 0 0 Graph 1.0 Pre-Test Analysis 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 A B C D E F MARKS(%) RESPONDENTS
  13. 13. 13 According to the analysis for diagnostic 1 , four respondents failed to score any marks. Two of the respondents managed to get 16 marks out of 100. However, the rest of the classmates managed to score above 70 marks for diagnostic 1. 2.3.3 Analysis of Diagnostic Test 2 Table 1.2 Diagnostic Test 2 Analysis No Respondents Marks/6 Percentage (%) 1. A 2 33 2. B 2 33 3. C 3 50 4. D 3 50 5. E 1 16 6. F 0 0 Graph 1.1 Diagnostic Test 2 Analysis 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 A B C D E F MARKS(%) RESPONDENTS
  14. 14. 14 For the second diagnostic, the respondents’ scores maintained below average even though there were slight improvements for all of them. Respondent A and Respondent B managed to score 33 % out of 100%. Respondent C and Respondent D managed to score 50% and Respondent F failed to score any mark. For diagnostic 2, the same six respondents got the lowest marks and percentages compared to the rest of the classmates. 2.4 Criteria of Selection The researcher selected the respondents based on several criteria. The first criteria was based on the respondents’ results during diagnostic tests. The researcher marked pupils’ tests and chose six pupils who had the lowest marks and selected them to be the respondents for the research. Other than that, the researcher chose the respondents based on their behaviour and attitude while doing the role play. Pupils who were shy and reluctant to take part in the role play were also selected to be part of the respondents.
  15. 15. 15 2.5 Interventions 1. Pre-Test 2. Reinforcement Activities 3. Charades 4. Simon Says 5. Information Gap Role Play Activities 6. Post- Test
  16. 16. 16 The first step of the intervention was by doing Pre-Test. Six of the respondents were gathered at the school’s hall and they were given a set of four questions to answer. The researcher marked their paper to compare their results with their Post-Test results at the end of the research. This is important to see whether there are any improvements to prove that the interventions work on the respondents. The second intervention was called Charade activity. In this activity which was held at the school’s hall, the respondents were divided into pairs and they had to pantomime the movements according to the flashcards that they received. The researcher was inspired to do this activity because the respondents are kinesthetic learners and they love to move, bounce, and travel around the classrooms. The third intervention was a well-known game called Simon Says. Usually, pupils play this game to show their body parts. However, in this intervention, the respondents had to give directions to their partners to move around the school’s compound. The fourth intervention is Information Gap Role Play activity where the respondents were divided into pairs. Each pair of respondents received different worksheets. One of the respondents received a map without any names on the building and the task for them was to find one of the buildings according to the questions. In order to solve the problem, they need to ask questions to their partner whom had the complete map. Finally, the respondents had to answer post-test questions which were the same questions as the pre-test questions. The reason was because, the researcher wanted to know whether the specific interventions managed to help respondents to answer questions to give direction by using map and completing dialogues.
  17. 17. 17 2.6 Definition of Terms Information Gap activity is an activity where learners are missing the information they need to complete a task and need to talk to each other to find it. This activity is useful for various reasons. They provide an opportunity for extended speaking practice, they represent real communication, motivation can be high, and they require sub-skills such as clarifying meaning and re-phrasing. Examples of information gap activities include, describe and draw, spot the difference, jigsaw readings and listening and split dictations. According to Ladousse (1987), role play itself is based on information gap technique, as different pupils are given different role cards. According to Brown (2001), "role-play minimally involves (a) giving a role to one or more members of a group and (b) assigning an objective or purpose that participants must accomplish." Brown suggested role-play can be conducted with a single person, in pairs or in groups, with each person assigned a role to accomplish an objective. Normally according to Nunan (1990), role plays “can be wholly scripted or wholly improvised, students are given choice in what to say and there is a clear aim to be achieved”
  18. 18. 18 3.0 OBJECTIVE AND RESEARCH QUESTION 3.1 Objective The researchers’ aim is to examine whether the use of information gap role play activities can be an effective tool to develop oral communication skills in terms of giving direction to places, for Year Three pupils. 3.2 Research Question  Can information gap role play activities be considered as an effective means to improve the oral communication skills?
  19. 19. 19 4.0 TARGET GROUP Age Year Three pupils Gender 5 girls and 1 boy Respondent A  Respondent A scored very low during both diagnostic tests.  Respondent A was shy and refused to mingle with her group members during group discussion. Respondent B  Respondent B scored the lowest for the first diagnostic test and second lowest for the second diagnostic test. Respondent C  Respondent C did not managed to give correct directions to places during role play activities. Respondent D  Respondent C used mother tongue (Bahasa Malaysia) to give direction to places Respondent E  Respondent E scored very low for both diagnostic tests.  Respondent E spoke very slow and refused to have eye contact while giving direction. Respondent F  Respondent F scored very low during both diagnostic tests.
  20. 20. 20 5.0 ACTION 5.1 Procedure of Action 5.1.1 Pre-Test Respondents had to read the dialogues and replaced the pictures with correct directions to complete the dialogues. The researcher marked each respondent to compare their results with the post- test at the end of the research. 5.1.2 Reinforcement Activities For the first activity, the researcher showed several flashcards which were, turn left, turn right, walk straight, walk along, go up and go down. The researcher asked the respondents to read the flashcards together and asked them about the meaning of each word on the flashcards. Howard Gardner's multiple intelligence theory states that there are many types of learners within any one class. For visual learners, using flash card can make a huge impact on them. Then the researcher showed the movements of each word by using body gestures. By doing so, the respondents can grasp the meaning of each direction and remember the movements better. By gesturing, the researcher not only unfreezes her body but also she unfreezes the respondents’ mind. Secondly, gesturing conveys enthusiasm and energy to the respondents. For the second activity, the researcher showed pictures of places in the school. For example, pictures of the school’s canteen, computer laboratory and school’s
  21. 21. 21 field. The researcher asked the respondents to name the places in the pictures to make sure that they recognized the places correctly. Hence, the respondents would be able to give direction to the places correctly. 5.1.3 Charades First to teach direction, the researcher first introduced each direction with flashcards, and act out each of the direction and have students say each out loud with the researcher during reinforcement activities. Then the researcher divided the respondents into pairs. Each respondent took a flashcard, a card with a direction written on it, and pantomime the movements involved so that his or her teammates can guess what it was. Teammates had to answer for example: Turn right, walk along, go up, go down or turn left. The researcher observed each respondent and filled up the observation form based on their performance throughout the activity. 5.1.4 Simon Says Simon Says is a classic outdoor game that young children love. Total Physical Response (TPR) is a method that was developed by James Asher in the late 1960s, with the goal of helping students acquire a second language. Activities in ESL activities which involved TPR are very enjoyable for pupils, even for grown ups. But it is precisely because children are less self-conscious about moving their bodies around the classroom, that these activities are excellent ways to get young learners up and about. For Simon Says activity, the researcher pasted pictures of places in the school which she had shown them earlier around the hall. Each pair of respondent had to stand at the same point in the hall.
  22. 22. 22 One of them gave direction to their partner to go to any pictures that they wanted and the partner had to move according to the direction given. For example, “Walk straight and turn left to the canteen” or “Turn right and walk straight to the library”. The researcher observed each respondent and filled up the observation form. 5.1.5 Information Gap Role Play Activities For this activity, the researcher divided pupils into pairs. Each pair was given two different worksheets. For the first round, Respondent 1 will asks question on how to go to places in the map, and Respondent 2 answered by referring to the map which Respondent 1 did not have in his/her worksheet. Therefore, to satisfy their curiosity, the respondents count on the willingness of their partner to tell what he/she knew. Based on Respondent 2’s answer, Respondent 1 had to circle the correct building. For the second round, Respondent 1 and Respondent 2 switched roles to answer the second task. Respondent 2 asked question to go to places in the map such as the hospital, and Respondent 1 had to answer by completing the dialogues. After the dialogues for both tasks were completed, each pair had to practice to read their dialogues and act out the role plays in front of the classroom. The researcher recorded the respondents’ performance throughout the activity and by using the videos, the researcher filled up observation forms to analyse their achievements and behavior.
  23. 23. 23 5.2 Data Gathering Methods The activities in this research allowed the researcher to collect data using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. There were three methods that the researcher used to analyse the respondents. The first method was the Pre-Test and Post-Test analysis. The Pre and Post Test are the measurement of the learning received during the intervention as a result of comparing what the pupil knew before in a pre-test and after the intervention experience in a post-test. The reason why the researcher used this method was to quantify the knowledge attained through the intervention from the respondents with diverse learning styles and educational backgrounds. More specifically, the tests indicate how the respondents were learning in the intervention throughout the research. The researcher used the Pre-Test to measure a starting point or the amount of pre- existing knowledge on the specific skills which is on giving direction. Other than that, the researcher wanted to compare with the starting point of a post-test and to allow respondents to test out of course with a 100% correct score. The researcher used the Post-Test to measure the learning as a result of the intervention experience and to analyze the appropriateness of the learning objectives. Other than that, the Post-Testing helped the researcher to recognize students who need additional help and to target any instructional needs to improve the intervention and the research as a whole. The second method used by the researcher to collect data was by using observation. This method involved spending a lot of time in the setting and the researcher wrote field notes throughout the observations which was focused on what
  24. 24. 24 was seen. For example, the researcher focused on respondents’ achievements and failures in every task given and also their behaviour while doing the tasks. The advantages of using observation as one of the methods were this method was very direct method for collecting data or information and best for the study of human behavior. Other than that, data collected is very accurate in nature and also very reliable. It also improves precision of the research results and helped the researcher in understanding the verbal response more efficiently. However, observation involved a lot of time as the researcher had to wait for an event to happen to study that particular event. The third and final method used by the researcher to collect data was video recording. The use of mechanical recording devices usually gives greater flexibility than observations done by hand (Smith, 1981). Video and audio recording are less common to be used as a research tool. This is unfortunate, because, despite its ‘technical’ nature, there is much to be gained from its use, particularly for non- participant observation. (Bowman, 1993) By recording respondents’ performance, it helped them to improve the quality of their role play, allowing them to observe and assess their own performance. Other than that, it also helped the researcher to see respondent’s progress from day to day. Different observers may focus on the same video as the basis of a shared analysis. This increases inter-rater reliability, and if the required level of reliability is not achieved initially, further training of observers may be conducted to increase the reliability (Trucano, 2013). Most importantly, the videos of respondents role play can be analyzed many times at any time and place. The videos can be paused, rewind, and fast forward to analyse respondent’s performance further. In order to build respondent’s confidence level to perform in
  25. 25. 25 front of the class, the researcher can first record the respondents in small groups and let the respondents to see themselves performing in the video first. When the respondents are ready, they can proceed to do the role play in front of bigger audience. Other than that, respondents recorded performance can be shared with respondent’s parents, school website and with other the researchers as well. In order to collect the data for the research, the researcher recorded respondent’s performance every day. After respondents do their role play, the researcher will show the video to the respondents and at the same time they received feedback from the researcher. Thus, respondents can see their strengths and weaknesses clearly and it will help them to enhance their self-esteem to communicate in English. Other than that, video and audio recording also allowed respondents to listen to themselves speaking in English. Hence, they can make improvement if they need to in terms of pronunciation, rhythm and stress.
  26. 26. 26 6.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 6.1 Analysis of Pre-Test Table 1.0 Pre-Test Analysis No Respondents Marks/6 Percentage (%) 1. A 0 0 2. B 3 50 3. C 0 0 4. D 0 0 5. E 3 50 6. F 0 0 Graph 1.0 Pre-Test Analysis 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 A B C D E F MARKS(%) RESPONDENTS
  27. 27. 27 According to the Pre-Test analysis, we can see that four out of six respondents failed to answer all questions correctly. They scored zero mark out of six marks. Hence, they did not manage to get any percentage. Two out of six respondents managed to get three marks out of six marks. Hence they managed to score 50% out of 100%. During the Pre-Test, the respondents were gathered at the school’s hall and they were seated far from each other to answer the questions. All of the questions given were already taught previously during the lesson in the classroom. However, the researcher expected the result as the respondents also failed to perform during their diagnostic tests. 6.2 Analysis of Charade Activity Table 1.3 Observation analysis (charades activity) Proficiency Level Respondents Result A B C D E F Descriptions √ X √ X √ X √ X √ X √ X 1. Able to pantomime the movements correctly. X / / X / / 2. Able to use preposition correctly. X / / X / / As we can see in the table above, there was slight improvement in terms of the respondents’ performance. After the respondents had gone through and participated in the reinforcement activities where they read the flashcards and looked at the researcher’s gestures to show the movements, the respondents managed to pantomime the movements correctly. They also managed to use preposition correctly. However, Respondent A and Respondent D failed to do both tasks correctly. Both respondents were still confused with the movements such as turn right and turn left.
  28. 28. 28 6.3 Analysis of Simon Says Activity Table 1.4 Observation analysis (Simon Says activity) Proficiency Level Respondents Result A B C D E F Descriptions √ X √ X √ X √ X √ X √ X 1. Able to give direction correctly. / / / / / / 2. Able to use preposition correctly. / / / / / / 3. Able to use correct sentence structure. / / / / / / 4. Able to communicate with confidence. X / / / / / As we can see in the table above, all of the respondents managed to do Simon Says activity correctly. This data was taken after the third time doing the activity. Hence, the respondents were able to comprehend what they had to do and practice with their partners for several times. The respondents were able to give direction correctly from places to places in the hall and also in the school. However, some of the respondents managed to use full and proper sentence structure like, “Please walk straight and turn left to the canteen”, whereas some respondents only managed to utter short and simple direction like , “Go straight and turn left. The respondents also managed to use correct sentence structure and able to communicate with confidence.
  29. 29. 29 Respondent B was very enthusiastic throughout the activity and he gained confidence to even teach other respondents on how to give direction correctly. It showed that, when the respondent was able to comprehend the task, it will motivate them to do the task excellently well. His anxiety level was low. Hence, he did not feel intimidated to do the task. Respondent A was still hesitated to do the activity and had to be corrected for several times during the first few tries of the activity. Respondent A also gave direction using a very slow tone of voice and the partner could hardly hear what she said. It showed that even though the activities done during previous interventions helped her to identify the movements correctly, she still did not managed to overcome her fear to talk and give directions in English. 6.4 Analysis of Post Test Table 1.1 Post-Test Analysis No Respondents Marks/6 Percentage (%) 1. A 6 100 2. B 5 83 3. C 6 100 4. D 6 100 5. E 6 100 6. F 6 100
  30. 30. 30 Graph 1.1 Post-Test Analysis According to the analysis for the Post-Test, we can see that there were drastic changes for the Post-Test results compared to the Pre-Test results. Five out of six respondents managed to get 6 out of 6 marks which landed them to get 100% for their total percentage. The respondents managed to answer the questions correctly and they were very confident while answering the questions. Most of them managed to answer the questions within 30 minutes whereas during the Pre-Test the respondents exceeded the time given which was 45 minutes. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 A B C D E F MARKS(%) RESPONDENTS
  31. 31. 31 6.5 Comparison of Pre-Test and Post Test Analysis Table 1.2 Comparison between Pre-Test and Post-Test No Respondents PRE-TEST POST-TEST Marks Differences Percentage (%) Grade Percentage (%) Grade ± 1 A 0 E 100 A +100 2 B 50 C 83 A +33 3 C 0 E 100 A +100 4 D 0 E 100 A +100 5 E 50 C 100 A +50 6 F 0 E 100 A +100 Graph 1.2 Comparison between Pre-Test and Post-Test 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 A B C D E F Marks(%) Respondents Pre-Test Post-Test
  32. 32. 32 7.0 FINDINGS Based on the results of the data analysis, the findings will be divided into three main assumptions that can be made. 7.1 Respondents are no longer shy to speak in English to give directions to places The findings in the research indicate that Information Gap Role Play activities are able to help respondents to be confident to speak in English in terms of giving directions to places in school and other places as well. Through the intervention done by the researcher, the respondents managed to overcome their fear to speak in English to give direction to places. Based on the three indicators which are, post-test scores, observation and video analysis, it is proven that there are drastic changes in knowledge and attitude among the respondents in terms of giving direction to places. As the researcher goes on with the four progressive interventions, the respondents are also progressing and improving. During the Charade and Simon Says activities, the respondents were still reserved and fearful to make mistakes. Hence, some of them were hesitant to give directions to their friends loudly. However, after the respondents moved on to the Information Gap Role Play activities, they were able to give their own directions by completing the dialogues on their own. At the end of the intervention, the researcher recorded the respondents’ performance while they were doing role play and all of
  33. 33. 33 them did excellently well. The researcher can see through their facial expressions that they were satisfied with their achievements to speak in English and to answer the questions correctly. 7.2 Information Gap Role Play activities can be considered as an effective means to improve respondents’ oral communication skills in terms of giving direction to places. From the pre and post-test scores, the researcher had done a comparison to show the improvement of knowledge in terms of giving direction to places. Table 1.2 Comparison between Pre-Test and Post-Test No Respondents PRE-TEST POST-TEST Marks Differences Percentage (%) Grade Percentage (%) Grade ± 1 A 0 E 100 A +100 2 B 50 C 83 A +33 3 C 0 E 100 A +100 4 D 0 E 100 A +100 5 E 50 C 100 A +50 6 F 0 E 100 A +100 As we can see in the above table, it is clear that the respondents have improved tremendously in terms of their results from the pre-test to the post-test. Before the interventions took place, the respondents were not able to answer the
  34. 34. 34 questions correctly. Most of them did not understand and were confused with the movements. They were also very shy to speak in English in order to give directions to places. However, after the intervention, the respondents managed to speak fluently to give directions and they were confident during the role play activities. This is because, during the interventions the respondents were exposed to the usage of the directions many times during the reinforcement activities. Hence, they slowly managed to understand the meaning of each direction. As they moved on to the Charade activity, they were pushed out of their comfort zone and they had to pantomime the movements in front of everyone. By using TPR , it encouraged respondents to listen and respond to the spoken target language commands of the researcher. In other words, TPR method built the coordination of speech and action and is able to teach language through physical (motor) activity. When the respondents were already familiar with the movements, the next intervention which was Simon Says activities emphasized on giving directions using proper sentences. Simon Says activity is one of the recommended activities to overcome receptive language problems. In Simon Says activity, the respondents used chunk verbal direction, for example, “walk straight and turn left” , and through repetitive practices, they managed to improve their sentence structure when giving direction. During information gap role play activity, the respondents can already fathom the meaning of the direction, ways and structure to give directions and during the activity, all of the knowledge that they have learned throughout the interventions were applied.
  35. 35. 35 8.0 Limitations The biggest limitation that was faced by the researcher was time. The time given to collect data were only four days which means there was no time to make any mistakes. Hence, the researcher asked permission from the teachers to take the respondents out to the school’s hall to do the interventions. Within the four days, the respondents had to do the activities for hours and they were expected to give results in a very short amount of time. The second limitation was the lack of space. When the researcher arrived at the school, there was no class available to use. Hence, the researcher and the respondents had to waste their time on the first day of intervention to find a suitable space to carry out the activities for the research. Finally the researcher got the permission from the headmaster to use the school hall. In terms of space, the hall was the perfect spot to carry out the interventions. However, the hall is located next to Year Two classrooms. Hence, it was very noisy. The researcher had to go to the classes for several times to ask the pupils to slow down their voice as the researcher was not able to record the respondents due to the noise. The final limitation was the respondents’ participation. On the second day of the intervention, Respondent B failed to attend the school due to sickness. Hence, the researcher had to spend more time on Respondent B during the third day of the intervention to fill in the information that Respondent B had missed on the previous day.
  36. 36. 36 8.1 Recommendations for Further Actions The first recommendation is to implement the activities many times. The researcher was not able to carry out the information gap role play activities many times because of the lack of time. However, if the researcher is given ample time to do the research, she would give the respondents more worksheets on information gap role play activities. This is because, the respondents can really benefit from the activities as it help them to practise their giving direction skills and enhance their confidence level to speak in front of an audience. The second recommendation is to get feedback from the respondents and improve to get new ideas for future classes. Ultimately, in order to create a high- performance learning team in the classrooms, the pupils and the teacher have to be accountable to one another. Feedback from the respondents is also a way for the researcher to grow and to be able to come out with better interventions in the future. According to Bellon et al (1991), academic feedback is more strongly and consistently related to achievement than any other teaching behavior and this relationship is consistent regardless of grade, socioeconomic status, race, or school setting. Feedback can improve a student's confidence, self-awareness and enthusiasm for learning. The last recommendation is in term of organization. In order to do this research, it is highly advisable to consider respondents’ abilities and personalities when dividing them into groups. The level of proficiency of each pair of respondents must vary so that one could help the other. Hence, the teacher must be alert with the pupils’ potential and level in order to create dynamic pairs of respondent.
  37. 37. 37 9.0 References Bellon, J.J., Bellon, E.C. & Blank, M.A. (1991) Teaching from a research knowledge base: a development and renewal process. Facsimile edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA. Brennan, W. K. (1974). Shaping the education of slow learners. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Brown, H.D. (1994). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. N.J.:Prentice Hall Regents. Bowman M. (1994). Using video in research. Retrieved 12th March 2015, from http://www.sfu.ca/media-lab/cmns362/Spotlight45.pdf Burke, E. (1958). A philosophical enquiry into the origin of our ideas of the sublime and beautiful. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul (Original work published 1757 Chan A. (2011). Learner receptivity toward role play simulation. Retrieved 11th March 2015, from http://ijer.eab.org.tr/media/volume2/issue1/Andrew_Chan.pdf Gardner Howard(1993): Multiple intelligences: the theory in practice. New York: Basic. Drills dialogues and role play. (2011) Retrieved 12th March 2015, from https://www.press.umich.edu/pdf/0472032038-web.pdf Haylock, D. (2010). Mathematics explain for primary teachers third edition. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Krashen, Stephen D. (1987) Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Prentice-Hall International, 1987. Ladousse, G. P. (1991). Role play. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Ments M.V. (2011, January 19). Early simulation and gaming. Retrived 12th March 2015, from http://www.unice.fr/sg/authors/bios/van%20Ments,%202011 Read, C. (2005). 500 activities for the primary classroom. Thailand: Macmillan Publishers Limited. Stern D.N (1973) , The Interpersonal World of a Child,New York: Basic Books.
  38. 38. 38 Trucano M. (2013, August 3). Using video to imprive teaching - and support teachers. Retrieved 12th March 2015, from http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/miga/using-video-improve-teaching-and support-teachers Ute. (2013, February 3). The importance of role play for students. Retrieved 11th March 2015, from http://expatsincebirth.com/2013/02/03/the-importance-of-role- plays for-children-and-us/ Yearly scheme of work for year three, Retrieved 12th March, 2011, from, http://www.slideshare.net/AdrianneAnne/yearly-scheme-of-work-year- three-2013
  39. 39. 39 Name Class PRE-TEST
  40. 40. 40 Read the dialogue. Replace the pictures with the correct words and write the complete sentences. 1. Adam: Where is the library? 2. Balqis: the corridor and ____________________________________________________________________ _______ 3. Sharifah: Where is the canteen? Alia: the stairs and canteen toilet field library classroom computer room laboratory
  41. 41. 41 ____________________________________________________________________ _______ 4. Liana: Where is the field? Daniel : the corridor and ______________________________________________________________ Name POST-TEST walk along turn right turn left go down
  42. 42. 42 Read the dialogue. Replace the pictures with the correct words and write the complete sentences. 1. Adam: Where is the library? 2. Balqis: the corridor and ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Sharifah: Where is the canteen? Alia: the stairs and ____________________________________________________________________ 4. Liana: Where is the field? Class canteen toilet field library classroom computer room laboratory
  43. 43. 43 Daniel : the corridor and ___________________________________________________________________ Read the dialogue. Write the right words in the blanks. walk along turn right turn left go down Excuse me, may I know where the police station is? Sure, ________ Main Street. Then turn ________. The police station is opposite the drug store. You’re welcome. Mr. John Hafizi
  44. 44. 44 Read the dialogue. Write the right words in the blanks. Oh, thank you. Mr. John Hafizi JalanAmpang Jalan Mahawangsa Ja;anTunkuIsmail Excuse me, may I know how do I go to the hospital from here? Sure, turn _______ and ________ to Jalan Tunku Ismail. Then turn ________. The hospital is ______ the Pet Shop. Oh, thank you. You’re welcome. Dr. Anis Sti
  45. 45. 45 Siti Dr. Anis
  46. 46. 46 Observation Form Able to give direction correctly. Able to use preposition correctly Able to use correct sentence structure. Able to communicate with confidence. Able to read the map correctly Pupils’ name Class Activity Information Gap Role Play activity ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Pupils’ description
  47. 47. 47 Pupils’ name Class Activity Charade Observation Form Able to pantomime the movements correctlt. Able to use preposition correctly ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Pupils’ description
  48. 48. 48 Pupils’ name Class Activity Simon Says Observation Form Able to give direction correctly. Able to use preposition correctly Able to use correct sentence structure. Able to communicate with confidence. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Pupils’ description
  49. 49. 49

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