Przegląd misji Mars Science Laboratory


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Przegląd misji Mars Science Laboratory

  1. 1. CURIOSITY:Big Mars Rover for Big Mars Science! Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  2. 2. NASA’s Mars Rover Curiosity launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  3. 3. Curiosity launched on an Atlas V-541, the largest rocket for launching to a planet.It is propelled toward Mars by a Centaur upper stage. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  4. 4. Curiosity is headed to Gale Crater.You can see where other Mars landers and rovers have successfully landed on Mars too. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  5. 5. Gale Crater is about 96 miles wide. It has many rock layers forCuriosity to explore, from canyons to channels,all in one place! NASA/JPL-Caltech
  6. 6. At Gale, Curiosity will study Martian rocks and minerals that hold clues to whether Mars ever could have supported small life forms called microbes. False Color, Panoramic Camera, on Opportunity rover NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell
  7. 7. Curiosity will pick up where other Mars rovers left off. Beyond signs of water, the rover will look forsigns of organics, the chemical building blocks of life. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  8. 8. Curiosity is targeted to land within the yellow ellipse, on flat terrain near Gale’s central mound.Central Mound NASAJPL-Caltech/ASU/UA
  9. 9. The 3-mile-high mound has multiple rock layers.Each rock layer reveals a different time in Mars’ history.Some have clays and sulfates, which both form in water. Beyond signs of water, the rover will look forsigns of organics, the chemical building blocks of life. NASAJPL-Caltech/ESA/UA
  10. 10. To find out if Mars ever could have supported microbial life, the team built a lot of science tools on the rover to study rocks and soil up close.Rocks hold the record of what past environments on Mars were like. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  11. 11. Here are some of Curiosity’s main tools for studying Mars. You can see that the rover is packed with tools! NASA/JPL-Caltech
  12. 12. That’s why Curiosity is so large. It takes a car-sized rover to carry so many tools.Spirit/Opportunity (2004) Sojourner (1997) Curiosity (2011) NASA/JPL-Caltech
  13. 13. Curiosity is twice the sizeof Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity and five times as heavy. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  14. 14. Among Curiosity’s tools are seventeen cameras,a laser to zap rocks, and a drill to collect rock samples. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  15. 15. Curiosity will use her camera “eyes” to take images of the Martian landscapeand to study rock layers.Some of these rock layers hold clues to whetherMars could have ever been a habitat for life. These two cameras are called Mastcam. NASAJPL-Caltech
  16. 16. Engineers built a laser with a tool called a spectrometer, which detects chemical elements in rocks. It is called ChemCam. On Curiosity’s “head” is ChemCam’s laser system. In its body is the part of the spectrometer that will detect different chemical elements in rocks. NASAJPL-Caltech/LANL
  17. 17. The laser can vaporize a thin layer of rock and tell from the color of the sparks what the rock is made of. Artist’s Concept. NASAJPL-Caltech
  18. 18. Curiosity will be able to send weather reports from Mars too! Two little booms on the rover’s mast (“neck”) called REMSwill monitor temperature, wind speed and direction. REMS also measures pressure and ultraviolet light. NASAJPL-Caltech
  19. 19. Curiosity’s seven-foot-long arm has tools built into its “hand.” The “hand” will reach out and touch Mars,finding out about what the past environment was Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech like.
  20. 20. Curiosity has three more rock analyzers. Each has a special job. APXS: CHEMIN: SAM: Identifies Identifies Minerals, Identifies Organics,Chemical Elements including those the Chemical in Rocks formed in water Building Blocks of Life On Hand In Body In Body All will determine what the rocks and soils are made of. That data will tell scientists about whether Mars had the right chemistry for possibly supporting microbial life.
  21. 21. On its hand, Curiosity has a hand lens called MAHLI (a “magnifying glass”) for studying soil grains. It can take photos of rocks far away too,and carries its own lighting to take photos at night. NASAJPL-Caltech/MSSS
  22. 22. Curiosity also carries two radiation detectors. RAD will help scientists DAN will help scientists understand the Martian detect any water below theradiation environment to prepare surface, whether in the soilfor human exploration someday. or bound inside minerals. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  23. 23. To power these instruments, Curiosity uses electricity provided by a battery that is continuously recharged by heat from the natural radioactive decay of plutonium-238.It will take about 110 watts of electricity to run the rover and its instruments. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  24. 24. To fit all these tools on the rover, the team had to supersize everything, from the capsule that holds the rover,to the parachute that slows it down before landing. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  25. 25. Cruise Stage Back ShellTo get to Mars, Curiosity will travel tucked safely inside aprotective shell. Descent Stage Rover Heat Shield NASAJPL-Caltech
  26. 26. The trip will take over eight months. The rover will travel about354 million miles (570 million kilometers). Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  27. 27. The spacecraft enters the Martian atmosphere 78 miles above the planet. The rover will take approximately seven minutes to reach the ground.The spacecraft can steer its way through the turbulent atmosphere so it can land more accurately. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  28. 28. The friction of the atmosphere slows the spacecraft from 13,000 mph to about 900 mph.The heat shield may reach 3,800 degrees Fahrenheit! Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  29. 29. A supersonicparachute slows the spacecraft from about 900 mph to 180 mph, the speed of a Formula One race car.Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  30. 30. While slowing down using the parachute, the heat shield ispopped off, exposing the rover to the Martian atmosphere.The rover’s descent camera begins taking a movie of the remaining five-mile flight to the ground. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  31. 31. The engines on the descent stage roar to life and fly the rover down the last mile to the surface.As it descends, the rover uses radar to measure its speed and altitude, which it uses to land safely. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  32. 32. The hovering descent stage lowers the rover on three nylon ropes called bridle. Coiled electronics and communications cables also unspool from the descent stage.This configuration is known as the “Sky Crane.” Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  33. 33. By the time Curiosity touches down,the rover is going about two miles per hour. Less than seven minutes before, it was traveling at 13,000 miles per hour! Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  34. 34. When the sky crane “senses” that Curiosity has touched down, the cables are cut.The sky crane flies a safe distance away from the rover before crash-landing. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  35. 35. For the first time, a Mars rover will land with wheels touching down first, instead of airbags. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  36. 36. Curiosity will start exploring Mars after raising its “head” and doing a “self-check” to make sure all systems are go.Driving could take several days to a few weeks after landing. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  37. 37. Curiosity will tell us aboutwhat it finds through the Deep Space Network. Three centers with largecommunications antennas receive the signals: in California, Spain, and Australia. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  38. 38. Curiosity will send data back to Earth’s Deep Space Network through Mars orbiters.Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Odyssey Orbiter Artist’s Concept. NASAJPL-Caltech
  39. 39. It takes about 5 to 20 minutes for a signal to travel between Earth and Mars,depending on where the planets are in their orbits. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  40. 40. Curiosity’s schedule will vary based on what she finds. She may take pictures one day, use her laser the next,drill into a rock for a sample, or simply drive to a new place. Artist’s Concept. NASA/JPL-Caltech
  41. 41. Curiosity is expected to work for one Martian year, or about two Earth years.Don’t miss the adventure on Mars, beginning August 2012! Artist’s Concept. NASAJ/PL-Caltech
  42. 42. Follow Curiosity! Mission Website: @MarsCuriosity Be A Martian!