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Research methodology ch-1 presentation.pptx
Introduction to Research
Methodology
Jabir Hussain
Ph.D chemistry 2nd semester
MEANING OF RESEARCH
 A scientific and systematic search for
pertinent information on a specific topic.
 Research in common parlance refers to a
search for knowledge
 The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current
English lays down the meaning of research as
“a careful investigation or inquiry specially
through search for new facts in any branch of
knowledge.
 Redman and Mory define research as a
“systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”
 Research is an academic activity and as such the
term should be used in a technical sense
 According to Clifford Woody research comprises
defining and redefining problems, formulating
hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting,
organising and evaluating data; making
deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last
carefully testing the conclusions to determine
whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
We can say that
• Research is, thus, an original contribution to
the existing stock of knowledge making for its
advancement
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
 To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve
new insights into it (studies with this object in view are
termed as exploratory or formulative research studies);
 To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular
individual, situation or a group (studies with this object
in view are known as descriptive research studies);
 To determine the frequency with which something
occurs or with which it is associated with something
else (studies with this object in view are known as
diagnostic research studies);
 To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between
variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing
research studies).
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Research methodology ch-1 presentation.pptx

  • 2. Introduction to Research Methodology Jabir Hussain Ph.D chemistry 2nd semester
  • 3. MEANING OF RESEARCH  A scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.  Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge  The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.
  • 4.  Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”  Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense  According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
  • 5. We can say that • Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement
  • 6. OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH  To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies);  To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies);  To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies);  To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies).
  • 7. MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH  Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits;  Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research;  Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work;  Desire to be of service to society;  Desire to get respectability
  • 8. Descriptive vs analytical research Applied vs fundamental Quantitative vs qualitative Conceptual vs empirical TYPES OF RESEARCH
  • 9. Descriptive vs analytical Research  It Include surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds.  The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.  Insocial science and business the term Ex post facto research for descriptive research studies  It has no control over the variables
  • 10.  Ex post facto studies also include attempts by researchers to discover causes even when they cannot control the variables.  The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlational methods  In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material
  • 11. Applied vs. Fundamental • Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization • fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. • Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research • Research studies, concerning human behavior carried on with a view to make generalizations about human behaviour, are also examples of fundamental research
  • 12. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research • Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. • It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity • Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind.e.g motivation Research • This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires
  • 13. Conceptual vs. Empirical Research • Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. • It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. • Empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. • It is data-based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment
  • 14. Some Other Types of Research • Form the point of view of time, we can think of research either as one-time research or longitudinal research. • In the former case the research is confined to a single time-period, • whereas in the latter case the research is carried on over several time-periods. • Research can be field-setting research or laboratory research or simulation research, depending upon the environment in which it is to be carried out. Research can as well be understood as clinical or diagnostic research.
  • 15. Research Approaches Quantitative approach • It involves the generation of data in quantitative form which can be subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid fashion. • This approach can be further sub-classified into inferential, experimental and simulation approaches to research. Qualitative approach • It research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behavior. • Research in such a situation is a function of researcher’s insights and impressions
  • 16. Research Approaches Quantitative approach • The purpose of inferential approach to research is to form a data base from which to infer characteristics or relationships of population. This usually means survey research where a sample of population is studied • Experimental approach • Simulation approach involves the construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information and data can be generated. Qualitative approach • This approach to research generates results either in non-quantitative form or in the form which are not subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis • the techniques of focus group interviews, projective techniques and depth interviews are used.
  • 17. Significance of Research  To those students who are to write a master’s or Ph.D. thesis, research may mean a careerism or a way to attain a high position in the social structure;  To professionals in research methodology, research may mean a source of livelihood;  To philosophers and thinkers, research may mean the outlet for new ideas and insights;  To literary men and women, research may mean the development of new styles and creative work;  To analysts and intellectuals, research may mean the generalisations of new theories.
  • 18. Research Methods Research methods can be put into the following three groups: 1. In the first group we include those methods which are concerned with the collection of data. These methods will be used where the data already available are not sufficient to arrive at the required solution; 2. The second group consists of those statistical techniques which are used for establishing relationships between the data and the unknowns; 3. The third group consists of those methods which are used to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained.
  • 19. Research Methodology  Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem.  It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically.  In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them
  • 20. Research and Scientific Method The scientific method is based on certain basic postulates which can be stated as under: 1. It relies on empirical evidence; 2. It utilizes relevant concepts; 3. It is committed to only objective considerations; 4. It presupposes ethical neutrality, i.e., it aims at nothing but making only adequate and correct statements about population objects; 5. It results into probabilistic predictions; 6. Its methodology is made known to all concerned for critical scrutiny are for use in testing the conclusions through replication; 7. It aims at formulating most general axioms or what can be termed as scientific theories.
  • 22. Criteria of Good Research 1. The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used. 2. The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained. 3. The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. 4. The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects upon the findings
  • 23. 5. The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate. The validity and reliability of the data should be checked carefully. 6. Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis. 7. Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in research and is a person of integrity.