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Tema 6: los medios naturales de España


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Tema 6: los medios naturales de España

  1. 1. THE ENVIRONMENTIN SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA UNIT 2 Geography of 3º E.S.O. José Antonio Barrera Lara José Antonio Barrera Lara 1
  2. 2. 1. GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION OF SPAIN: -Take your maps- European peninsula (Southwestern side). Situated in temperate zone. Northern hemisphere. José Antonio Barrera Lara 2
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  5. 5. Coordinates:Latitude: Northern: 43º47’36”N / Southern: 36º00’08”N. Longitude: Eastern: 3º19’05” E / Western: 9º17’46” W. It means: crossed by meridian 0º (Greenwich). Limits: •Cantabric Sea and Pirineos (N) •Gibraltar Passage (S) •Mediterranean Sea (W) •Atlantic Ocean (E). José Antonio Barrera Lara 5
  6. 6. Neighbouring countries: Portugal Andorra France Morocco United Kingdom José Antonio Barrera Lara 6
  7. 7. Territory: Part of the Iberic peninsula Canary Islands Balearic Islands Ceuta Melilla Small Islands of N. África. José Antonio Barrera Lara 7
  8. 8. 2. THE RELIEF AND THE SOILS OF SPAIN: Distinguish between: - Peninsular relief: formed by the Plateau and its mountain borders. High average altitude (660 m.). - Insular relief: Canary Islands (volcanic. Teide, 3.718 m.) and Balearic Islands (prolongation of betic systems . Puig Major, 1.445 m.). José Antonio Barrera Lara 8
  9. 9. 2.1. THE PLATEAU: Peninsular center. Surrounded by mountain ranges. Highlands and lowlands. Surrounded by: Central System: divides the Plateau in 2 parts: North Subplateau and South subplateau. The mountains of: Somosierra, Gredos, Guadarrama, etc. Highest mountain: Almanzor: 2.592 m. Montes de Toledo: Highest mountain: Las Villuercas (1.601 m.). Divides the South Subplateau in two parts: • North: Tajo basin. • South: Guadiana basin. José Antonio Barrera Lara 9
  10. 10. 2.2. Plateau borders:Galaico-leonés Massif: Northeastern part of the peninsula peninsular. In the coasts: rías. Montes de León (Teleno, 2.188 m).Cantabric Mountains: isolates the Plateau from the influence of the sea. Picos de Europa(Torre Cerredo, 2.648 m).Iberic System: Group of mountains:(Albarracín, Demanda, Picos de Urbión, Serranía de Cuenca).Moncayo (2.313 m).Sierra Morena: step that separates the Plateau from the peninsular South. Bañuela, 1.323 m. José Antonio Barrera Lara 10
  11. 11. 2.3. The exterior depressions:1. Ebro depression: isolated from Mediterranean Sea by a group ofmountains.2. Guadalquivir depression: wide plateau. Triangular shape.Open to Atlantic Ocean. Fertile vegas, contrysides and wetlands. José Antonio Barrera Lara 11
  12. 12. 2.4. Exterior mountain ranges: 1. Basque Mountains: between Cantabric Mountains and Pirineos. Many valleys. Not too high. 2. Pirineos: joins the peninsula with the rest of Europe. Biggest mountain range. Central side highest. Aneto, 3.404 m.ntains: 2 parallel groups of mountains open to the Mediterranean Sea. They close Ebro Depressionheastern peninsular. They are divided in: Penibetic Mountains (parallel to the coast. Mulhacén, 3.841 José Antonio Barrera Lara 12
  13. 13. 2.5. Coasts:•Wide and varied.•North: rocky.•Highlight the rías.•At the South and Mediterranean coast: sand beaches and rocky areas. José Antonio Barrera Lara 13
  14. 14. 2.6. The soils: According to the type of rock:  Siliceous (granite and slate): peninsular west.  Limestone (karst landscape): numerous sierras of the east, south and north.  Igneous (volcanic origin): Canary Islands.  Clays: peninsular center and Ebro and Guadalquivir valleys. José Antonio Barrera Lara 14
  15. 15. 3.1 Rivers: according to its slope:1. Cantabric slope: numerous, shorts, flowing, regular scheme. Ej.: Bidasoa, Nervión, Nalón and Narcea.2. Atlantic slope: In Galicia: numerous and regulars. Eg.: Miño and Sil.The rest: numerous tributaries, long, irregular scheme, drought. Eg. Tajo, Duero,Guadiana and Guadalquivir.3. Mediterranean slope:Except the Ebro, theyre shorts and irregulars. Summer drought.Devastating floods. Eg.: Ter, Turia, Júcar, Segura. José Antonio Barrera Lara 15
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  17. 17. 3.2. Lakes and lagoons:According to its origin, we can distinguish three types: 1. Endogenous: movements of Earths soil:Tectonics (Laguna de la Janda, Cádiz)Volcanic (ancient craters). 2. Exogenous: by erosion.Glaciers (Sanabria lake, Zamora)Karsts.Arreicos (undrained) in sunken areas (Tablas Daimiel),Eolic (Ampurdán, Gerona),Littoral (Mar Menor, Albufera, Guadalquivir wetlands, Ebro Delta). 3. Mixed: different combined origins. Ej.: Banyoles Lake (Gerona), of tectonic and karst origin. José Antonio Barrera Lara 17
  18. 18. 4. WEATHER AND VEGETATION:José Antonio Barrera Lara 18
  19. 19. 4.1. WEATHER: In general: •Terperature rises to the South. •Higher temperature range in the interior. •Precipitations: great differences between North & South. José Antonio Barrera Lara 19
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  21. 21. Kinds of weather:Oceanic: mild temperatures. Heavy rains during the whole year. North and Northwestof the peninsula.Mediterranean: summer drought. It divides in coastal mediterranean weather(mild temperatures and moderate rain) and interior mediterranean weather(↓ rain. ↑temperature range)High Mountain: Mountains. Cold winters and fresh summers.Subtropical:  T.R. (Temperature Range).  rain. Tipical of Canary Islands. José Antonio Barrera Lara 21
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  23. 23. 4.2. Vegetation and naturallandscape: Of the most varied and richest in Europe. José Antonio Barrera Lara 23
  24. 24. The most important formations and landscapes(according to the weather) are:1. Oceanic: decidious forests. Ex.: oak, beech, chestnut, elm, etc. Wildlife: deer, grouse, bear, wolf.2. Mediterranean: xerophytic. Mediterranean forest: holm oak, cork, bush(rockrose, thyme, rosemary, ...). Large predators, lynx.3. Subtropical: xerophytic. Laurel forests, dense and lush. Pigeons,giant lizard of El Hierro and La Gomera.4. Of High mountain: staggered floors. Ospreys, vultures, wild goat. José Antonio Barrera Lara 24
  25. 25. Many natural spaces are protected by law:National Parks We highlight: Doñana Monfragüe Tablas de Daimiel Sierra Nevada Picos de Europa Cabrera Islands Teide José Antonio Barrera Lara 25
  26. 26. 5. NATURAL RESOURCES:Overall: Spain: poor or already overexploited natural resources. Just profitablemines. Few forests (desertification).Spain has not petrol. Need to invest in renewable and clean energy.Difficulties in communications uneven floors-Expensive infrastructures-.Scarcity of water, especially in the Levant and South.Need of consciousness in saving of water. Exhausted fisheries.Generally poor soils.Favorable climate for tourism. José Antonio Barrera Lara 26
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  29. 29. 6. The physical environment in Andalusia: The peninsular south. José Antonio Barrera Lara 29
  30. 30. 6.1. El relieve: Main units: 1. Sierra Morena: Separates Andalusia from the Plateau (400 km). Relief fractured. Difficults communication.. Ej.: Despeñaperros. 2. Depresión del Guadalquivir: three distinct areas: the valley (around the river), countryside (central and west) and marshes. 3. Sistemas béticos: It occupies 2 / 3 of the surface of Andalusia. Divided into: Subbética (interior): Mountains of Cazorla, Segura and La Sagra in North. Center: Mágina, Jabalcuz and Cabra. West: Grazalema. Penibética (coast): Sierra of Ronda, of los Filabres and Sierra Nevada. Depresión intrabética: parallel the mountain ranges Subbética and Penibética. Pits and depressions can highlight. Ej.: Baza, Guadix, Loja, Antequera. 4. Coast: extensive Mediterranean and Atlantic coast. Atlantic coast: low and sandy coast. Usual dunes. Highlights: Gulf and Bay of Cádiz and CapeTrafalgar. Mediterranean coast: dominated by rocky coastlines and cliffs. Highlights: Cape of Gata, Gulf of Almería and Bay of Algeciras. José Antonio Barrera Lara 30
  31. 31. 6.2. Continental waters: a) Rivers: according to slope: Atlantic: Highlights Guadalquivir. Irregular regime. Several tributaries (Ej.: Jándula, Genil, Corbones, Guadaira). Another rivers: In Huelva: Odiel, Tinto. In Cádiz: Guadalete and Barbate. Mediterranean: Irregular regime. They are short and with steep slopes. Dry season. Ej.: Guadiaro, Guadalhorce, Adra, Andarax, Almanzora. b) Lakes and lagoons: Highlights lagoons: La Janda (Cádiz), Fuente de Piedra (Málaga) and glacial lakes of Sierra Nevada. José Antonio Barrera Lara 31
  32. 32. 6.3. El clima: a) Highlights mediterranean climate, summer drought and softness in T °, but with varieties: ● a.1.) Mediterranean climate of coast: is divided into: ● In Málaga and Granada coasts it is subtropical. ● In southeastern Almeria is semi-desert. ● On the Atlantic coast, milder temperatures and more rain. ● a.2) Mediterranean climate of interior: Greater thermal amplitude than in the coast. b) In Sierra Nevada and Sierra de la Sagra: high mountain climate: cold and long winters with frequent snowfall. José Antonio Barrera Lara 32
  33. 33. 6.4. Vegetation: Differences between interior and coast: 1. Interior: highlights: Mediterranean forest: oaks, cork oaks and scrub (mastic, thyme and rosemary, garrigue -and esparto grass, palm, rock-). 2. Coast: sand dunes. Stone pines. 3. In marshes and estuaries, rush and junk. José Antonio Barrera Lara 33