COMPUTER PROJECT R.NO. :- 23 Topic :- Volcanoes Jay Vyas
Volcanoes <ul><li>A  volcano  is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ...
Types of Volcanoes <ul><li>During a volcanic eruption, lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and blocks), and various...
What is Lava ? <ul><li>Lava  refers both to molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption and the resulting rock af...
What is Magma ? <ul><li>Magma  is a mixture of molten rock, volatiles and solid that is found beneath the surface of the E...
Why Does a Volcano erupt? <ul><li>A volcano erupts when pressure on the magma chamber causes the magma to rise and come ou...
Some Pictures on Volcanoes
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Volcanoes

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Volcanoes

  1. 1. COMPUTER PROJECT R.NO. :- 23 Topic :- Volcanoes Jay Vyas
  2. 2. Volcanoes <ul><li>A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust in the interiors of plates, e.g., in the East African Rift, the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of &quot;Plate hypothesis&quot; volcanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Intraplate volcanism has also been postulated to be caused by mantle plumes. These so-called &quot;hotspots&quot;, for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs from the core-mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Volcanoes <ul><li>During a volcanic eruption, lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and blocks), and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. Several types of volcanic eruptions have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three different metatypes of eruptions. The most well-observed are magmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward. Phreatomagmatic eruptions are another type of volcanic eruption, driven by the compression of gas within magma, the direct opposite of the process powering magmatic activity. The last eruptive metatype is the Phreatic eruption, which is driven by the superheating of steam via contact with magma; these eruptive types often exhibit no magmatic release, instead causing the granulation of existing rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Within these wide-defining eruptive types are several subtypes. The weakest are Hawaiian and submarine, then Strombolian, followed by Vulcanian and Surtseyan. The stronger eruptive types are Pelean eruptions, followed by Plinian eruptions; the strongest eruptions are called &quot;Ultra Plinian.&quot; Subglacial and Phreatic eruptions are defined by their eruptive mechanism, and vary in strength. An important measure of erruptive strength is Volcanic Explosivity Index ( VEI ), a magnitudic scale ranging from 0 to 8 that often correlates to eruptive types. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Lava ? <ul><li>Lava refers both to molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption and the resulting rock after solidification and cooling. This molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, and some of their satellites. When first erupted from a volcanic vent, lava is a liquid at temperatures from 700 °C to 1,200 °C (1,300 °F to 2,200 °F). Up to 100,000 times as viscous as water, lava can flow great distances before cooling and solidifying because of its thixotropic and shear thinning properties. </li></ul><ul><li>A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava, which is created during a non-explosive effusive eruption. When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is commonly shortened to lava . Explosive eruptions produce a mixture of volcanic ash and other fragments called tephra, rather than lava flows. The word &quot;lava&quot; comes from Italian, and is probably derived from the Latin word labes which means a fall or slide. The first use in connection with extruded magma (molten rock below the Earth's surface) was apparently in a short account written by Francesco Serao on the eruption of Vesuvius between May 14 and June 4, 1737. Serao described &quot;a flow of fiery lava&quot; as an analogy to the flow of water and mud down the flanks of the volcano following heavy rain. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Magma ? <ul><li>Magma is a mixture of molten rock, volatiles and solid that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and may also exist on other terrestrial planets. Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended crystals and dissolved gas and sometimes also gas bubbles. Magma often collects in magma chambers that may feed a volcano or turn into a pluton. Magma is capable of intrusion into adjacent rocks, extrusion onto the surface as lava, and explosive ejection as tephra to form pyroclastic rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Magma is a complex high-temperature fluid substance. Temperatures of most magmas are in the range 700 °C to 1300 °C (or 1300 °F to 2400 °F), but very rare carbonatite melts may be as cool as 600 °C, and komatiite melts may have been as hot as 1600 °C. Most are silicate mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>Environments of magma formation and compositions are commonly correlated. Environments include subduction zones, continental rift zones,mid-ocean ridges and hot spots. Despite being found in such widespread locales, the bulk of the Earth's crust and mantle is not molten. Rather, most of the Earth takes the form of a rheid, a form of solid that can move or deform under pressure. Magma, as liquid, preferentially forms in high temperature, low pressure environments within several kilometers of the Earth's surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Magma compositions may evolve after formation by fractional crystallization, contamination, and magma mixing. By definition rock formed of solidified magma is called igneous rock. </li></ul><ul><li>While the study of magma has historically relied on observing magma in the form of lava outflows, magma has been encountered in situ three times during drilling projects—twice in Iceland, and once in Hawaii. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why Does a Volcano erupt? <ul><li>A volcano erupts when pressure on the magma chamber causes the magma to rise and come out together with gas, rocks and ashes. Sometimes they are caused by earthquakes. volcanoes have been erupting for millions of years so no. no. You see or hear on some shows,“Oh, this volcano hasn’t erupted since 1907.&quot;But then it erupts. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Some Pictures on Volcanoes
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