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Department of Mechanical Engineering – M. Tech (CAD/CAM) 2014-15
Submitted by:
Jyotiraman De
Roll no.-5
The ability of a metal
to plastically deform
depends on the ability
of dislocations to
move.
Strengthening
techniques rely on
restricting dislocation
motion to render a
material harder and
stronger.
To obtain material
strength
Sometimes ductility or
toughness are sacrificed.
GRAIN BOUNDARY STRENGTHENIING
Grain boundaries:
Grain boundary separates two grains having different
crystallographic orientations
Schematic atomic
model of a grain
boundary
Dislocation model
of grain boundary
High and low angle grain boundaries
High - angle grain boundary -> high surface energy
Low - angle grain boundary -> low surface energy
High energy grain boundary serves as preferential sites for solid
state reactions;
1) Diffusion
2) Phase transformation
3) Precipitation
Schematic diagram showing low- and high-angle grain boundaries
Low angle grain boundaries
•Along the boundary the atoms adjust their position by
localised deformation to produce a smooth transition
from one grain to the other.
•Where the atom planes end on the grain boundaries, it
is therefore considered to have an array of dislocations
•The angular difference in orientation between the grain
is θ.
Diagram of low-angle grain boundary
Subgrain boundaries
•Subgrain boundaries are low-angle boundaries, with
lower-energy boundaries than the grain boundaries.
therefore etch less readily than grain boundaries
•If the angle θ is small the distance between dislocation is
large. It is often possible to observe pits (corresponding to
sites for edge dislocations) along the boundaries, see fig.
Subgrain boundary
network in Fe-3% alloy
Etch-pit structures along
low-angle grain
boundaries in Fe-Si alloy
Grain boundary sliding:
At T > 0.5Tm, deformation can occur by sliding along the
grain boundaries
Equicohesive temperature:
Above the equicohesive temperature, the grain
boundary region is weaker than the grain
interior
Strength increases with increasing grain size
Temperature
Strain rate
Tendency for grain boundary sliding (as in creep)

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Mechanical Engineering M. Tech Thesis on Grain Boundary Strengthening

  • 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering – M. Tech (CAD/CAM) 2014-15 Submitted by: Jyotiraman De Roll no.-5 The ability of a metal to plastically deform depends on the ability of dislocations to move. Strengthening techniques rely on restricting dislocation motion to render a material harder and stronger. To obtain material strength Sometimes ductility or toughness are sacrificed. GRAIN BOUNDARY STRENGTHENIING Grain boundaries: Grain boundary separates two grains having different crystallographic orientations Schematic atomic model of a grain boundary Dislocation model of grain boundary High and low angle grain boundaries High - angle grain boundary -> high surface energy Low - angle grain boundary -> low surface energy High energy grain boundary serves as preferential sites for solid state reactions; 1) Diffusion 2) Phase transformation 3) Precipitation Schematic diagram showing low- and high-angle grain boundaries Low angle grain boundaries •Along the boundary the atoms adjust their position by localised deformation to produce a smooth transition from one grain to the other. •Where the atom planes end on the grain boundaries, it is therefore considered to have an array of dislocations •The angular difference in orientation between the grain is θ. Diagram of low-angle grain boundary Subgrain boundaries •Subgrain boundaries are low-angle boundaries, with lower-energy boundaries than the grain boundaries. therefore etch less readily than grain boundaries •If the angle θ is small the distance between dislocation is large. It is often possible to observe pits (corresponding to sites for edge dislocations) along the boundaries, see fig. Subgrain boundary network in Fe-3% alloy Etch-pit structures along low-angle grain boundaries in Fe-Si alloy Grain boundary sliding: At T > 0.5Tm, deformation can occur by sliding along the grain boundaries Equicohesive temperature: Above the equicohesive temperature, the grain boundary region is weaker than the grain interior Strength increases with increasing grain size Temperature Strain rate Tendency for grain boundary sliding (as in creep)