The Library As Dynamic Learning Centre<br />James W. Marcum, Ph.D.<br />Fairleigh Dickinson University<br />marcum@fdu.edu...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Brown bag <br />lunch <br />session<br />
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />OUTLINE<br />Academic library is besieged<br />A dead-end debate<br />A new place for libra...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />CHALLENGES:What Kind of Future?<br />Do Libraries<br />really need <br />books?<br />Intern...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Tools for: Information access (Google); multi-              media capabilities; e-mail; lea...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />The Digital Library<br />A substantial collection of information  resources that are digiti...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />The Library as PlaceSymposium (Nov. 5, 2003)<br />“Be it resolved: within ten years academi...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />ALTERNATIVE MODELS<br />CURRENTLY IN PLAY	         <br />INSTRUCTIONALTECHNOLOGY-WEB<br />E...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />“Either or” vs. “Both and”<br />The PRINT VS. DIGITAL dichotomy and debate raises real poss...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Let’s Reframe The Argument<br />In deeper purpose  the basic values of preservation of and ...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />The Current Transformation<br />The transformation of the education enterprise from a relia...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Getting Beyond Instruction<br />Authority figure<br />Passive learning<br />Faculty-focused...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Information Processing and TRANSFER Paradigm: Assumptions<br />COGNITION: Mind works like a...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Anomalies in the IP Paradigm(select)<br />Information  Knowledge<br />Inappropriate identi...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Knowledge & intelligence yes; But Learning? <br />Accumulated information (knowledge and IQ...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />That    Black box!<br />Recipe<br />Pour in information … (3 X per week @ 50 min.)<br />and...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Looking into Learning<br />Participative<br />Constructive<br />Student-oriented<br />Socia...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Student Characteristics:A Different Generation<br />Technologically savvy<br />Diverse; dif...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />LEARNING ...<br />Not an (assumed) byproduct of instruction and information processing and ...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Learning: definition	<br />Learning is engagement that changes perception, belief, or behav...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Components of Learning<br />CONTENTPROCESSKnowledge   		                    	Lecture       ...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Broader View of Learning<br />CONTENTTRAITSPROCESSESKnowledge     Self concept 		  Lecture ...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />A Learning Ecology<br />Process<br />Traits<br />Content<br />Context<br />
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Dynamic Learning<br />Engaged and reflective participation in a life-discovery process that...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />“Education” cannot do it…<br />Education is locked into the information-transfer paradigm<b...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Can the Library do it?<br />Resource - based learning<br />Beyond information centres to ce...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />RECONFIGURING THE LIBRARY: From<br />Information / Resource Center<br />Information: collec...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />RECONFIGURING THE LIBRARY: To<br />Learner-focused<br />Multi-media collections<br />Techno...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Not the whole banana….<br />K-12<br />K-20<br />But “intervene” at that point of moving bey...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />A Lesson from Business Training<br />FINDING: Formal learning methods have a negative or in...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />HighestRoK<br />“The Line”<br />Return on “Learning”Investment<br />Formal Learning Methods...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Why Negative Relationship?<br />Less competent workers / learners benefit most from formal ...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Library as Learning Environment?   The Challenge<br />NOT a teaching environment<br />Can w...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Parameter I: Information, Knowledge, and Learning are Social … and Contextual<br />Useful i...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Parameter II: Bridging the School-“Real World” Divide<br />It is a challenging workplace in...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Parameter III: A Visual Ecology / Telematic Embrace<br />We live in a visual ecology, a com...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Parameter IV:Discovery Learning<br />To break free of known facts (dogma) requires:<br />Al...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Social + Situated + Visual + Discovery =Cyber-Competence (?)<br />The technology-based inte...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br /> CURRENT LEARNING MODELS   Instructional		        Technological<br />Educational system; le...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />DYNAMIC-DISCOVERY (LIBRARY) MODEL<br />STRENGTH		Resources; methods; organized;<br />			inf...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Building Learning Systems:Step 1: Learning Profiles<br />Not content-focused, but learner /...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Illustration:Biography and Learning<br />(In)Formal, individualized learning<br />Alheit (2...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Step 2: Accommodate  Learning Styles<br />Individual differences<br />Ackerman, Learning an...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Illustration: Select Learning Strategies<br />GOALPEDAGOGY<br />Develop a skill:           ...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Steps 3-5: Develop Learning Systems<br />Utilize technology<br />Access and utilize resourc...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Step 6: Assess and Track<br />To what extent …<br />What type …<br />When did …<br />How ef...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Let’s talk about it . . .<br />Jim Marcum<br />marcum@fdu.edu<br />http://library.fdu.edu/O...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Making Learning Visible<br />Quandary: accountability vs. the invisibility of accomplished ...
OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Another Model: New Roles for Libraries<br />Library as Publisher<br />Popular journalism / ...
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Dynamic Learning Library

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Proposal that the library can play an enhanced role in learner-centered education.

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Dynamic Learning Library

  1. 1. The Library As Dynamic Learning Centre<br />James W. Marcum, Ph.D.<br />Fairleigh Dickinson University<br />marcum@fdu.edu<br />marcumjw9@aol.com<br />OLA Super Conference OCULA Spotlight<br />Toronto 3 February 2005<br />http://library.fdu.edu/OCULA05.ppt<br />
  2. 2. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />
  3. 3. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />
  4. 4. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Brown bag <br />lunch <br />session<br />
  5. 5. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />OUTLINE<br />Academic library is besieged<br />A dead-end debate<br />A new place for libraries?<br />A strategy for the future<br />
  6. 6. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />CHALLENGES:What Kind of Future?<br />Do Libraries<br />really need <br />books?<br />Internet<br />Fiscal<br />Crisis<br />Everything's<br />On the Web!<br />
  7. 7. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Tools for: Information access (Google); multi- media capabilities; e-mail; learning; simulations; online collaboration; weblogs; collaboration<br />Linking self-directed learning: the students are way ahead of the educators<br />Candy, Linking Learning (DEST 2004)<br />Connectivism (learning theory)<br />George Siemens: <http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Jan_05/article01.htm><br />The Technological<br />Alternative<br />
  8. 8. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />The Digital Library<br />A substantial collection of information resources that are digitized, organized, and made accessible through computer-online technologies<br />Much more powerful than traditional libraries (search engines over indexes); Can be <br />searched for a phrase<br />accessed globally<br />copied without error.<br />(Academic) libraries will evolve into all-digital collections accessible from anywhere<br />University Business (Jan 2005): 46.<br />
  9. 9. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />The Library as PlaceSymposium (Nov. 5, 2003)<br />“Be it resolved: within ten years academic … libraries will have outlived their need for physical space”<br />
  10. 10. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />ALTERNATIVE MODELS<br />CURRENTLY IN PLAY <br />INSTRUCTIONALTECHNOLOGY-WEB<br />Educational system; Fashionable, open, self <br /> legacy generating <br />STRENGTH<br />CONTROL Curriculum & politics Commercial-entrepreneurial <br /> Disciplines, tradition Expense; access; technical <br /> expertise; unstable<br />LIMITATION<br />PROBLEM Link to learning is Vendor-centered; fragmented; <br /> assumed lack of standards <br />THEORY Representational, Constructivist; connectivist <br /> information transfer<br />LIBRARY Support (reference Digital Library <br /> ROLES and instruction) (increasingly virtual) <br />FORMAT Print - media Digital (some print) <br />PLACE? Place Space <br />
  11. 11. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />“Either or” vs. “Both and”<br />The PRINT VS. DIGITAL dichotomy and debate raises real possibilities of library marginalization.<br />Is there an alternative?<br />Let’s look at fundamental purposes in quest of an alternative role for libraries that we can promote intellectually, realistically, and “politically”<br />
  12. 12. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Let’s Reframe The Argument<br />In deeper purpose the basic values of preservation of and access to information is to enable learning and research<br />We traditionally have pursued that purpose by supporting the curriculum, the teaching of the faculty and student learning.<br />
  13. 13. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />The Current Transformation<br />The transformation of the education enterprise from a reliance on teaching to a focus on learningopens a window of opportunity for academic libraries<br />
  14. 14. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Getting Beyond Instruction<br />Authority figure<br />Passive learning<br />Faculty-focused<br />Discipline-determined <br />Context-free<br />Grades as purpose<br />
  15. 15. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Information Processing and TRANSFER Paradigm: Assumptions<br />COGNITION: Mind works like a computer<br />COMMUNICATIONas signal<br />INSTRUCTION as method<br />CONTENT TRANSFER as purpose<br />INFORMATION ACCUMULATIONas goal; more is better (i.e. more intelligence)<br />
  16. 16. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Anomalies in the IP Paradigm(select)<br />Information Knowledge<br />Inappropriate identification of mental and computer logic (consider the role of emotion in human logic) <br />Information today is dynamic, co-created; not linear; a process (not a ‘thing”)<br /> - Marcum, “Rethinking Information Literacy” (2002)<br />
  17. 17. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Knowledge & intelligence yes; But Learning? <br />Accumulated information (knowledge and IQ) matters, but how the individual uses their abilities is even more important, and we don’t know very much about that.<br />We know little about changes in knowledge, interest and strategic ability that students should manifest …<br />From Ackerman, Learning and Individual Differences (APA, 1999).<br />
  18. 18. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />That Black box!<br />Recipe<br />Pour in information … (3 X per week @ 50 min.)<br />and more information (read a textbook)<br />Let marinate, bake<br />Taste / test: is it done?<br /> (lasts a lifetime and appropriate for any occasion)<br />Magic<br />Knowledge<br />
  19. 19. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Looking into Learning<br />Participative<br />Constructive<br />Student-oriented<br />Socially constructed<br />Contextual<br />Professors as facilitators<br />
  20. 20. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Student Characteristics:A Different Generation<br />Technologically savvy<br />Diverse; different learning styles<br />Visually engaged<br />Comfortable with multitasking<br />Learn by doing<br />Consider technology indispensable<br />Find many courses “irrelevant” and out of date<br />Tapscott, Growing Up Digital (1998).<br />
  21. 21. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />LEARNING ...<br />Not an (assumed) byproduct of instruction and information processing and transfer ... but the heart and purpose of the enterprise<br />
  22. 22. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Learning: definition <br />Learning is engagement that changes perception, belief, or behavior<br />
  23. 23. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Components of Learning<br />CONTENTPROCESSKnowledge Lecture - breadth Reading - depth Writing Data Discussion Disciplines Activity <br />Traditional focus: 1st Content. 2nd: Process.<br />
  24. 24. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Broader View of Learning<br />CONTENTTRAITSPROCESSESKnowledge Self concept Lecture - breadth Interests Reading - depth Personality Writing Data Learning StyleDiscussion Disciplines Emotions Activity<br />Abilities<br />P. Ackerman, “Traits and Knowledge,” in Learning and Individual Differences (APA, 1999)<br />R. Sternberg, Triarchic Mind (Viking 1988)<br />
  25. 25. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />A Learning Ecology<br />Process<br />Traits<br />Content<br />Context<br />
  26. 26. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Dynamic Learning<br />Engaged and reflective participation in a life-discovery process that builds new knowledge and enhances (changes) the skills and competence appropriate to the given personal, social, and technical context of importance to the learner.<br /> - Marcum, After the Information Age.<br />
  27. 27. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />“Education” cannot do it…<br />Education is locked into the information-transfer paradigm<br />“Cover the content”<br />Disciplinary / epistemic cultures<br />Taught the way it was “learned”<br />And it is politicized and centralized<br />Requiring accountable “efficiency”<br />Needing experimentation and adaptation<br />
  28. 28. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Can the Library do it?<br />Resource - based learning<br />Beyond information centres to centres of learning<br />Beyond information literacy to multiple literacies to competence<br />Accelerate learning<br />With collaborative/dynamic learning environments<br />Creating spaces for discovery and knowledge creation<br />Decentralized and more “contextualizable”<br />
  29. 29. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />RECONFIGURING THE LIBRARY: From<br />Information / Resource Center<br />Information: collection, access, and preservation (“just in case”)<br />Support for instruction<br />Faculty-focused<br />Technology for information access “just in time”<br />
  30. 30. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />RECONFIGURING THE LIBRARY: To<br />Learner-focused<br />Multi-media collections<br />Technologies of access & collaboration<br />Competence building<br />Research & discovery<br />Information Center<br />Information: collection, access, and preservation (“just in case”)<br />Support for Instruction<br />Faculty-focused<br />Technology for Access<br />
  31. 31. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Not the whole banana….<br />K-12<br />K-20<br />But “intervene” at that point of moving beyond information transfer to competence building<br />
  32. 32. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />A Lesson from Business Training<br />FINDING: Formal learning methods have a negative or inverse relationship to competence<br />Ted Cocheu, Altus Learning Systems, 11/17/04 “Optimizing Formal and Informal Learning Methods to Achieve Highest ROI”<br />
  33. 33. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />HighestRoK<br />“The Line”<br />Return on “Learning”Investment<br />Formal Learning Methods<br />InformalLearning Methods<br />High<br />Point of DiminishingReturns on Formal<br />Point of IncreasingReturns on Informal <br />Value to Learners andReturn on Knowledge<br />Learning Maturity<br />Competence<br />Low<br />High<br />
  34. 34. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Why Negative Relationship?<br />Less competent workers / learners benefit most from formal or structured learning methods<br />They lack basic skills and cognitive background needed to assimilate new knowledge. Learning goal: baseline understanding.<br />More competent workers / learners benefit most from informal learning methods <br />They have the foundation skills and cognitive framework needed to assimilate new knowledge. Learning goal: update and build on their expertise as things change.<br />
  35. 35. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />
  36. 36. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Library as Learning Environment? The Challenge<br />NOT a teaching environment<br />Can we create an environment where the learner, when they choose to engage, can <br />understand their own learning styles, <br />know their competencies, and <br />experiment with various <br />methods<br />technologies, and<br />strategies of learning<br />in order to better engage their learning abilities?<br />
  37. 37. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Parameter I: Information, Knowledge, and Learning are Social … and Contextual<br />Useful information today is as muchsocial(co-created; set in rich networks) as it is tangible, a commodity… consequently, the requisite skill iscollaborationwithin asocial context<br />Brown & Duguid, Social Life of Information<br />Informal learning is more prominent and common than generally acknowledged <br />Diversity enhances creative problem solving<br />Learningcommunitiesare ideal environment<br />Lave and Wenger, Situated Learning (1991)<br />
  38. 38. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Parameter II: Bridging the School-“Real World” Divide<br />It is a challenging workplace in which our university graduates must somehow manage with heightened accountability, weakened authority, and more teamwork to get the job done. - Evers, Bases of Competence, xi<br />Information Literacy / Workplace competence<br />Both personal and social skills<br />Technological, functional in specific work<br />Social engagement, context<br />Experience in practice (not just theory)<br />Hull, Changing Work, Changing Workers (SUNY, 1997)<br />
  39. 39. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Parameter III: A Visual Ecology / Telematic Embrace<br />We live in a visual ecology, a comprehensive and continuous participatory event, a universe of action, and a world of knowledge and learning rather than information transfer<br />- Marcum, “Beyond Visual Culture” portal (2002)<br />An interactive network of individuals and institutions linking minds and knowledge into interactive systems of intelligence, perceptions, and authentic behavioral contexts and encounters<br />- Ascott, Telematic Embrace (U. Cal., 2003)<br />
  40. 40. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Parameter IV:Discovery Learning<br />To break free of known facts (dogma) requires:<br />Allowing for initiative and self-direction<br />Encouraging work in teams<br />Questioning authority<br />Using constructivist, problem-solving pedagogies<br />Considering alternative examples, scenarios<br />Marcum, “From Information Center to Discovery System”<br />
  41. 41. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Social + Situated + Visual + Discovery =Cyber-Competence (?)<br />The technology-based interactive skills and practices required to find and utilize information in multiple formats and varied contexts to <br />solve problems<br />foster knowledge discovery and creation, <br />encourage knowledge sharing, and <br />enhance organizational effectiveness <br />for a competitive global and networked environment.<br /> - Marcum, After the Information Age: A Dynamic Learning Manifesto<br />
  42. 42. OLA Super Conference 2005<br /> CURRENT LEARNING MODELS Instructional Technological<br />Educational system; legacy<br />Curriculum & politics<br />Disciplines, tradition<br />Assume link/learning<br />Representational, information transfer<br />Information, support, place<br />Fashionable, open, self generating <br />Commercial-entrepren’l<br />Cost (support); access<br />Vendor-centered <br />Constructivist, participatory <br />Digital, increasingly virtual space <br />
  43. 43. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />DYNAMIC-DISCOVERY (LIBRARY) MODEL<br />STRENGTH Resources; methods; organized;<br /> information literacy-competency<br />CONTROLParent institution<br />LIMITATIONSupport / preservation mindset<br />PROBLEM Requires partnerships with learning designers & evaluators<br />L’RNING THEORY Constructivist / Inquiry / Connectivist<br />LIBRARYROLE Providing learning environments<br />PLACE? Both place and space<br />
  44. 44. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Building Learning Systems:Step 1: Learning Profiles<br />Not content-focused, but learner / context focus<br />Biography / life history<br />Competencies<br />Language, math, information literacy, etc.<br />Ability profiles (multi-dimensional scaling) - Davis et al.*<br />Personality & skills; traits & adaptability – Mathews*<br />Learner profiles in social context - Alexander*<br />*In Ackerman et al. Learning and Individual Differences. <br />All are temporal, develop over time.<br />
  45. 45. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Illustration:Biography and Learning<br />(In)Formal, individualized learning<br />Alheit (2002) The ‘Double Face’ of Lifelong Learning.<br />Engaging, constructivist self-identity development<br />Antikainen, (1996) Living in a Learning Society.<br />Differentiated, diverse, in a social context<br />Voltz (2003) Personalized Contextual Instruction.<br />Leads to self-understanding, self-confidence<br />Dultz (1999) Designing a Learning Curriculum <br />
  46. 46. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Step 2: Accommodate Learning Styles<br />Individual differences<br />Ackerman, Learning and Individual Differences (1999)<br />Multiple intelligences <br />Gardner, Frames of Mind (Basic, 1983)<br />Thinking styles, triarchic mind<br />Sternberg, Thinking Styles (1998)<br />“One mind at a time”<br />Levine, A Mind at a Time (2002)<br />
  47. 47. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Illustration: Select Learning Strategies<br />GOALPEDAGOGY<br />Develop a skill: Behavioral<br />Cognition: Presentations, explanations<br />Inquiry: Critique, create, dialogue<br />Mental models: Case studies; problems<br />Effective teamwork Group dynamics<br />Virtual reality: Scenarios,simulations<br />Holistic: Mentoring;experiential<br />Davis & Davis, Effective Training Strategies (1999)<br />
  48. 48. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Steps 3-5: Develop Learning Systems<br />Utilize technology<br />Access and utilize resources (books, instructors, practitioners)<br />Promote collaboration, groups<br />apprentice, situated, peripheral participation <br />Lave & Wenger, Situated Learning (Cambridge, 1991)<br />
  49. 49. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Step 6: Assess and Track<br />To what extent …<br />What type …<br />When did …<br />How effective was …<br />… the in <br />perception<br />belief<br />behavior?<br />Change<br />Change<br />
  50. 50. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Let’s talk about it . . .<br />Jim Marcum<br />marcum@fdu.edu<br />http://library.fdu.edu/OCULA05.ppt<br />
  51. 51. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />
  52. 52. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Making Learning Visible<br />Quandary: accountability vs. the invisibility of accomplished teaching<br />Collaborative projects<br />Carnegie Knowledge Media Lab<br />Visible Knowledge Project (Georgetown U)<br />To bridge disciplinary / pedagogical / technological practices<br />Hatch, et al. Building Knowledge for Teaching and Learning,” Change (Sept 04).<br />
  53. 53. OLA Super Conference 2005<br />Another Model: New Roles for Libraries<br />Library as Publisher<br />Popular journalism / “take back the news”<br />http://www.mcluhan.utoronto.ca/blogger/blogger.html<br />Jay Rosen’s PressThink<br />http://journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone/weblogs/pressthink/<br />On Demand academic publishing<br />Bennett, S. JIT Academic Monographs. JEP 1. Available: http://www.press.umich.edu/jep/04-01/bennett.html<br />

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