AN OVERVIEW OF BANANA
BANANA is the 4th largest crop of the world.
Banana is staple food for more than 70 million people in sub sharan africa.
Banana is extensively grown in the lower part of Sindh(pakistan).
The total share of Sindh province alone in its cultivation in the area is 87
per cent and 89 per cent in production.
The area under banana cultivation at the time of independence was only
117 hectares and the production reported was 368 M tons.
According to “Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2011”,out of 34,8000 hectares
32,2000 hectares were grown in sindh province.
Sindh produced 127.4000 tones of banana.
The average yield per hectare was 3957 kg in sindh .
Average cost of production in sindh is RS 80,000 to RS 150,000.
AMAZING BOTANICAL FACT ABOUT
Bananas do not grow on trees.
The banana plant is classified as an arbores cent (tree-like) herb .
The banana itself is actually considered a BERRY.
The correct name for bunch of bananas is a HAND of bananas; a single
banana is a FINGER.
AGRONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF
TEMPERATURE: 27ºC FOR OPTIMAL GROWTH.
HUMIDITY:60% IS PERFABLE.
PH:LESS THEN 8 ,BETWEEN 5-7.
FERTILIZER: THE DEMAND OF NITROGEN AND POTASH IS
HIGH IN BANANA.
IRRIGATION: AFTER 3 DAYS UNDER HIGH EVAPORATION
CONDITIONS, 15 DAYS UNDER LOW EVAPORATION CONDITIONS.
THREE KEY TIPS FOR HARVESTING:
Harvest the fruit during the cool part of the day when possible.
Shade the fruit during transport to the packing shed.
Avoid delays in transporting the fruit to the packing shed.
TOOLS UTILIZED IN HARVESTING
The curved blade knife is used to cut the bunch when the fruit is not so high
in the tree.
Otherwise it is necessary to use a long pole ended with a similar knife.
HARVESTING IS NOT THE END
OF CARING FOR THE BANANAS:
Carefully place individual green hands in plastic bags along with
another ripening fruit, such as a red apple. The ripening fruit emits
ethylene gas that the green banana uses to ripen.
Place the bag in a dark area, such as a cabinet. Do not place in a
The banana in the plastic bag should be removed in 24 to 48 hours
and be allowed to finish ripening on its own.
POST HARVEST LOSSES :
According to an estimation 10 to 40% of total produce is lost after
REASONS OF POST HARVEST LOSSES:
Unskilled and Un educated labor
Wrong use of technology (wrong operation of machinery)
Wrong or delayed harvesting
Early or delayed marketing
Poor storage conditions
CONTROL STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE
POST HARVEST LOSSES IN BANANA:
Post harvest losses in banana can be minimize by following these strategies:
Prompt cooling to 14 C (58 F)
Proper sanitation of handling facilities
Hot water treatments [such as 5 minutes in 50 C (120 F) water]
By providing Fungicide (such as Imazalil) treatment to control crown rot
VALUE ADDITION OF BANANA:
WHAT IS VALUE ADDED??
Value added describes what happens when you take a basic product and
increase the value of that product (and usually also the price) by adding
extras in the manufacturing process, or by taking extra products and/or
An activity is considered value added when some customer is willing to pay
more for the additional output.
For better income.
For improved processing utilization
To keep in-phase with customer need
To provide variety of products
To increase shelf life of fresh fruit and vegetable
MAJOR DISTRICTS OF BANANA
CULTIVATION IN SINDH ARE:
Major districts in Sindh where banana is grown are
khair pur and sukkhar.
CAVENDISH DWARF (BARSAI) 98% (CONVENTIONAL VARIETY)
TISSUE CULTURED VARIETIES
GRAND NINE BANANA
Work is being done on three Chinese cultivar in PARC, islamabad
WHY CONVENTIONAL VARIETY IS
Free of cost.(Suckers)
Initial extra care is required in tissue culture varieties.
Increased cost of production in case of TC variety.
Chances of damages, during transportation. (TC variety)
Banana being perishable fruit needs careful handling, quick transport, sound
packing and completions of operations on time.
There are several factors which influence the efficiency of fruit marketing ,it
includes rotting of products, seasonal viability ,quality , price and location.
Banana producers avoid marketing because of perishable nature and
Lack of modern technology and machinery.
Only few big farmers are using new technology.
Farmers feels hesitation for the use of new machines.
Sad but true there is no research institute in sindh to solve the problem of
Availability of cheap labor.
Interest of farmers and landowners in this sector.
Availability of local and international markets.
Lack of awareness
Character of middlemen and contractor.
Lack of information about new technologies.
Increasing demand locally and international markets.
Introduction of new technologies
New research and development in this sector.
New research and techniques to control disease.
Post harvest handling.
Plantation of unhealthy plants.