AMERICANSIn Criminal Justice System1,404, 053 State Prisons 208,118 U.S. BOP5,000,000 Probation/Parole Total 6,612,171
How to make a sociopath aka criminal in 2 easy steps
Step one Step TwoHERIDITY ENVIRONMENT neglectneurochemicals poverty family traits structure parenting personality practicescharacteristics education abuse Peer Groups aggressive/violent/criminal role models
Neurochemicals . Neurochemicals are responsible for the activation of behavioral patterns and tendencies in specific areas of the brainMonoamine oxidase (MAO) Dopamine disinhibition pleasure impulsivity aggression aggression ADHD antisocial behavior impulsivity, ADHD aggressive behavior violent offendersSerotonin depression Epinephrine anxiety Norepinephrine bipolar disorder impulsive aggression impulsive behavior emotional aggression
Traits and Personality Disorders .Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) hyperactivity and inattention are the most highly related predisposing factors antisocial behavior inability to analyze and anticipate consequences learn from their past behaviorConduct Disorder (CD) violation of societal rules and norms demonstrated disregard for the rights of others Diagnosed over the age of 18Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD) argumentativeness, noncompliance, and irritability the first disorder that is identified in children if sustained can lead to the diagnosis of CD
Sociopaths and Antisocial Behavior Primary Sociopathlacks moral developmentdoes not feel socially responsible for their actionsdependent on their genetic makeup and personalityproduct of the individuals personality physiotype genotype Secondary Sociopathdevelops in response to environmentUnsuccessful in reaching their needs in a socially desireable wayGreater dependence on environmental factorsan individuals antisocial or criminal behavior can be the result of both their genetic background and the environment in which they were raised
between seventy and ninety percent of violent offenders have been highly aggressive as young children
RECIDIVISM2008 — 133,947 individuals — returned to prison as a result of violating their terms of supervision9% of adults exiting parole returned to prison as a result of a new convictionCost Per Day For Prison Incarceration $55 to $75.00
RECIDIVISM BASED ON 2 FACTORSStatic Factors Can’t Be Changed: Will not respond to any type of interventionCriminogenic FactorsCan Be Changed through the correct intervention With proper assessment of these factors, researchers and practitioners have demonstrated that it is possible to classify offenders according to their relative likelihood of committing new offenses with as much as 80 percent accuracy
STATIC FACTORS In predicting recidivism, we knowthat there are a number of "static" factors that are predictive ProgrammingCannot Change These Static Factors
Predictive Static Factors Adolescent Criminal History
Predictive Criminogenic Factors Criminogenic Needs are factors in an offender’s life that are directly related to recidivism.Anti-social personalityAnti-social attitudes and valuesAnti-social associatesFamily dysfunctionPoor self-control, poor problem-solving skillsSubstance abuseLack of employment/employment skills
Criminal PeersAssociating with other criminals increases the likelihood of an offender recidivating. Ifan offender is immersed in a group of peers who continue to commit unlawful acts, itwill be more likely that this offender will commit more crimes. Offenders are moresusceptible to peer pressure just like everyone else and if their peers are committingcrimes, they will feel it is necessary to break the law in order to fit in.Substance AbuseResearch has shown that there is a relationship between substance abuse and criminalbehavior. Continued substance abuse is an illegal act itself for offenders on supervision.There are other issues related to substance abuse, i.e. the need for money that can leadoffenders to committing a crime to get money for drugs.Dysfunctional FamilyIf an offender comes from a dysfunctional family, the offender is more likely to be in asetting where they can learn criminal or substance abuse behaviors. In these situations,offenders may not have ever had a positive role model within the home to help teachmorals and values. These offenders are at a disadvantage because from an early age,they are taught that certain values and norms are acceptable.
Low Self-ControlThe inability to control one’s own behavior has been directly linked to crime. Offendersare more likely to commit illegal acts when they do not have the ability to control theirimpulses. For example, an offender who has low self control is more likely to usenarcotics than an offender who has a higher level of self-control. Self-control helpsdictate the way offenders behave themselves.Anti-Social PersonalityCertain personality traits, i.e. callousness, are another factor that have been directlylinked to criminality. Offenders who display anti-social personality traits often will notcare how their actions affect others and therefore may not feel any remorse for whatthey have done. The criminal personality helps justify the actions of the offender bymaking it easier for offenders to commit illegal acts.Anti-Social ValuesAnti-social values allow offenders to disassociate themselves not only with thecommunity but with the values and norms of the community. These types of attitudeshelp offenders retreat from their surroundings where they are alone with their thoughtsand ideas while having minimal interaction within others within the community who arenot engaged in criminal conduct.
TREATMENT Cognitive behavioral and social learning approaches haveanswered the question “What Works?” to change offender behavior
COGNITIVE THERAPYdisputes the automatic thoughtsprovides skills training and role-playing arewell-established Cognitive behavior is the key to social behavior.targets interpersonal skills and the Problem behavior is almostacceptance of community standards for always rooted in modes ofresponsible behavior thinking that promote and support that behavioroffenders develop coping mechanisms formanaging the thoughts and feelings Permanent change in problem behavior demands change at a cognitive level, i.e., change in the underlying beliefs, attitudes, and ways of thinking;
Thinking Patterns How What Offenders Offenders Think Think• Impulsive • Entitlement• Concrete • Deny victims• Poor problem solving • Blame Others• Lack empathy • Deny responsibility• Extremes • Uniqueness dealing effectively with anti-social logicis the single most important part of…offender change
COGNITIVE SKILLS COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURINGCOGNITIVE SKILLS TRAINING based on the premise that offenders have never learned the “thinking skills” required to function productively and responsibly in society This skill deficit is remedied by systematic training in skills, such as problem solving, negotiation, assertiveness, anger control, and social skills focused on specific social situations, like making a complaint or asking for helpCOGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING based on the premise that offenders have learned destructive attitudes and thinking habits that point them to criminal behavior consists of identifying the specific attitudes and ways of thinking that point to criminality and systematically replacing them with new attitudes and ways of thinking
COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING AND COGNITIVE SKILLS are complementary can be combined in a single program resocialization can be enhanced and accelerated. strategies take an objective and systematic approach to change Change is not coerced: offenders are taught how to think for themselves and to make their own decision COGNITIVE CORRECTIONS PROGRAMS regard offenders as fully responsible for their behavior Thinking is viewed as a type of learned behavior dishonesty and irresponsibility are the primary targets for changelimit setting and accountability for behavior do not conflict with the cognitive approach to offender change - they support it.