It4 Coursework Help


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It4 Coursework Help

  2. 2. Unit IT 4 Relational Databases Coursework• 40% of marks• Time approx 50 hours• Does not have to be real it can be realistic but recommended a real organisation be used. Something you either know about or can get information about.• Each project must be individual and all of the candidates own work• Marked out of 100 2
  3. 3. Can use Access or similar packageor Visual basic Or some combination of both 3
  4. 4. • Database projects should be in 4 distinct sections. – User requirements and design – Implementation – Testing – User documentation and Evaluation 4
  5. 5. Moderators overall checklist 5
  6. 6. Detailed teacher guide and mark scheme 6
  8. 8. Title PageName of candidateCandidate NoTitle of projectCentre name and No 8
  9. 9. Background to the organisation1 mark:• What is it? where is it? 6 sentences1 mark:• What it does - must do data processing related to the database you are going to do unless you justify difference. Half a pageThis must include what the organization does or intends todo. It is no good saying I am going to create a stockmanagement database if there is no stock managementinvolved.This link must follow throughout the project. 9
  10. 10. Background• Ysgol Dafydd Jones is a large, modern Comprehensive School, situated somewhere in North Wales. With a pupil population of nearly 1000, there is a high demand for the daily stuff of education – pencils, pens etc and, more recently with the advances in technology; computer discs, CD-Rs and memory sticks etc.• At the moment this need is served by a school shop, run by a member of the ancillary staff with the aid of a group of Sixth Formers. In the past, because it is a relatively small-scale operation, there has been little need for a computerisation of its stock-take or financial management systems.• The range of stock carried by the shop is narrow, and since it is mostly of an ‘educational’ nature, the stock is supplied almost entirely by only a handful of different suppliers. The system of stock management is very simple, with the ‘shop keeper’ noticing when any particular item is about to run out, and writing out an order whenever convenient. This has usually been done at the end of the month, when typically several orders could be processed at the same time, making the task more time-efficient At some times of the year, for example just before the examinations, certain items become suddenly in higher demand. Writing out additional orders then becomes an added nuisance. To keep things simple, the shop has a ‘standard order’ for each of its items, and will reorder that number each time the stock runs low. For example, it carries a stock of twenty scientific calculators and will re-order another twenty when only three or four are left on the shelves. This has led to oversights and disappointments in the past (especially at exam times!)• In order to check that stock is not ‘disappearing’ and to monitor sales, as each item is sold a tally is kept in an exercise book, and at the end of the day this is totalled. This also gives warning that some items may need to be reordered. Once a month, there is a stock take of all the items in the store. This should be equal to the level of stock at the last stock take, minus the tally of items sold since then. Quite often, due to the pressure of sales at peak times (morning break) a sale may not be recorded in the tally book. This leads to awkward questions being asked at the end of the year when the finances of the shop are reviewed.• What the shop needs is a better way to record and monitor levels of stock, and to make the process of reordering easier and quicker. The answer to this is to build a database management system that will reorder ‘automatically’ when stocks get low. The ability to order goods manually (i.e. not in set quantities) should also be retained in the system. 10
  11. 11. User Requirements4 marks• Data capture and inputs• Processes including security, queries, calculations, sorts, etc• Reports and any other outputs• Ethos and house style2 marks• Quality and depth of analysis• ‘To gain full marks everything they go on to do should have been requested by the user in general terms’Aim for approx. minimum of 3 pages long 11
  12. 12. User requirements / Expected outcomes / aims and objectives Aim for approx minimum of 3 pages long • Data capture and inputs 1 • Processes including security queries calculations sorts etc 1 • Reports and any other outputs 1 • Ethos and/ or house style 1 • Quality and depth of analysis 2 •‘To gain full marks everything they go on to do should have been requested by the user in general terms’Some of the problems we saw last year were less evident but some centresstill award high marks for• a retrospective list of what the candidate didor• a brief very outline of what the system is required to do. 12
  13. 13. Wrong!My client wants ( I did a ) a multiple table search usingsearch criteriaTables to include Customers + booking +rooms. Search to include Booking data= 12/08/2012AND Room=TeifiThey have clearly copied and pasted from designRight!Mrs Jones often has enquiries about thefunction rooms. Many people often ask eitherto check an existing booking or check if acertain function room is available for bookingon a certain date. Therefore she would like thesystem to be able to produce this informationquickly. She would like to be able to type inthe name of the function room ad date into aform on the screen and a list of bookings to 13appear
  14. 14. User Interface requirements1 mark• Details of specific user interface requirements of the system and how this reflects the ethos of the organisation.• What in general should the user interface look like and what presentation style, colour schemes, logos, corporate identity.• This could relate to startup splash screens, switchboards or menu type form. Navigation buttons leading to data entry forms/ buttons to control common procesess e.g print reports• Health and safety considerations red/ green / easy to read fonts no garish colour that could call eye strain 14
  15. 15. Hardware1 mark• Details of the minimum hardware requirements for the system to function.• Must be sensible to chosen topic and can be just a list, it can be what the user already has or a new system to run the new database. 15
  16. 16. HARDWARE = NO MARKS!• Dual-core AMD Athlon™ II X2 245 processor• Genuine Windows® 7 Home Premium 64 bit• Memory: 2GB• Hard drive: 500GB 16
  17. 17. PROCESSORAMD Athlon II X2 Processor 245  - 2.9 GHz - 2.0 GHz HT - 2 x 1 MB L2 cache - Dual CoreOperating System Genuine Windows® 7 Home Premium 64-bitRAM2 GB DDR3 2DIMMGraphics cardATI Radeon 3000 Up to 891 MB shared graphics memoryOUTPUT DEVICE• Screen type None NO PRINTER NO MARK BACKUP Medium • Hard drive 500 GB SATA 3G 7200 rpmExternal BACKUP Medium• Optical disk drive DVD writer• SATA DVD RAM with LightScribe technology Create silkscreen-quality disc labels directly from your• PCMemory card reader6-in-1 memory card reader• USB6 x USB 2.0 ports• 1 external optical drive bay/ 1 internal HDD bay *FireWireNoModem/EthernetEthernet 10/100BT integrated network interface• WiFiNoBluetoothNoVideo interfaceVGAAudio interfaceAnalogue audio Microphone and headphone inputsTV outputNoExpansion card slot2 PCI- Express x1SoundHigh Definition Audio 5.1WebcamNoINPUT DEVICES • Keyboard & Mouse USB optical mouse USB keyboard 17
  18. 18. Entity relationships• 1 mark for basic One to ONE, ONE TO MANY UNLINKED diagram• Second mark for more complex system• (showing all linking between entities)• If errors, incorrect or unrealistic give no marks.• NB OK if this appears later on in the design section. 18
  19. 19. Different ways of showing entity relationships Doctor Patients HospitalCustomer Order Stock Supplier 19
  20. 20. Departments SupervisorsDepartmentID (PK) SupervisorID (PK) 1 1 Assigned Run n n Officers CasesOfficerID (PK) CaseID (PK) 1 1 Officers_Cases __ n OfficerID (PK) (FK) n Work On CaseID (PK) (FK) Work On 20
  21. 21. Not acceptable as ERD Screenshot of the implemented systemCopy of above or from design of tables showing primary and foreign keys 21
  23. 23. Data structure table showingFieldname + data type1 mark for each table x 31 mark for design offormat of the data in eachtableData dictionaryof at least 3tablesMust havefieldname, datatype and format 23
  24. 24. Normalisation1 mark for normalised form of tables• Diagram / tables showing normalised tables• Note that the tables can be designed directly in normalised form, There is no need to show the stages but you can do so if you want to 24
  25. 25. The simple three table structure Borrowers Loans Books 1 BookID PK PupilID PK LoanID PK 1 If we were to Surname ∞ PupilID FK ∞ ISBN FK develop the Forename BookID FK Cost database further FormGroup DateIssued Title ISBN would be ReturnedY/N Genre in a different tableBorrower Loans Books 25
  26. 26. The more complex third normal form structure would be this but needs more tables Borrowers Loans Books 1 BookID PK ISBN PupilID PK LoanID PK 1 ∞ PupilID FK ISBN FK ∞1 ISBN PK Surname ∞∞ Forename BookID FK SupplierID Title FormGroup DateIssued Cost ∞ PublisherID FK ReturnedY/N Author Publishers PublisherID PK 1 Reqd. Suppliers 1 Details…… SupplierID PK Reqd.However we only need Details……to produce a three tablesolution and need not goto fully third stage 26normalisation
  27. 27. This might be our simple three table structure Borrowers Loans Books 1 BookID PK PupilID PK LoanID PK 1 Surname ∞ PupilID FK ∞ Forename BookID FK Cost FormGroup DateIssued Title ReturnedY/N Genre Borrower Loans Books 27
  28. 28. Normalisation: 1 mark for identifying primary key and foreign keysMust show links and identify Primary and Foreign keys PK PK PK FK FK 28
  29. 29. DATA VALIDATION• 2 DIFFERENT TYPESNOT 2 RANGE CHECKSNOT LIST BOXES/COMBO BOXESDO NOT use input mask wizards provided by thesoftware e.g. postcode masks in Access 29
  30. 30. Validation techniques• Use Range checks• Use own ORIGINAL design of input mask• Use OR techniques• LENGTH CHECKSHowever candidates lose marks by not fully designing thevalidatione.g. ‘I will put a range check on an ID number’ is not sufficient.Candidates should fully explain e.g. “I will put a range checkon and ID number which states it is Between 1 and 9999 Remember you have to test for extreme data so advise using one range check 30 somewhere in the design will help you later on.
  31. 31. Common Problems• Candidate does not design two different types of validation they may only design 2 range checks.• All candidates in the Centres design the exact same two types of validations e.g. all do range check on date of delivery and all do length check on telephone no???????? 31
  32. 32. PROBLEMS• Candidates do a range check on length of telephone no.• NOT data type checks• Presence checks!!! 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Design of security1 markThis could be using software own security lockingsystem or original code.•It could be a flowchart (but not an identical one if used in Code section)•It could be a bullet point sequence•It could be a paragraph describing what will happen 35
  36. 36. Example of security statementThe system must be secure in order to prevent unauthorised accessand possible deletion/corruption of data.• For this reason, access to the system will be via a password.• Editing of the data tables will not be possible directly, and all changes must be made through separate data entry forms.• There must be access for an administrator to edit the data tables directly in case of mistakes (order cancelled) but only through an administrator page with separate password access.• There must be a procedure for backing up daily changes, and a regular• routine for making backups of the whole system 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. User interface1 mark• Design of user-friendly, menu driven, front end interface (Hand drawn or DTP design)• It should reflect the house style required by the user• Could be main menu system• Could be switchboard• Note this is pre implementation so no screenshots of forms can be counted as design 38
  39. 39. VERY POOR design of switchboard/menus ????? NO DATA in it just boxes and fonts 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. Design of 2 data entry forms 1 form with a sub form• (Hand drawn or DTP design)• 1 mark design of at least two forms;• 1 mark for design of form with a sub form• 1 mark is for quality and detail-names of all fields and some of the following; – sample data in each of the three forms – special features on each of the three forms e.g. command buttons – adherence to house style shown on each of the three formsNote this is pre implementation so no screenshots offorms can be counted as design 42
  43. 43. No Detail Employees DetailsEmployee IDFirst NameLast NameInternal Extension 43
  44. 44. Logo •Layout  •House style  (font names and size and logo) •Fieldnames  •Features  command buttons •Example data X (should be added) 44
  45. 45. DETAILED Design of forms and forms with a subform•Layout•House style•Fieldnames•Features•Example data 45
  46. 46. DETAILED DESIGN OF QUERIESQuery type• Single table query with search criteria x 2 (NOT SORTS)• Multiple table query with search criteria• Multiple table query without search criteria• Parameter query• Action Query : either an append; delete or update queryDetailed design• Fieldname logical operator and criteria to be used;• tables to be used• and any other relevant point e.g. fields/calculations/test data• Realistic reason why you need this data. NOT a description of what the query outputs e.g. ‘The manager wants a list of all the female soccer players’ is a description of the output. WHY THE MANAGER WANTS A LIST OF ALL THE FEMALE SOCCER PLAYERS .... IS THE REASON 46
  47. 47. • Although reasons have improved in some centres they are still descriptions of what the query does.Centres should note;• Reasons for queries could be strengthened and could include fieldnames and operators and criteria where required.• Where candidates do a similar topic e.g. hotels, candidates should be encouraged to design different queries. 47
  48. 48. Query types• 2 Single table queries with search criteria x2 Both use one table and both have criteria and each has a realistic reason Do Not do a sort• Multiple table query with search criteria x1 1 query which uses linked tables and which has criteria and a realistic reason• Multiple table query without search criteria x1 1 query which uses linked tables and which has NO criteria and a realistic reason (The most common use of this could be to select only certain fields for a report or another common use is to sort data and the third most common use is to produce a calculation).• Parameter query This query has search criteria and could be on a single or linked tables depending upon the reason.• 1 Action Query : either an append; delete or update queryAll of these queries should have:• Fieldname logical operator and criteria to be used; tables and any other relevant point• Realistic reason why you need this data to be produce / what will it be used for? 48
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. No marks; there must be criteriaand the justification is the reasonbut have not designed how to getthe data from the database X XNo marks; justification is thereason but have not designed howto get the data from the databaseNo marks; justification is thereason but have not identified whattables or fields are required XNo marks; justification is thereason but have not designed howto get the data from the database XNo marks Query not fully designed X XNo marks Query not fully designed.What data will be used? 50
  51. 51. NO REASON WHY 51
  52. 52. DETAILED DESIGN OF REPORTS• There must be a realistic reason why your organisation wants these reports. In addition to reasons, report design must1 mark• Clearly display fields and contain reasonable detail• Details of the data/tables or queries required• Allow for suitable original headers and footers• Have sorted and grouped data• 1 mark• design of a calculations, totals or other statistical fields(Now must also be on a report as well as form or query ) 52
  53. 53. POOR DESIGN OF A REPORT Details of the data/tables or queries required X This is a space for the company logo that will be pre-printed onto the paper. Allow for suitable original headers and original footers X Customer’s Address User’s Address Have sorted data and grouped data X Order Quantity Description Include detailed No i.e. material and size Price (the lot or per 1,000) cost of calculations, or other Items VAT 17. 5% cost of statistical fields X VAT Total Clearly display fields (Cost of (messy) and data X Items + VAT) 53
  54. 54. Design of the report 54
  55. 55. Design and explanation of a calculation in a reportCalculation in the report should be different tothat in the query or form.Many candidates use the same formulas and thisshould be discouraged.=Date() is not acceptable as a calculation in areport.=Now() is not a formula and is not acceptable as acalculation in a form. 55
  56. 56. Design a calculation in a query or form • Design at least one calculated field using facilities provided by the software. • Example; • To work out the field cost with the VAT • COSTincVAT =[COST] * 1.175 • A second needed if mark already awarded for this in design of Multiple tables queries with no criteria • One calculation cannot be awarded more than 1 mark 56
  57. 57. Calculations in a query or form• WRONG• My calculation will add up the total cost of the invoice• CORRECT My calculation will add up the total cost of the invoice =SUM[Item1]+[Item2]+[Item3] 57
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. Design of Calculation in Form• Purpose of calculation: to display on the order form an amount equivalent to the grand total of all the individual items ordered on the subform.• Note that a calculation has already been designed for the subform which will work out the total cost of each individual item ordered. This is achieved with the expression• =[quantity_ordered]*[purchase_price] and is given the label Expr1.• The second calculation will be in the form of• = sum ([quantity_ordered]*[purchase_price]) (or alternatively = sum (Expr1)• The text box which will hold the (= sum) calculation has to be placed in the subform footer. For the calculation to appear on the main form, I have to create a second text box on the main form itself, and the control for this text box has to point to the (= sum) calculation in the subform footer. 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. A note about Calculated fieldsIt is possible to get 4 marks here but only if there are4 separate and different calculations.• 1 mark if one calculated field is on a form or query• 1 for the calculation in a report• 1 mark if you use visual basic to produce a calculation• 1 mark if there is a calculated field in a multiple table designed to produce this calculation.• NB Marks cannot be awarded twice for the same calculation• Calculations on reports / forms / queries / vb must all be different calculations 61
  62. 62. Automated routines using programming code2 marks• Design at least 2 different simple Visual Basic / code procedures.• A screenshot or printout of implemented code is not acceptable as design.• Code: pseudo code or flowcharts or where applicable hand drawn designs are acceptable methods of design.• Examples could be: – initial start up splash screens – code for own validation procedures – calendar controls – toggle buttons to hide data – username and password routines code (Candidates should not use the same flowchart as in security section) – own calculation routines written in VB and different from that below – automatic data entry into fields based on a choice in another field• NOT MACRO wizards in Access• NOT simple things like putting =Now() in a text box / msgbox only• DO NOT COUNT CALCULATIONS AND VALIDATIONS, etc TWICE 62
  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. Do NOT put implemented systems in the design section 64
  65. 65. Clearly copied and pasted back from implemented section so not design• Private Sub Option4_Click()• Dim strInput As String• Dim strMsg As String• Beep• strMsg=”this form is for administration only.” &vbCrLf & vbLf & “please key in the admin password to allow access”• strInput=InputBox(prompt:=strMsg, title:=”WARNING”)• If strInput = “PASSWORD” Then ‘password is correct• DoCmd.OpenForm “frmAdmin”• DoCmd.Close acForm, Me.Name• Else ‘password is incorrect• MsgBox “incorrect password!” & vbCrLf & vbLf & “you are not allowed access to this section”, vbCritical, “Invalid Password”• End If• Exit Sub• End Sub 65
  66. 66. ImplementationScreenshot everything in design view as youare creating it and put the annotatedscreenshots into the implementation report 66
  67. 67. Create links 67
  68. 68. At least 3 tables in design view and the tables of test data 68
  69. 69. Implementation of data validation techniques 69
  70. 70. NOT ACCEPTABLE as presence check as selected a wizard.Candidate has not done anything Required = YES 70
  71. 71. • =IsNull([UnitPrice])Returns True, if the UnitPrice field does not contain a value.• =IsNull("")Returns False, because a zero-length string is not a null value.• =IIf(IsNull([Region]),[City]&" "& [PostalCode],[City]&" "&[Region]&" "& [PostalCode])Displays the values of the City and PostalCode fields if Region is Null• Null: A value you can enter in a field or use in expressions or queries to indicate missing or unknown data.• In Visual Basic, the Null keyword indicates a Null value.• otherwise, it displays the values of the City, Region, and PostalCode fields, separated by spaces.You can use these expressions in a calculated field in a query. 71
  72. 72. Implementation of validation 72
  73. 73. Create MacrosNOT Wizards e.g. COMMAND BUTTONS ON FORMS • Create two macros • Must be different types • For example: – Navigation controls from User Interface and forms. – Other macros you have used to enhance your solution. e.g. AutoExec, Print report , email macro, etc. Note you can only have one navigation macro the other macro must have a different purpose. (Screenshot evidence of construction required) 73
  74. 74. Correct macro use Incorrect macro using command button wizards Once you have created your own macro you can of course assign it to a command button event. 74
  75. 75. Create user interface 75
  76. 76. Create 2 forms for data entryand create a form with a subform 76
  77. 77. Two Single table queries with criteria Query finds all stock items which are below the minimum stock level. This query used as basis for automatic ordering system. (Note also calculated expression to find cost of ordering fixed replenishment amount of each item) 77
  78. 78. Implementation of queriesMultiple table query with criteria Correct because we can see the criteria and it matches the query that was designed Multiple table query without criteria 78
  79. 79. Parameter query 79
  80. 80. Action query - Update Evidence of construction of update queries.: This one is used to update the stock list (tblStock) when new stock arrives. The new stock is added to the form frmNewStock and a button on the form runs this update query. When the ‘run’ is clicked in design view, nothing happens on-screen, but a check on the table tblStock confirms that the amounts of stock have been updated by the amounts shown. Updated = quantities of new stock added to the existing quantities of those stock items. 80
  81. 81. CREATE A REPORT(S)ORIGINAL Headers andORIGINAL footersNOT the default =now()Sorted and grouped dataNot just sorted data must havebothCalculated field 81
  82. 82. What do we mean by sorted grouping?Date Customer (Grouped) Booking Ref(Sorted) Evans A 124312/08/08 Evans A 4545 Davies G 7455 Smith R 3213 Smith R 7979 Evans A 898613/08/08 Peters B 7444 Peters B 8524 Richards T 3546 If you haven’t got more than one record for a customer then the grouping will not work ! Remember that when entering data 82
  83. 83. SORTED AND GROUPEDNB If you have not entered suitable data this will not 83 produce the required evidence
  84. 84. Implementation of calculation in a report•Calculated fields in the report should total up data• from more than one record. 84
  85. 85. ProblemreportOriginal header but no original footer Data not suitable toshow sorted grouping worked even thoughtechnique was shown No calculated field shown 0 marks out of 3 85
  86. 86. Single record reportsSingle record reports donot show sorted grouping.Will need a second report 86to show this aspect.
  87. 87. Original automated code 87
  88. 88. Implementation of calculation in a form or query 88
  89. 89. Testing •There must be a systematic test plan. •Tests plan should include: –Expected and actual outcomes –Reasons for processes such as sorts and searches (if not provided earlier) •Evidence of all tests either in the form ofprintouts or readable screenshots 89
  90. 90. 90
  91. 91. Testing user interfaceTeachers should sign to say theysaw all routes through the systemworking 91
  92. 92. Show Testing validation screenshotsValid No error message Show screenshot of valid dataInvalid 1 Show screenshot of error messageInvalid 2 Show screenshot of error messageExtreme No error messageRange check Show screenshot ofFormat e.g. must contain 15 extreme but valid datacharacters 92
  93. 93. Test all routesthrough thesystem 93
  94. 94. Testing security• There is 1 mark for: Testing security e.g. test with wrong user name and password and get an error message If the candidates has not used their own code for this this might be testing e.g. the Access database security password tool they have set up. Candidates may not have done any security routines for their vb code but these would have to be tested as prescribed in the test plan If however they did write their own username and password code:• They would get Testing security: There is 1 mark for testing security measure e.g. test own code with wrong user name and password and get an error message Testing first automated routine: They would provide a second test e.g. testing own code with correct username and password 94
  95. 95. Test queries• RUN them• Watch out for testing parameter queries!!How could this haveproduced this output??? 95
  96. 96. 96
  97. 97. Test report• Print it outNOT Screenshot themNeed to test they actually printout withprofessional formatting 97
  98. 98. Testing automated routines• If they created username password they would test it. ( first code test)• If they created 2 other different automated routines using code they would test them both now 98
  99. 99. Test calculation in a form or query 99
  100. 100. User documentation• Details of where to find the database (directories) and how to open the database• Details of how to enter passwords or other security procedures• Details of how to navigate the user interface 100
  101. 101. • Details of how to - add, delete, edit, (Must show whole process not just say press this button…..) - print and save data - in records via examples given in screenshots of data entry forms• Examples of two different ORIGINAL (not default) validation text to support different validation procedures• Instructions about using (So no screenshots in design view which is creating them) different types of queries (1mark =2 queries)• Instructions about how to print one report (Often not there) 101
  102. 102. • Instructions about disaster recovery techniquesNOT just how to back up. How do werestore the database to the hard drive ifthe original gets destroyed - must havesome specific detail relating to their owndatabase not a general description.BACKUP + RECOVERY and re-installation 102
  103. 103. Sorting out the As from the Bs•An A grade evaluation would be 6 or more pages long•NOT a running commentary of what you did•Evaluation what is good about your database system including data capture anduser documentation and saying why it adds value to the organisation•Be critical and say its weak points and why•Suggest concrete future developments not general ones such as “I could moredata”, “I could change the colour scheme’. 103
  104. 104. Evaluation •There is an attempt to relate to what the user wanted not just a copyand paste of user requirements. Not just a running commentary of whatyou did •There is an attempt to say what improvements the new system hasbrought and how this has added value to the system •There is no criticism of his solution •There are no future developments suggested 104