Voltage Drop, Ampacity and In-line Fuses

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  • MUST HAVE SOME RESISTANCE AND THEREFORE SOME VOLTAGE DROP IN ORDER FOR CURRENT TO FLOW
  • SHOW SAMPLES OF AWG 16 AND AWG 4/0
  • FROM THE AUTHORITATIVE WIKIPEDIA!!AMBIENT TEMPERATURE IS 30C (86F) OUTSIDE MACHINERY SPACES AND 50C (122F) INSIDE MACHINERY SPACESBUNDILING ISSUES
  • UL 1426 IS NOT AS STRINGENT AS ONE WOULD HOPE OR EXPECT
  • SHOW EXAMPLE OF TYPE 2 AND TYPE 3 STRANDING
  • BY CONVENTION, AND TO PROVIDE A MORE CONSERVATIVE DESIGN, SYSTEM VOLTAGE IS 12VDC3% VOLTAGE DROP IS 0.36VDC10% VOLTAGE DROP IS 1.2VDCAWG 16; 2,580 CMAWG 4/0; 211,600 CM
  • HANDOUT HARD COPY OF TABLES IX AND X
  • 90 F-AMPS, NON MACHINERY SPACES, 12VDC AND 10% VOLTAGE DROP
  • 4,680 F-AMPS, MACHINERY SPACES, 12VDC AND 10% VOLTAGE DROP
  • 12VDC, 3%, 999 F-AMPS, MACHINERY SPACE
  • THE IN-LINE GLASS FUSE HOLDERS ARE GENERALLY FAILURE PRONELIGHTLY MADENOT VERY WATERPROOFAN UNPROTECTED CONDUCTOR IN A SHORT CIRCUIT SITUATION IS A HEAT STRIP.
  • MUST SUPPLY POWER FROM A SINGLE CIRCUIT BREAKERGLASS FUSES
  • Voltage Drop, Ampacity and In-line Fuses

    1. 1. THE ELECTRICAL SIDE OFINSTALLING ELECTRONICS ON BOATS CHARLIE JOHNSON JTB MARINE CORPORATION cjohnson@jtbmarine.com 727.560.9065 HUDSON BEACH YACHT CLUB MEETING SEPTEMBER 4, 2012
    2. 2. Charlie Johnson, PECharlie has been active in marine engineering for most of his professional career. A registeredprofessional mechanical engineer in two states, he is a retired Naval Officer with extensive shipmanagement and ship handling experience. He began his Naval career as the Chief Engineer of asalvage vessel that saw extensive action during the Vietnam War. After his Chief Engineer’s tour, hebegan a career as an Engineering Duty Officer specializing in nuclear submarine maintenance,design and certification.In the late 1990’s, Charlie and his wife, Lari, prepared their 53’ Gulfstar Long Range Trawler for athree year trip to the Eastern Caribbean where they practiced retirement.In 2001, he formed JTB Marine Corporation, a company dedicated to providing standards based,technically strong services to the boating public, boat builders, and commercial fishermen. JTBMarine’s work scope includes standards based designs, concise troubleshooting, and theperformance of meticulous installations of electrical and electronic systems and components onprivate yachts and commercial vessels in the 35’ to 110’ range.Charlie also performs electrical and corrosion surveys and provides forensic engineering andaccident investigation services aboard all types of vessels. His most recent forensics’ experienceincludes investigations to determine the origin and cause of fires aboard two private vessels anddetermining the cause of stray current damage at a municipal marina.Recently became a partner in Clean eMarine-Americas (http://www.c-e-marineamericas.com), tobuild and distribute the Danish Thoosa and Triton brand of electric propulsion systems 2
    3. 3. BORING BUT IMPORTANT STUFF SOMEBODY INVOLVED WITH THE INSTALLATION OF ANY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ABOARD YOUR BOAT NEEDS TO GO THROUGH THIS THOUGHT PROCESS IF NOT YOU, THAN CERTAINLY YOUR TECHNICIAN MUST BE KNOWLEDGEABLE 3
    4. 4. OUR SIZZLING TOPICS FOR THIS EVENINGVOLTAGE DROP AND AMPACITYIN-LINE FUSES 4
    5. 5. OUR SIZZLING TOPICS FOR THIS EVENING WOW!! FEEL THE EXCITEMENT!!! 5
    6. 6. SIZZLING TOPIC #1: VOLTAGE DROP VOLTAGE DROP IS THE MANIFESTATION OF MR. OHM’S LAW: VOLTAGE = CURRENT X RESISTANCE E=IXR REMEMBER YOUR ALGEBRA (MATH IS FUN ☺) INCREASING THE CURRENT ➔ INCREASES VOLTAGE DROP INCREASING THE RESISTANCE ➔ INCREASES VOLTAGE DROP 6
    7. 7. VOLTAGE DROPCONDUCTORS HAVE RESISTANCE (EXPRESSED INOHMS); THE “R” IN MR. OHM’S LAWTHE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTORSINCREASES AS THEIR LENGTH INCREASESTHE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF CONDUCTORSINCREASES AS THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF THECONDUCTOR DECREASES 7
    8. 8. VOLTAGE DROPFROM THE AMERICAN BOAT AND YACHT COUNCILSTANDARDS AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION REPORTS FORSMALL CRAFT, 2012-201311.4.2.6 Voltage Drop - Conductors used for panelboard orswitchboard main feeders, bilge blowers, electronicequipment, navigation lights, and other circuits wherevoltage drop must be kept to a minimum, shall be sized fora voltage drop not to exceed three percent.Conductors used for lighting, other than navigation lights,and other circuits where voltage drop is not critical, shallbe sized for a voltage drop not to exceed 10 percent. 8
    9. 9. VOLTAGE DROPA NEW AND EXCITING TERM: AMPACITY AMPACITY IS THE MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT A CONDUCTOR OR DEVICE CAN CARRY BEFORE SUSTAINING IMMEDIATE OR PROGRESSIVE DETERIORATION. FOR CONDUCTORS, AMPACITY IS A FUNCTION OF THE THE ABILITY OF THE CONDUCTOR’S INSULATION AND TO A LESSER EXTENT, THE CONDUCTOR ITSELF TO REMAIN INTACT UNDER LOAD AMPACITY DECREASES WITH AN INCREASE IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AMPACITY DECREASES WITH THE ADDITION OF BUNDLED, CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS 9
    10. 10. VOLTAGE DROPABYC STANDARDS SPECIFY : 11.14.2.1.1 The construction of insulated cables and conductors shall conform with the requirements of: 11.14.2.1.1.1 UL 1426, Cables for Boats, or 11.14.2.1.1.2 the insulating material temperature rating requirements of: 11.14.2.1.1.3 SAE J378, Marine Engine Wiring, and 11.14.2.1.1.4 SAE J1127, Battery Cable, or SAE J1128, Low- Tension Primary Cable 10
    11. 11. VOLTAGE DROPQUALITY BOAT CABLE; E.G., ANCOR, BELDEN, PACER, ETC.IS RATED AS UL1426, WITH INSULATION THAT IS RATEDFOR 105℃ DRY CONDITIONS OR 75℃ WET CONDITIONSTINNING IS NOT MANDATORY BY THE ABYC STANDARDS,BUT IS CONSIDERED BEST PRACTICE IN THE INDUSTRYLIKEWISE, TYPE 3 STRANDING IS NOT REQUIRED BY THEABYC STANDARDS BUT IS CONSIDERED BEST PRACTICE INTHE INDUSTRY 11
    12. 12. VOLTAGE DROPWHEN DESIGNING A CIRCUIT THERE ARE TWOPARAMETERS THAT MUST BE CONSIDERED VOLTAGE DROP OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATION AMPACITY SAFETY CONSIDERATIONUSUALLY, ADEQUATE CONDUCTOR SIZE TO PROVIDETHE SPECIFIED ALLOWABLE VOLTAGE DROP WILLPROVIDE ADEQUATE AMPACITY…BUT NOT ALWAYS!! 12
    13. 13. VOLTAGE DROP MATH…HOW WE LOVE MATH!☺ FROM THE ABYC STANDARDS: KxIxL CM = ————— E Where: CM = Circular mil area of conductor K = 10.75 (constant representing the resistivity of copper) I = Load current in amperes L = Length of conductor from the positive power source connection to the electrical device and back to the negative power source connection, measured in feet. E = Maximum allowable voltage drop at load in volts 13
    14. 14. VOLTAGE DROPBUT, WE DON’T HAVE TO DO THE MATH (☹) TO FINDA CONDUCTOR SIZE FOR A KNOWN LOAD WITH AKNOWN DISTANCE FROM THE SOURCE IN A KNOWNENVIRONMENTBY SETTING E = 12VDC AND E = 24VDC AND USINGBOAT CABLE WITH 105℃ INSULATION RATING IN THECM FORMULA AND THEN CONVERTING FROM CM TOAWG, THOSE NICE FOLKS AT ABYC HAVE GENERATEDA COUPLE OF TABLES TO HELP US OUT 14
    15. 15. VOLTAGE DROPTHESE TABLES ARE OK, BUT THOSE REALLY NICE FOLKSAT BLUE SEA SYSTEMS HAVE MADE THE DETERMINATIONOF CONDUCTOR SIZE EVEN EASIER, AND THERE IS EVENSOME MATH!!☺LOOK AT THE VOLTAGE DROP EQUATION AGAIN: CM = (K x I x L) / E FOR A KNOWN VOLTAGE DROP (E) BLUE SEA DEVELOPED THE CONCEPT OF FOOT x AMPS (I x L) USING SYSTEM VOLTAGE AND ALLOWED VOLTAGE DROP AND THE PRODUCT OF CIRCUIT LENGTH (L) AND THE LOAD CURRENT(I) ENTER THE FOLLOWING TABLE TO FIND THE PROPER WIRE SIZE 15
    16. 16. VOLTAGE DROP 16
    17. 17. VOLTAGE DROPAN EXAMPLE 12 VOLT SYSTEM NEW READING LIGHT TO BE INSTALLED 20’ AWAY FROM THE CONNECTION TO THE CIRCUIT BREAKER PANEL ACTUAL TO/FROM CIRCUIT LENGTH IS 45’ ELECTRICAL LOAD IS 2A OUTSIDE THE MACHINERY SPACE F-AMPS = 45’ x 2A = 90 F-AMPS 17
    18. 18. VOLTAGE DROPENTER THE BLUE SEA TABLE WITH 90 F-AMPS, NONMACHINERY SPACES, 12VDC AND 10% VOLTAGE DROPTO FIND THE A NUMBER ≥ 90 F-AMPS 18
    19. 19. VOLTAGE DROP ☟ 19
    20. 20. VOLTAGE DROPONE MORE EXAMPLE (WE ♡ MATH!) 12 VOLT SYSTEM ANCHOR WINDLASS TO BE INSTALLED WITH AN ACTUAL TO/FROM CIRCUIT LENGTH OF 52’ FROM THE LOAD SIDE OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO THE STARTING BATTERY ELECTRICAL LOAD IS 90A INSIDE THE MACHINERY SPACE F-AMPS = 52’ x 90A = =4,680 F-AMPS 20
    21. 21. VOLTAGE DROPENTER THE BLUE SEA TABLE WITH 4,680 F-AMPS,MACHINERY SPACES, 12VDC AND 10% VOLTAGE DROPTO FIND THE A NUMBER ≥ 4,680 F-AMPS 21
    22. 22. VOLTAGE DROP ☟ 22
    23. 23. VOLTAGE DROPWHY DO WE CARE ABOUT VOLTAGE DROP? ALL ELECTRICAL LOADS HAVE A VOLTAGE AND A CURRENT SPECIFICATION EXAMPLE: THE POPULAR ICOM MARINE SSB/HAM M802 SPECS 30A MAXIMUM 13.6VDC ±10% 23
    24. 24. VOLTAGE DROP ICOM 802LET’S HAVE MORE FUN WITH MATH!! ☺ 13.6VDC + 10% = 13.6VDC + 1.36VDC = 14.96VDC REASSURING: THE MAGIC SMOKE WON’T COME OUT OF THE BOX WHEN CHARGING WITH THE ALTERNATOR OR THE CHARGER. THIS IS GOOD. 13.6VDC – 10% = 13.6VDC -1.36VDC = 12.24VDC REASSURING: MAYBE. WE’LL HAVE TO COME BACK TO THIS. 24
    25. 25. VOLTAGE DROP ICOM 802OH BOY, MORE MATH AND ELECTRICAL FORMULAE(DON’T YOU JUST LOVE THIS STUFF?♡)SPEC IS FOR 30A MAX CURRENT DRAW @ 13.6VDC POWER = CURRENT X VOLTAGE P = I X V (POWER IN WATTS; I IN AMPS; V IN VOLTS) FROM THE SPEC’S A NOMINAL 13.6VDC AND 30A ON MAX OUTPUT RF POWER WOULD YIELD AN INPUT POWER REQUIREMENT OF : P = 30A X 13.6VDC = 408W 25
    26. 26. VOLTAGE DROP ICOM 802SO THE POWER REQUIREMENT FOR MAX RF OUTPUTIS 408WMORE MATH!!☺ 12.24VDC IS THE BOTTOM OF THE ALLOWABLE VOLTAGE RANGE AND WE NEED 408W FOR MAX RF OUTPUT P=IXV➯I=P/V PLUGGING AND CHUGGING THE NUMBERS: I = 408 / 12.24 = 33.33A 26
    27. 27. VOLTAGE DROP ICOM 802THE ICOM 802 MAIN UNIT IS GOING TO BE LOCATEDSUCH THAT THE CIRCUIT LENGTH FROM THE HOUSEBANK CIRCUIT BREAKER IS 30’, THE HOUSE BANK ISIN THE ENGINE COMPARTMENT, THE SYSTEM IS12VDC AND ALLOWING FOR MAXIMUM RF OUTPUTAT MINIMUM BATTERY VOLTAGE, LOAD CURRENT IS33.3AWHAT SIZE CONDUCTOR IS REQUIRED?F-AMPS = 30’ x 33.3A = 999 F-AMPS 27
    28. 28. VOLTAGE DROPDON’T FORGET…FROM THE AMERICAN BOAT AND YACHT COUNCILSTANDARDS AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION REPORTS FORSMALL CRAFT, 2012-201311.4.2.6 Voltage Drop - Conductors used for panelboard orswitchboard main feeders, bilge blowers, electronicequipment, navigation lights, and other circuits wherevoltage drop must be kept to a minimum, shall be sized fora voltage drop not to exceed three percent. 28
    29. 29. VOLTAGE DROP ☟ 29
    30. 30. THAT’S IT FOR VOLTAGE DROP (THANK YOU, SIGHS THE AUDIENCE!)ANY QUESTIONS BEFORE MOVING ON TO THE NEXT, EDGE OF YOUR SEAT, TOPIC? 30
    31. 31. SIZZLING TOPIC #2: THOSE IRRITATING,BUT OH SO NECESSARY, IN-LINE FUSES ATO/ATC FUSE HOLDER (BLADE TYPE) AGC FUSE HOLDER-DRIP PROOF (GLASS TYPE) 31
    32. 32. IN-LINE FUSESWE HAVE TWO ISSUES: PROTECTING THE CONDUCTORS FROM A SHORT CIRCUIT SITUATION REMEMBER AMPACITY? PROTECTING THE EQUIPMENT HOWEVER, MANY ELECTRONIC DEVICES REQUIRE CIRCUIT PROTECTION AS LOW AS 1A. ELECTRONICS’ MANUFACTURES GENERALLY PROVIDE A FACTORY INSTALLED IN-LINE FUSE HOLDER IN THE B+ CONDUCTOR TO THE PIECE OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT THIS FUSE HOLDER IS OFTEN OF POOR QUALITY AND PRONE TO WATER INTRUSION 32
    33. 33. IN-LINE FUSESRECENTLY ON A 44’ CALIFORNIAN MOTOR YACHT THE “WIGGLE IN” FLYING BRIDGE ACCESS SPORTED NO FEWER THAN SIX FACTORY INSTALLED AGC IN-LINE FUSES UNDER THE DASH THE TILT BACK LOWER STEERING STATION HAS THREE FACTORY INSTALLED AGC IN-LINE FUSESESSENTIALLY IMPOSSIBLE, OR AT LEAST VERY DIFFICULT,TO QUICKLY CHECK TO SEE IF A FUSE IS BLOWN IF THEELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT DOES NOT POWER UP 33
    34. 34. IN-LINE FUSESA SOLUTION THAT SOMETIMES WORKS. 34
    35. 35. IN-LINE FUSES-A BETTER WAYTHOSE NICE FOLKS AT BLUE SEA SYSTEMS HAVEJUST COME OUT WITH ANOTHER OPTION…MYOPINION IS THAT IT IS JUST ABOUT IDEAL! 35
    36. 36. IN-LINE FUSES-A BETTER WAY Independent Sourced Circuit ST Blade Fuse Block 36
    37. 37. IN-LINE FUSES-A BETTER WAY B+ OUT TOB+ IN FROM INDIVIDUAL SOURCES LOADS Independent Sourced Circuit ST Blade Fuse Block 37
    38. 38. SUMMARYVOLTAGE DROP AND ITS IMPORTANCEAMPACITY AND ITS IMPORTANCECONDUCTOR SIZING, THE EASY WAYHOW TO PROTECT YOUR EXPENSIVE ELECTRONICSWITHOUT USING CONVENTIONAL IN-LINE FUSESBURIED BEHIND THE JOINERY 38
    39. 39. QUESTIONS PLEASE BE KIND! 39

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