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Research Paper


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Research Paper

  1. 1. Schoppy 1Johnny SchoppyMs. TilleryBritish Literature28 October 2011 Freedom Tower Many aspects are involved in the building process besides the actual construction andengineering of the building, the architecture is the most important. Architecture is the overalllook and appearance of a building. Giving the building a curb appeal or that outside appearanceand what very little people do know in the structure of what is hidden inside. After the dreadedattacks that occurred on September 11th, 2001 the City of New York was left with a colossal footprint of what is now ground zero. In the past decade New York has wanted to do something withthat and in the past five years that something has begun to take shape. Two of the world’s mostpristine architects went head to head deciding the master plan of this magnificent building.Though the architects butted heads, together they came up with the architecture and theconstruction plans that make this building elegant and beautiful as well as structurally sound andvirtually indestructible this building is now known around the world as the Freedom Tower. A few months after the attacks on September 11, 2001, the Governor of New York,George E. Pataki, devised a plan and established the Lower Manhattan DevelopmentCorporation. This corporation had commission over the rebuilding at ground zero. Many designscame up but none really suit the job until there was an international competition in order to findthe best idea for the new world trade center that should be built, the winner would have theultimate right to design and built the new world trade center. The winner of the design contestwas a man named Daniel Libeskind. After the design of Libeskind was picked, some problems
  2. 2. Schoppy 2sprouted the land owner Larry Silverstein thought that it was his right to choose an architect ofhis choice. Not taking Sliverstein much time at all to find an architect that would give him thenew world trade center that he was in search for. The new architect was David Childs from the world famous architecture companySkidmore Owings and Merrill (Architecture). Though the plan was for Childs and Libeskind tocollaborate and make the ultimate World Trade Center, but that idea slowly went down the drainwith Childs coming out on top as the lead architect it was his idea that ranked supreme, thusmaking Libeskind in charge of the master plan (One World Trade Center). On the other hand,Libeskinds idea that won over the hearts of Americans it was a very symbolic and meaningfultower that was environmentally friendly by providing its own power and much of thesurrounding Manhattan area (Rebuilding NYC). The one down fall of his idea was it did notprovide as much office space as Silverstein wanted and Childs plan provided that. Ever thoughLibeskind’s plan was more elegant and a greater symbol of the tragedy it was not aseconomically friendly to Sliverstein, he wanted the extra cash flow. With the new height of thetower at a symbolic 1,776 feet tall this would give Silvertein the office space he desired. The final design plan for the new world trade center, Freedom Tower, will be the tallestbuilding in New York City and even the United States. Freedom tower has an ultra-modern typeof architecture to it; this is a very crisp and clean style that is very popular now in today’s society(World Trade Center). The building will sit on a 200 foot pedestal of stainless steel due to theidea of another terrorist attack from the street. The 200 foot pedestal would give the people therefirst impression of the building and rather creating a fortress, Childs wanted the building to bebright and inviting piece of art. George E. Pataki the Governor of New York stated, "I shared thefears that the security issues would lead the base to be something more intimidating than
  3. 3. Schoppy 3inviting," he said, "but the building is light and very luminescent and very inviting, and at thesame time meets the highest security standards in the world" (Revised Design for FreedomTower Unveiled ). The pedestal would be covered; Mr. Childs now proposed to cover the base in panels oflaminated glass with a saw-tooth face made of prisms in a vertical array. The light travelingthrough them would create rainbows of colors which would take away the look of the fortressthat was inched behind the glass. Many people thought this was going to affect the invitingnessof the building as Kenneth J. Ringler Jr., New Jersey and New York’s Port Authority Directorstates, "there were many concerns that this was going to resemble fortress” (Revised Design forFreedom Tower Unveiled). Furthermore, the building will be in somewhat of a square with tapered corners. Whenseen from the north and south the Freedom tower gives an illusion of the original twin towers.When seen from the east and west it is in the shape of an obelisk resembling the WashingtonMonument (Rising: Rebuilding Ground Zero- Unique Shape). The building will have 2.6 millionsquare feet of office space which really suit Silverstein’s fancy (1 World Trade CenterFootprint). At the top, the last 408 feet of the towers height would be a white structure, clad infiberglass composite panels, with a gentle convex curve in the middle. Designed in collaborationwith the sculptor Kenneth Snelson, it would hide a bristling forest of antennas (Revised Designfor Freedom Tower Unveiled). The building would also have a spire that would resemble anabstract version of the Statue of Liberty’s touch and at night the spire would be illuminated. Inaddition the spire will give the Freedom Tower that extra distance into the sky to reach thatsymbolic height of 1,776 feet which is the year America got their independence (The Plan forLower Manhattan).
  4. 4. Schoppy 4 The Architecture of the new freedom tower calls for reinforcements. The architectureand engineering of the new tower are intended to with stand any terrorist attacks such as anairplane from above or an attack at ground level, it will be built to withstand it all. Working fromthe bottom up the building will be lifted 200 feet up by a massive steel pedestal. With thepedestal made with the strongest steel in the world it will also be sealed with layers of concrete.The phrase "concrete bunker" was tossed around (Revised Design for Freedom Tower Unveiled).These walls are called the blast walls within them there will be reinforce steel bars and highdensity concrete built to with stand the explosions. Freedom tower was practically indestructibleat ground level (Rising: Rebuilding Ground Zero- Tower One Reinforcement). As the building goes up it still maintains its indestructible quality. This barrier has a verypleasant glass covering as mentioned before. A new concept was introduced in to this building asa result of the accidents of nine eleven. The twin towers had and elevator system that had to stopmidway up this was to get in to a different elevator if one needed to proceed higher. Now in thenew construction the elevators do not have a drop off floor instead each elevator is able to go tothe very top and to the very bottom this is a fairly new concept that has been incorporated intoday’s sky scrapers. Also out of the five elevators in the new Freedom Tower on will be waterproof this is a great plus. For example, if the building where to catch fire and the sprinklersystem turns on this allows people to take the elevator to the ground floor rather than runningdown a hundred flights of stairs (Revised Design for Freedom Tower Unveiled). The stairs would still be a safe route because Freedom Tower will not make the samemistake as the twin towers; they will be the safest way down if another accident occurs. Four setsof stairs will be within Freedom Tower and each stair case will be surrounded on all sides bythree feet of very dense concrete. The walls of concrete will serve as somewhat of a backbone for
  5. 5. Schoppy 5the tower by providing excellent support (Rising: Rebuilding Ground Zero- Tower OneReinforcement). Engineers believe that with this kind of support the tower will be able towithstand the impact of a plane no doubt. Another great safety precaution that was incorporatedin the building it will now be safe from above with its new concrete backbone as well as from theground with the pedestal. The buildings security surpasses the Twin Tower’s by a long shot theUnited States has made the mistake once and that same mistake will hopefully never happenagain (Rising: Rebuilding Ground Zero- The Master Plan). All in all, the freedom tower will beone of the safest sky scrapers in the world if not the safest. In conclusion, the master plan was success. Through the combined efforts of DanielLibeskind and David Childs the new Freedom Tower is going to be breath taking. As a team theysought out the week points in the Twin Towers and went from there. Their goal to build abeautiful architectural building that was also very resilient. Freedom Tower will not just stand asa world trade center, but as a world icon that the United States as a society will never forget andgive up what happened on that day in September. The Freedom Tower will be an icon of beautyand perseverance and also a place of remembrance for all the people that gave their life due tothe terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers. Even after the Libskind and Childs disagreements thefinal product will definitely be worth their efforts by building a sleek, durable structure that willbecome an icon and one of the few faces of the United States of America.
  6. 6. Schoppy 6 Works Cited“Architecture.” Inhabitat New York City. ©, 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. < winning-wtc-design/>.“One World Trade Center.”, 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <>.“1 World Trade Center Footprint.”, 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. < Ground-Floor-Plan.htm>.“The Plan for Lower Manhattan.” LMDC. Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, 2007. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. < new_design_plans/default.asp>.“Rebuilding NYC.” GothamGazette. Citizens Union Foundation, 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <>.“Revised Design for Freedom Tower Unveiled.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. < 28cnd-freedom.html>.The Rising: Rebuilding Ground Zero- The Master Plan. DIscoveryNetworks, 2011. Youtube. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. < GUw40Reyxcc>.The Rising: Rebuilding Ground Zero- Tower One Reinforcement. DiscoveryNetworks, 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. < NSqfRfE&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PL7E758A9C1891ED44>.
  7. 7. Schoppy 7Rising: Rebuilding Ground Zero - Unique Shape. DiscoveryTV, 2011. Youtube. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <>.“World Trade Center.” World Trade Center. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, 2011. Web. 15 Sept. 2011. <>.