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  • Huge in Science Fiction and Futurist Movies\nModern Day are starting to bear strong resemblance to those seen in movies. \n
  • Huge in Science Fiction and Futurist Movies\nModern Day are starting to bear strong resemblance to those seen in movies. \n
  • Huge in Science Fiction and Futurist Movies\nModern Day are starting to bear strong resemblance to those seen in movies. \n
  • Huge in Science Fiction and Futurist Movies\nModern Day are starting to bear strong resemblance to those seen in movies. \n
  • Ancient literature contains much information on prosthetic limbs ins stories and poems. Most of the recorded accounts of prosthetic limbs were in Greek and Roman times due to their advancement of math, science, and health. One of the more famous one is Marcus Sergius a Roman general. Lost his right hand while battling in Second Punic War. His prosthetic had was made of iron and since it was able to hold his shield he continue his fight on the field. \nIn 2000 in Cairo Egypt researchers dug out what they believed to be an actual artificial body part. It was attached to a nearly 3000 year old mummified Egyptian noblewoman. It was a toe made of wood and leather.\nProsthetics changed very little throughout history and even into the Dark Ages nearly 2000 years later. Knights however used iron prosthetic limbs often made by the same metalworker who crafted their armor. Since the limbs they lost were bigger than toes the prosthetic was actually very bulky and heavy making them near useless. In fact they used the prosthetics to more to hide the deformity than to regain lost ability sense deformity was something to be embarrassed heavily about \nThe most famous ancient prosthetics are peg legs and metal hands shaped like hooks. This was the standard not only amongst pirates but ordinary people. While pirates did use them as Hollywood exaggerates they would undergo a painful experience due to the fact that the cook ended up being their surgeon.\n\n\n\n
  • Ancient literature contains much information on prosthetic limbs ins stories and poems. Most of the recorded accounts of prosthetic limbs were in Greek and Roman times due to their advancement of math, science, and health. One of the more famous one is Marcus Sergius a Roman general. Lost his right hand while battling in Second Punic War. His prosthetic had was made of iron and since it was able to hold his shield he continue his fight on the field. \nIn 2000 in Cairo Egypt researchers dug out what they believed to be an actual artificial body part. It was attached to a nearly 3000 year old mummified Egyptian noblewoman. It was a toe made of wood and leather.\nProsthetics changed very little throughout history and even into the Dark Ages nearly 2000 years later. Knights however used iron prosthetic limbs often made by the same metalworker who crafted their armor. Since the limbs they lost were bigger than toes the prosthetic was actually very bulky and heavy making them near useless. In fact they used the prosthetics to more to hide the deformity than to regain lost ability sense deformity was something to be embarrassed heavily about \nThe most famous ancient prosthetics are peg legs and metal hands shaped like hooks. This was the standard not only amongst pirates but ordinary people. While pirates did use them as Hollywood exaggerates they would undergo a painful experience due to the fact that the cook ended up being their surgeon.\n\n\n\n
  • Ancient literature contains much information on prosthetic limbs ins stories and poems. Most of the recorded accounts of prosthetic limbs were in Greek and Roman times due to their advancement of math, science, and health. One of the more famous one is Marcus Sergius a Roman general. Lost his right hand while battling in Second Punic War. His prosthetic had was made of iron and since it was able to hold his shield he continue his fight on the field. \nIn 2000 in Cairo Egypt researchers dug out what they believed to be an actual artificial body part. It was attached to a nearly 3000 year old mummified Egyptian noblewoman. It was a toe made of wood and leather.\nProsthetics changed very little throughout history and even into the Dark Ages nearly 2000 years later. Knights however used iron prosthetic limbs often made by the same metalworker who crafted their armor. Since the limbs they lost were bigger than toes the prosthetic was actually very bulky and heavy making them near useless. In fact they used the prosthetics to more to hide the deformity than to regain lost ability sense deformity was something to be embarrassed heavily about \nThe most famous ancient prosthetics are peg legs and metal hands shaped like hooks. This was the standard not only amongst pirates but ordinary people. While pirates did use them as Hollywood exaggerates they would undergo a painful experience due to the fact that the cook ended up being their surgeon.\n\n\n\n
  • In early 16th century a French Military Doctor Ambroise Pare famous for his work on amputation techniques contributed in the some major advances in prosthetics that had not been seen in many years. Not only did he invent the hinged mechanical hand but prosthetic legs that had locking knees and had specialized harness attachments. \nAround 1690 Pieter Verduyn a Dutch surgeon also contributed. He developed a lower leg prosthesis that were special int he way that they had specialized hinges and leather cuffs that improved the attachment to the body. Both of these doctors advances are still being used.\nIn the 1840’s the arrival of gaseous anesthesia allowed doctors to perform longer and more precise surgeries. This allowed them to operate on the limb stump so that instead of having it be attached to the body it could actually be connected and made one. With arrival of anesthesia also came sterile germ free surgeries which resulted in more successful amputations and increased the obtainment of prosthetic limbs.\nAs artificial limbs became more common there was an obvious need in advancing them. There were advancements notably in joint technology and suction based attachment methods. In 1812 a new advancement came along for prosthetic arms. The method was that the prosthetic arm could be controlled by the opposite should since they were connected by scraps.\n\n\n\n\n
  • In early 16th century a French Military Doctor Ambroise Pare famous for his work on amputation techniques contributed in the some major advances in prosthetics that had not been seen in many years. Not only did he invent the hinged mechanical hand but prosthetic legs that had locking knees and had specialized harness attachments. \nAround 1690 Pieter Verduyn a Dutch surgeon also contributed. He developed a lower leg prosthesis that were special int he way that they had specialized hinges and leather cuffs that improved the attachment to the body. Both of these doctors advances are still being used.\nIn the 1840’s the arrival of gaseous anesthesia allowed doctors to perform longer and more precise surgeries. This allowed them to operate on the limb stump so that instead of having it be attached to the body it could actually be connected and made one. With arrival of anesthesia also came sterile germ free surgeries which resulted in more successful amputations and increased the obtainment of prosthetic limbs.\nAs artificial limbs became more common there was an obvious need in advancing them. There were advancements notably in joint technology and suction based attachment methods. In 1812 a new advancement came along for prosthetic arms. The method was that the prosthetic arm could be controlled by the opposite should since they were connected by scraps.\n\n\n\n\n
  • In early 16th century a French Military Doctor Ambroise Pare famous for his work on amputation techniques contributed in the some major advances in prosthetics that had not been seen in many years. Not only did he invent the hinged mechanical hand but prosthetic legs that had locking knees and had specialized harness attachments. \nAround 1690 Pieter Verduyn a Dutch surgeon also contributed. He developed a lower leg prosthesis that were special int he way that they had specialized hinges and leather cuffs that improved the attachment to the body. Both of these doctors advances are still being used.\nIn the 1840’s the arrival of gaseous anesthesia allowed doctors to perform longer and more precise surgeries. This allowed them to operate on the limb stump so that instead of having it be attached to the body it could actually be connected and made one. With arrival of anesthesia also came sterile germ free surgeries which resulted in more successful amputations and increased the obtainment of prosthetic limbs.\nAs artificial limbs became more common there was an obvious need in advancing them. There were advancements notably in joint technology and suction based attachment methods. In 1812 a new advancement came along for prosthetic arms. The method was that the prosthetic arm could be controlled by the opposite should since they were connected by scraps.\n\n\n\n\n
  • The sudden need for prosthetics did not go into full swing until World War 1 and 2 due to the large numbers of soldiers with missing limbs.\n\nAlso the number of civilians without a limb has reached 1.7 million as of 2007\n\nThe old methods of using hook and peg were just not enough to satisfy the demands of people \n\nProsthetics were just not enough for the soldiers coming back wars in the Middle East. \nAs technology in war advances so must medicine. \n\nProsthetics though in the rise did not gets its first major boost in attention funding and advancement until after both World Wars. This was due to the fact that there were many veterans with amputations. So in 1945 the American government established the Artificial Limb Program. Since that year the advances in prosthetics were gigantic. There was soon to be huge differences between modern day and ancient in the fields of materials, design and surgical methods. These advancements were to make some of the most lifelike and very functional prosthetics. \n
  • The sudden need for prosthetics did not go into full swing until World War 1 and 2 due to the large numbers of soldiers with missing limbs.\n\nAlso the number of civilians without a limb has reached 1.7 million as of 2007\n\nThe old methods of using hook and peg were just not enough to satisfy the demands of people \n\nProsthetics were just not enough for the soldiers coming back wars in the Middle East. \nAs technology in war advances so must medicine. \n\nProsthetics though in the rise did not gets its first major boost in attention funding and advancement until after both World Wars. This was due to the fact that there were many veterans with amputations. So in 1945 the American government established the Artificial Limb Program. Since that year the advances in prosthetics were gigantic. There was soon to be huge differences between modern day and ancient in the fields of materials, design and surgical methods. These advancements were to make some of the most lifelike and very functional prosthetics. \n
  • The sudden need for prosthetics did not go into full swing until World War 1 and 2 due to the large numbers of soldiers with missing limbs.\n\nAlso the number of civilians without a limb has reached 1.7 million as of 2007\n\nThe old methods of using hook and peg were just not enough to satisfy the demands of people \n\nProsthetics were just not enough for the soldiers coming back wars in the Middle East. \nAs technology in war advances so must medicine. \n\nProsthetics though in the rise did not gets its first major boost in attention funding and advancement until after both World Wars. This was due to the fact that there were many veterans with amputations. So in 1945 the American government established the Artificial Limb Program. Since that year the advances in prosthetics were gigantic. There was soon to be huge differences between modern day and ancient in the fields of materials, design and surgical methods. These advancements were to make some of the most lifelike and very functional prosthetics. \n
  • A huge difference in prosthetics from now to then is the material. Before they were made of wood and leather. Now they are made of plastics and carbon fiber composites. This allows for the prosthetics to be lighter, stronger, and more realistic. Electronics have worked their way into prosthetics by making them more controllable and even capable of adapting to the function that the wearer demands whether in gripping or walking. In fact it is not rare for one person to have multiple prosthetics for each one will let them do something different. While prosthetics are still changing there are a few components that each must have.\nThe Pylon which is the frame of the limb. It is what provides support and mainly made of metal or carbon fiber. They can be covered by foam like material that differentiates in shape and color to match the wearers body shape and skin tone to make it realistic.\nThe Socket with is the portion that attaches the limb stump to the prosthetic limb itself. Because this is where large amounts of pressure and force are applied it must be precisely fitted to the limb so as not to cause discomfort or damage the tissues. It is not uncommon for the socket to have socks that make it soft and snug.\nThe suspension system which keeps the limb attached to the body. The multiple forms of them is either harness systems, straps, belts or sleeves. Or sometimes it has no physical device and relies on suction. This is when once the limb is fitted into the stump and airtight seal is created to keep it in place. The method of suction is more common when the patient will keep it there for long periods of time or even permanently. \nWhile each prosthetic must have these basics the actual device is unique to every patient. There is no universal prosthetic. Each one is custom. Also each one is made by a prosthesist who specializes in the making and fitting of prosthetics. They must be excellent in engineer for design, anatomy for fitting, and physiology for therapy after surgery. Usually a job found under Bio-Engineering.\nOne thing to remember about prosthetics is that while it can help restore some of the capabilities lost with eh limb it can not as of right now rival that of a biological limb. But great advances are being made daily to make artificial limbs more similar to real ones.\n\n\n
  • A huge difference in prosthetics from now to then is the material. Before they were made of wood and leather. Now they are made of plastics and carbon fiber composites. This allows for the prosthetics to be lighter, stronger, and more realistic. Electronics have worked their way into prosthetics by making them more controllable and even capable of adapting to the function that the wearer demands whether in gripping or walking. In fact it is not rare for one person to have multiple prosthetics for each one will let them do something different. While prosthetics are still changing there are a few components that each must have.\nThe Pylon which is the frame of the limb. It is what provides support and mainly made of metal or carbon fiber. They can be covered by foam like material that differentiates in shape and color to match the wearers body shape and skin tone to make it realistic.\nThe Socket with is the portion that attaches the limb stump to the prosthetic limb itself. Because this is where large amounts of pressure and force are applied it must be precisely fitted to the limb so as not to cause discomfort or damage the tissues. It is not uncommon for the socket to have socks that make it soft and snug.\nThe suspension system which keeps the limb attached to the body. The multiple forms of them is either harness systems, straps, belts or sleeves. Or sometimes it has no physical device and relies on suction. This is when once the limb is fitted into the stump and airtight seal is created to keep it in place. The method of suction is more common when the patient will keep it there for long periods of time or even permanently. \nWhile each prosthetic must have these basics the actual device is unique to every patient. There is no universal prosthetic. Each one is custom. Also each one is made by a prosthesist who specializes in the making and fitting of prosthetics. They must be excellent in engineer for design, anatomy for fitting, and physiology for therapy after surgery. Usually a job found under Bio-Engineering.\nOne thing to remember about prosthetics is that while it can help restore some of the capabilities lost with eh limb it can not as of right now rival that of a biological limb. But great advances are being made daily to make artificial limbs more similar to real ones.\n\n\n
  • Used for upper extremity amputations which is loss or all or part of an arm.\nBi later amputee is one who is missing both arms. Most who have this can become very skilled in using feet and toes.\n\n
  • Used for upper extremity amputations which is loss or all or part of an arm.\nBi later amputee is one who is missing both arms. Most who have this can become very skilled in using feet and toes.\n\n
  • Used for upper extremity amputations which is loss or all or part of an arm.\nBi later amputee is one who is missing both arms. Most who have this can become very skilled in using feet and toes.\n\n
  • Used for lower extremity amputations meaning missing portions of one or more legs. \nSubdivided into transfemoral- above the knee which requires prosthetic device with an artificial knee, and a transtibial amputation- below the knee which allows the patient to retain the use of his or her own knee.\n\n
  • Used for lower extremity amputations meaning missing portions of one or more legs. \nSubdivided into transfemoral- above the knee which requires prosthetic device with an artificial knee, and a transtibial amputation- below the knee which allows the patient to retain the use of his or her own knee.\n\n
  • Used for lower extremity amputations meaning missing portions of one or more legs. \nSubdivided into transfemoral- above the knee which requires prosthetic device with an artificial knee, and a transtibial amputation- below the knee which allows the patient to retain the use of his or her own knee.\n\n
  • Precise measurements have to be taken. Either by human hand or with the use or scanners and computers that take very exact measurements. Sometimes taken before ampuatation if possible to get best fit and size. Doctors and Prosthesist talk before operation. \nThe patient is not yet ready for the prosthetic till weeks after the amputation surgery or once the wound has had chance to heal. \nThe plaster mold is then taken off the residual limb. The mold then acts as the guide to making a duplicate of the residual limb. The duplicate is then used to test the fit of the prosthetic as its being built to insure it will fit before putting it on the patient. \nAlso careful attention is paid to the structure of the residual limb especially with the muscles tendons and bones.\nThe health of the patient and condition of the skin are other factors taken into account when designing the prosthetic.\n\n\n\n
  • Precise measurements have to be taken. Either by human hand or with the use or scanners and computers that take very exact measurements. Sometimes taken before ampuatation if possible to get best fit and size. Doctors and Prosthesist talk before operation. \nThe patient is not yet ready for the prosthetic till weeks after the amputation surgery or once the wound has had chance to heal. \nThe plaster mold is then taken off the residual limb. The mold then acts as the guide to making a duplicate of the residual limb. The duplicate is then used to test the fit of the prosthetic as its being built to insure it will fit before putting it on the patient. \nAlso careful attention is paid to the structure of the residual limb especially with the muscles tendons and bones.\nThe health of the patient and condition of the skin are other factors taken into account when designing the prosthetic.\n\n\n\n
  • Precise measurements have to be taken. Either by human hand or with the use or scanners and computers that take very exact measurements. Sometimes taken before ampuatation if possible to get best fit and size. Doctors and Prosthesist talk before operation. \nThe patient is not yet ready for the prosthetic till weeks after the amputation surgery or once the wound has had chance to heal. \nThe plaster mold is then taken off the residual limb. The mold then acts as the guide to making a duplicate of the residual limb. The duplicate is then used to test the fit of the prosthetic as its being built to insure it will fit before putting it on the patient. \nAlso careful attention is paid to the structure of the residual limb especially with the muscles tendons and bones.\nThe health of the patient and condition of the skin are other factors taken into account when designing the prosthetic.\n\n\n\n
  • Physical therapy after an amputation and prosthetic device fitting is extremely important. Learning to walk with a prosthesis can be an especially difficult undertaking, requiring several months of rehabilitation and training. Therapy might also focus on using the prosthetic device to perform important everyday activities. For a leg prostheses, the prosthetist carefully monitors the walking gait of the patient and makes adjustments as necessary.\nThe prosthetist pays especially close attention to the interface between the patient's residual limb and the prosthetic socket. After an amputation, a patient's residual limb will typically shrink over the course of several months as swelling diminishes and muscles begin to atrophy, or shrink from lack of use. It's possible that new sockets may need to be fitted to accommodate the reduction in size. Layers of sock-like dressings can also be varied to accommodate for the changing size of the residual limb. A prosthetist must work especially closely with children, to make sure that their prosthetic limbs are resized or replaced as necessary to keep up with their natural growth.\nA patient will continue to visit the prosthetist throughout his or her life, since residual limbs can always change shape and prosthetic devices eventually break down. In fact, according to the National Limb Loss Information Center, an average prosthetic device has a lifespan of only three years.\n\n
  • Physical therapy after an amputation and prosthetic device fitting is extremely important. Learning to walk with a prosthesis can be an especially difficult undertaking, requiring several months of rehabilitation and training. Therapy might also focus on using the prosthetic device to perform important everyday activities. For a leg prostheses, the prosthetist carefully monitors the walking gait of the patient and makes adjustments as necessary.\nThe prosthetist pays especially close attention to the interface between the patient's residual limb and the prosthetic socket. After an amputation, a patient's residual limb will typically shrink over the course of several months as swelling diminishes and muscles begin to atrophy, or shrink from lack of use. It's possible that new sockets may need to be fitted to accommodate the reduction in size. Layers of sock-like dressings can also be varied to accommodate for the changing size of the residual limb. A prosthetist must work especially closely with children, to make sure that their prosthetic limbs are resized or replaced as necessary to keep up with their natural growth.\nA patient will continue to visit the prosthetist throughout his or her life, since residual limbs can always change shape and prosthetic devices eventually break down. In fact, according to the National Limb Loss Information Center, an average prosthetic device has a lifespan of only three years.\n\n
  • Different types of prosthetic limbs are designed with different goals in mind. Often these goals depend on the site of the amputation and the needs of the patient.\nCosmetic prosthetic limb- designed with appearance in mind rather than controllability. Detailed to the freckle, hair and fingerprint if wanted. \n\n\n\n
  • TMR- Targeted muscle reinnervation. Develped by Todd Kuiken. \nBrain still sends waves to the arm to move but before it would stop at the stump. With TMR’s it is possible for the prosthetic to read the electrical signals the brain sends and to move the fingers or joints. So even just thinking about moving the arm will move it as supposed to commanding it to move. However not yet perfect due to the fact that signals can still get lost. Due to the fact that very hard to connect every nerve to the prosthetic. \n In fact as long as micro-electrodes are inserted into brain the person can control the prosthetic without being attached to it. \n\nDARPA-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency funds 10s of Millions for cutting edge technology. \n\nFuture advances will actually let the patient have a sense of touch through their artificial limb due to neural interfacing. \n\nChristian Kandlbauer lost both arms in work accident in 2005. Both arms are now replaced by TMR’s in 2007. Able to pass his driving test.\n\n\n\n\n\n\n
  • TMR- Targeted muscle reinnervation. Develped by Todd Kuiken. \nBrain still sends waves to the arm to move but before it would stop at the stump. With TMR’s it is possible for the prosthetic to read the electrical signals the brain sends and to move the fingers or joints. So even just thinking about moving the arm will move it as supposed to commanding it to move. However not yet perfect due to the fact that signals can still get lost. Due to the fact that very hard to connect every nerve to the prosthetic. \n In fact as long as micro-electrodes are inserted into brain the person can control the prosthetic without being attached to it. \n\nDARPA-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency funds 10s of Millions for cutting edge technology. \n\nFuture advances will actually let the patient have a sense of touch through their artificial limb due to neural interfacing. \n\nChristian Kandlbauer lost both arms in work accident in 2005. Both arms are now replaced by TMR’s in 2007. Able to pass his driving test.\n\n\n\n\n\n\n
  • Number in the thousands of transplant operations. \nOne problem is that the body can reject the transplant due to not recognizing the cells and destroying them.\nGreat risk of cancer, infections, and other disorders. \nMust go through intense physical therapy to avoid rejection. \nEven transplanted limbs cannot match that of the original to the person though said to be better than prosthetics.\nAfter two months some patients can toss balls, use paddles, tie shoes, and lift and carry up to 34 crates. Can to many ordinary daily life activities. \nHowever many view this as unethical and selfish. Said it is a Frankenstein and a monstrosity by joining together different human body parts.\nThe 56-year-old unnamed patient lost both of his arms in a farming accident six years ago givens arms of teenage boy believed to have died in a car crash.\nThe 16-hour operation was done by surgeons in Munich and the man is said to be recovering well. He is expected to be able to leave the hospital in about five weeks.\nThe transplant team was led by renowned surgeon professor Edgar Biemer, 65, and his colleague Christof Hoehnke.\nThere is still a possibility that the patient's body will reject the donor limbs, professor Biemer has pointed out.\nHe won't play the piano, but otherwise he will live much better than before.\n\n\n\n\n
  • Due to the rising knowledge of human anatomy what was once impossible to replace is while very expensive still very much possible.\nIn the beginning the best eye prosthetics would have been a wooden eye and in many cases people just resorted to eye patches.\nUp until the recently there were no heart prosthetics. the best option was to have a heart transplant\n
  • Due to the rising knowledge of human anatomy what was once impossible to replace is while very expensive still very much possible.\nIn the beginning the best eye prosthetics would have been a wooden eye and in many cases people just resorted to eye patches.\nUp until the recently there were no heart prosthetics. the best option was to have a heart transplant\n
  • In 1988 Dr. Mark Humayun discovered that a blind person could see light by stimulating the ganglia nerve behind the retina with an electrical current. This proved that while the retina was damaged the nerves behind where still functional. Based on this scientists have set out to create devices that could restore vision.\n\nA company by name of Second Sight has created device that allows blind to see. Limited vision though.\nThe device is not an actual eye but rather works as photoreceptors. Cells in the back of the retina that take in light and pass the signals to the brain through the optic nerve. The retina because that is where the light is interpreted. Those who have become blind not born blind. Blind due to eye diseases such as macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. \nDevice is the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System\nIts a camera that captures images in real time and sends images to micro chip where it is processed and sent as electrical pules to a radio transmitter where it is sent to the receiver where it eventually sends the pulses to the retinal implant.\nIt is not automatic. Patients actually have to train themselves to see and only after much seeing the brain can start to interpret what it is seeing. \n\nCant see motion as fast and doesnt have as a high a resolution as normal eye.\n\nResearchers are already planning a third version that has a thousand electrodes on the retinal implant, which they believe could allow for facial-recognition capabilities.\nWhile great strides are being made to advance eye prosthetics they are nowhere near to even begin to rival that of a humans. \n\n\n
  • In 1988 Dr. Mark Humayun discovered that a blind person could see light by stimulating the ganglia nerve behind the retina with an electrical current. This proved that while the retina was damaged the nerves behind where still functional. Based on this scientists have set out to create devices that could restore vision.\n\nA company by name of Second Sight has created device that allows blind to see. Limited vision though.\nThe device is not an actual eye but rather works as photoreceptors. Cells in the back of the retina that take in light and pass the signals to the brain through the optic nerve. The retina because that is where the light is interpreted. Those who have become blind not born blind. Blind due to eye diseases such as macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. \nDevice is the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System\nIts a camera that captures images in real time and sends images to micro chip where it is processed and sent as electrical pules to a radio transmitter where it is sent to the receiver where it eventually sends the pulses to the retinal implant.\nIt is not automatic. Patients actually have to train themselves to see and only after much seeing the brain can start to interpret what it is seeing. \n\nCant see motion as fast and doesnt have as a high a resolution as normal eye.\n\nResearchers are already planning a third version that has a thousand electrodes on the retinal implant, which they believe could allow for facial-recognition capabilities.\nWhile great strides are being made to advance eye prosthetics they are nowhere near to even begin to rival that of a humans. \n\n\n
  • In 1988 Dr. Mark Humayun discovered that a blind person could see light by stimulating the ganglia nerve behind the retina with an electrical current. This proved that while the retina was damaged the nerves behind where still functional. Based on this scientists have set out to create devices that could restore vision.\n\nA company by name of Second Sight has created device that allows blind to see. Limited vision though.\nThe device is not an actual eye but rather works as photoreceptors. Cells in the back of the retina that take in light and pass the signals to the brain through the optic nerve. The retina because that is where the light is interpreted. Those who have become blind not born blind. Blind due to eye diseases such as macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. \nDevice is the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System\nIts a camera that captures images in real time and sends images to micro chip where it is processed and sent as electrical pules to a radio transmitter where it is sent to the receiver where it eventually sends the pulses to the retinal implant.\nIt is not automatic. Patients actually have to train themselves to see and only after much seeing the brain can start to interpret what it is seeing. \n\nCant see motion as fast and doesnt have as a high a resolution as normal eye.\n\nResearchers are already planning a third version that has a thousand electrodes on the retinal implant, which they believe could allow for facial-recognition capabilities.\nWhile great strides are being made to advance eye prosthetics they are nowhere near to even begin to rival that of a humans. \n\n\n
  • Until recently the most severe of heart failure patients had to wait for heart transplants. However due the small supply of hearts while a few thousands survive many more thousands have to die due to waiting for a donor heart. \nHowever there was hope in the horizon for in July 2 2001 a Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky performed the first artificial heart transplant. The device was the AbioCor Implantable Replacement Heart. It is the first fully self contained artificial hear and is expected to double the life expectancy of heart patients. \n\n60-100 Beats per minute. Two stages: 1st the right and left atria contract at the same time pumping blood to the right and left ventricles. The second stage is when the ventricles contract together to propel blood out of the heart. \n\nPatients with the AbioCor heart will have same beats per minute but blood can only be forced out one ventricle at a time. So alternately it will send blood to the lungs then to the body. Able to pump 10 liters per minute, which is enough for everyday activities. Weighs 2 pounds. \nHydraulic pump –where pressure is used to get the blood flowing.\nPorting valve –where the blood is released either into the lungs or the body.\nWireless energy-transfer system - sends power to the internal battery and controller device.\nInternal battery –rechargeable battery implanted inside the patients abdomen giving them 30 to 40 minutes to perform some activities such as showing while disconnected from the main battery pack.\nExternal battery – Worn on a Velcro belt pack around the waist. Rechargeable and offers four to five hours of power \nController - Monitors and controls the pumping speed of the heart.\n\nIt is not custom made for the patient meaning if it will not fit they will not get it. \nWhile doctors still encourage to be organ donors AbioCor’s will save the lives of those who cant afford to wait for a heart transplant in the future. For while approximately 2000 are saved every year with heart transplants many more thousands would have died waiting. \n\n
  • Until recently the most severe of heart failure patients had to wait for heart transplants. However due the small supply of hearts while a few thousands survive many more thousands have to die due to waiting for a donor heart. \nHowever there was hope in the horizon for in July 2 2001 a Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky performed the first artificial heart transplant. The device was the AbioCor Implantable Replacement Heart. It is the first fully self contained artificial hear and is expected to double the life expectancy of heart patients. \n\n60-100 Beats per minute. Two stages: 1st the right and left atria contract at the same time pumping blood to the right and left ventricles. The second stage is when the ventricles contract together to propel blood out of the heart. \n\nPatients with the AbioCor heart will have same beats per minute but blood can only be forced out one ventricle at a time. So alternately it will send blood to the lungs then to the body. Able to pump 10 liters per minute, which is enough for everyday activities. Weighs 2 pounds. \nHydraulic pump –where pressure is used to get the blood flowing.\nPorting valve –where the blood is released either into the lungs or the body.\nWireless energy-transfer system - sends power to the internal battery and controller device.\nInternal battery –rechargeable battery implanted inside the patients abdomen giving them 30 to 40 minutes to perform some activities such as showing while disconnected from the main battery pack.\nExternal battery – Worn on a Velcro belt pack around the waist. Rechargeable and offers four to five hours of power \nController - Monitors and controls the pumping speed of the heart.\n\nIt is not custom made for the patient meaning if it will not fit they will not get it. \nWhile doctors still encourage to be organ donors AbioCor’s will save the lives of those who cant afford to wait for a heart transplant in the future. For while approximately 2000 are saved every year with heart transplants many more thousands would have died waiting. \n\n
  • Until recently the most severe of heart failure patients had to wait for heart transplants. However due the small supply of hearts while a few thousands survive many more thousands have to die due to waiting for a donor heart. \nHowever there was hope in the horizon for in July 2 2001 a Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky performed the first artificial heart transplant. The device was the AbioCor Implantable Replacement Heart. It is the first fully self contained artificial hear and is expected to double the life expectancy of heart patients. \n\n60-100 Beats per minute. Two stages: 1st the right and left atria contract at the same time pumping blood to the right and left ventricles. The second stage is when the ventricles contract together to propel blood out of the heart. \n\nPatients with the AbioCor heart will have same beats per minute but blood can only be forced out one ventricle at a time. So alternately it will send blood to the lungs then to the body. Able to pump 10 liters per minute, which is enough for everyday activities. Weighs 2 pounds. \nHydraulic pump –where pressure is used to get the blood flowing.\nPorting valve –where the blood is released either into the lungs or the body.\nWireless energy-transfer system - sends power to the internal battery and controller device.\nInternal battery –rechargeable battery implanted inside the patients abdomen giving them 30 to 40 minutes to perform some activities such as showing while disconnected from the main battery pack.\nExternal battery – Worn on a Velcro belt pack around the waist. Rechargeable and offers four to five hours of power \nController - Monitors and controls the pumping speed of the heart.\n\nIt is not custom made for the patient meaning if it will not fit they will not get it. \nWhile doctors still encourage to be organ donors AbioCor’s will save the lives of those who cant afford to wait for a heart transplant in the future. For while approximately 2000 are saved every year with heart transplants many more thousands would have died waiting. \n\n
  • It is a seven hour surgery and extremely delicate one. The surgery requires hundreds of stitches to properly secure the artificial heart. The surgery can require well up to two dozen people including 2 surgeons, 14 nurses, perfusionists, anesthesiologists and other support staff.\nOnly 12 patients have undergone artificial hearts. All of them have died. \n\nCan guarantee anywhere between 30 to 60 days left to live with the most optimistic life expectancy of 6 months. One patient did make it to 5 months before passing away.\n\nProsthetic Hearts are still new as far as technology goes and great strides are being made to prolong the life expectancy of those who undergo the surgery. \n\n\n\n
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  • http://careersinpharmaceutical.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/showResourcesLinks/CatID/30/prosthetics-implant-companies.htm\n\n
  • pieces of flexible materials applied to actors face to transform their appearance. \nSaves money on CGI for it is cheaper\nWhile it gets hot and uncomfortable it gives a far more realistic touch to it.\nIt is becoming popular throughout movies. \n
  • pieces of flexible materials applied to actors face to transform their appearance. \nSaves money on CGI for it is cheaper\nWhile it gets hot and uncomfortable it gives a far more realistic touch to it.\nIt is becoming popular throughout movies. \n
  • pieces of flexible materials applied to actors face to transform their appearance. \nSaves money on CGI for it is cheaper\nWhile it gets hot and uncomfortable it gives a far more realistic touch to it.\nIt is becoming popular throughout movies. \n
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  • FINALSGPPRESENTATION

    1. 1. prosthetics j o h n s t a l k e r
    2. 2. ThesisProsthetics are devices that help a person regain the lost abilities from anamputation of original limb. Purpose of the project is to learn the history ofprosthetics and the different types of prosthetics. 1)http://www.amputee-coalition.org/inmotion/nov_dec_07/history_prosthetics01.jpg
    3. 3. ThesisProsthetics are devices that help a person regain the lost abilities from anamputation of original limb. Purpose of the project is to learn the history ofprosthetics and the different types of prosthetics. 1)http://www.amputee-coalition.org/inmotion/nov_dec_07/history_prosthetics01.jpg
    4. 4. Personal RelevanceIt is of interest to me. Something i hope tohelp out with when going into engineering inthe future.
    5. 5. You Have Already seen prosthetics 2)http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_l9_M3jYn25I/SQe0QXbqR8I/AAAAAAAADAE/wzmzu0brL0c/s320/new+eye.JPG 3)http://www.technovelgy.com/graphics/content08/i-limb-i-robot-bionic-arm.jpg4)http://images.wikia.com/starwars/images/a/af/LukeHand.jpg 5)http://www.southafricabooks.com/images/DarthVader.jpg
    6. 6. You Have Already seen prosthetics 2)http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_l9_M3jYn25I/SQe0QXbqR8I/AAAAAAAADAE/wzmzu0brL0c/s320/new+eye.JPG 3)http://www.technovelgy.com/graphics/content08/i-limb-i-robot-bionic-arm.jpg4)http://images.wikia.com/starwars/images/a/af/LukeHand.jpg 5)http://www.southafricabooks.com/images/DarthVader.jpg
    7. 7. You Have Already seen prosthetics 2)http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_l9_M3jYn25I/SQe0QXbqR8I/AAAAAAAADAE/wzmzu0brL0c/s320/new+eye.JPG 3)http://www.technovelgy.com/graphics/content08/i-limb-i-robot-bionic-arm.jpg4)http://images.wikia.com/starwars/images/a/af/LukeHand.jpg 5)http://www.southafricabooks.com/images/DarthVader.jpg
    8. 8. You Have Already seen prosthetics 2)http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_l9_M3jYn25I/SQe0QXbqR8I/AAAAAAAADAE/wzmzu0brL0c/s320/new+eye.JPG 3)http://www.technovelgy.com/graphics/content08/i-limb-i-robot-bionic-arm.jpg4)http://images.wikia.com/starwars/images/a/af/LukeHand.jpg 5)http://www.southafricabooks.com/images/DarthVader.jpg
    9. 9. You Have Already seen prosthetics 2)http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_l9_M3jYn25I/SQe0QXbqR8I/AAAAAAAADAE/wzmzu0brL0c/s320/new+eye.JPG 3)http://www.technovelgy.com/graphics/content08/i-limb-i-robot-bionic-arm.jpg4)http://images.wikia.com/starwars/images/a/af/LukeHand.jpg 5)http://www.southafricabooks.com/images/DarthVader.jpg
    10. 10. History of Prosthetics Ancient Prosthetics 950-710 B.C.//nms.scran.ac.uk/database/media.php?file=postcard/image/0098/00987719.jpg&PHPSESSID=c 8)http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/prosthetic-limb-2.jpg 7)http://www.clipartoday.com/_thumbs/018/people/pirate_tnb.png
    11. 11. History of Prosthetics Ancient Prosthetics 950-710 B.C.//nms.scran.ac.uk/database/media.php?file=postcard/image/0098/00987719.jpg&PHPSESSID=c 8)http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/prosthetic-limb-2.jpg 7)http://www.clipartoday.com/_thumbs/018/people/pirate_tnb.png
    12. 12. History of Prosthetics Ancient Prosthetics 950-710 B.C.//nms.scran.ac.uk/database/media.php?file=postcard/image/0098/00987719.jpg&PHPSESSID=c 8)http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/prosthetic-limb-2.jpg 7)http://www.clipartoday.com/_thumbs/018/people/pirate_tnb.png
    13. 13. History of Prosthetics Ancient Prosthetics 950-710 B.C.//nms.scran.ac.uk/database/media.php?file=postcard/image/0098/00987719.jpg&PHPSESSID=c 8)http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/prosthetic-limb-2.jpg 7)http://www.clipartoday.com/_thumbs/018/people/pirate_tnb.png
    14. 14. cont. 1500-1900 Prosthetics9)http://www.karlsimon.com/gallery/albums/sketches_studies/prosthetics.jpg 11)http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/Ambroise_Paré.jpg/20 10)http://industrialanatomy.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/prosthetics1.jpg
    15. 15. cont. 1500-1900 Prosthetics9)http://www.karlsimon.com/gallery/albums/sketches_studies/prosthetics.jpg 11)http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/Ambroise_Paré.jpg/20 10)http://industrialanatomy.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/prosthetics1.jpg
    16. 16. cont. 1500-1900 Prosthetics9)http://www.karlsimon.com/gallery/albums/sketches_studies/prosthetics.jpg 11)http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/Ambroise_Paré.jpg/20 10)http://industrialanatomy.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/prosthetics1.jpg
    17. 17. cont. 1500-1900 Prosthetics9)http://www.karlsimon.com/gallery/albums/sketches_studies/prosthetics.jpg 11)http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/Ambroise_Paré.jpg/20 10)http://industrialanatomy.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/prosthetics1.jpg
    18. 18. Sudden Need12)http://classicalgreg.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/inflandersfields.jpg 13)http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/ww2/images/after/korea.jpg 14)http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/01/09/article-1241798-0061A55400000258-490_468x370.jpg
    19. 19. Sudden Need12)http://classicalgreg.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/inflandersfields.jpg 13)http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/ww2/images/after/korea.jpg 14)http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/01/09/article-1241798-0061A55400000258-490_468x370.jpg
    20. 20. Sudden Need12)http://classicalgreg.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/inflandersfields.jpg 13)http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/ww2/images/after/korea.jpg 14)http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/01/09/article-1241798-0061A55400000258-490_468x370.jpg
    21. 21. Sudden Need12)http://classicalgreg.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/inflandersfields.jpg 13)http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/ww2/images/after/korea.jpg 14)http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/01/09/article-1241798-0061A55400000258-490_468x370.jpg
    22. 22. cont. Modern Day Prosthetics 16)http://news.cnet.com/i/ne/p/2007/prosthetics_01_550x360.jpg15)http://dvice.com/assets_c/2009/04/JaipurKnee-Project-cheap-prosthetic-thumb-550xauto-16564.jpg
    23. 23. cont. Modern Day Prosthetics 16)http://news.cnet.com/i/ne/p/2007/prosthetics_01_550x360.jpg15)http://dvice.com/assets_c/2009/04/JaipurKnee-Project-cheap-prosthetic-thumb-550xauto-16564.jpg
    24. 24. cont. Modern Day Prosthetics 16)http://news.cnet.com/i/ne/p/2007/prosthetics_01_550x360.jpg15)http://dvice.com/assets_c/2009/04/JaipurKnee-Project-cheap-prosthetic-thumb-550xauto-16564.jpg
    25. 25. Prosthetic arms 17)http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2009/03/03/article-1158869-03B4754A000005DC-855_468x286.jpg18)http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_wm_image.html/M610010-Development_of_a_prosthetic_hand-SPL.jpg?id=776100010 19)http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/08/21/steampunk_cyber_limb/
    26. 26. Prosthetic arms 17)http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2009/03/03/article-1158869-03B4754A000005DC-855_468x286.jpg18)http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_wm_image.html/M610010-Development_of_a_prosthetic_hand-SPL.jpg?id=776100010 19)http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/08/21/steampunk_cyber_limb/
    27. 27. Prosthetic arms 17)http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2009/03/03/article-1158869-03B4754A000005DC-855_468x286.jpg18)http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_wm_image.html/M610010-Development_of_a_prosthetic_hand-SPL.jpg?id=776100010 19)http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/08/21/steampunk_cyber_limb/
    28. 28. Prosthetic arms 17)http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2009/03/03/article-1158869-03B4754A000005DC-855_468x286.jpg18)http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_wm_image.html/M610010-Development_of_a_prosthetic_hand-SPL.jpg?id=776100010 19)http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/08/21/steampunk_cyber_limb/
    29. 29. Prosthetic Legs20)http://classes.design.ucla.edu/Spring07/9-1/uploaded_images/prosthetic_legs-758746.jpg 21)http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/dailypix/2005/Dec/18/C-LegChart.gif 22)http://www.ossur.com/?PageID=15418
    30. 30. Prosthetic Legs20)http://classes.design.ucla.edu/Spring07/9-1/uploaded_images/prosthetic_legs-758746.jpg 21)http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/dailypix/2005/Dec/18/C-LegChart.gif 22)http://www.ossur.com/?PageID=15418
    31. 31. Prosthetic Legs20)http://classes.design.ucla.edu/Spring07/9-1/uploaded_images/prosthetic_legs-758746.jpg 21)http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/dailypix/2005/Dec/18/C-LegChart.gif 22)http://www.ossur.com/?PageID=15418
    32. 32. Prosthetic Legs20)http://classes.design.ucla.edu/Spring07/9-1/uploaded_images/prosthetic_legs-758746.jpg 21)http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/dailypix/2005/Dec/18/C-LegChart.gif 22)http://www.ossur.com/?PageID=15418
    33. 33. The Making of Prosthetics23)http://www.amputeesunite.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/prosthetic_new.jpg 24)http://www.lotempiolaw.com/uploads/image/3720955827_c469cc0d38.jpg Inventor Dean Kamen 25)http://pofsea.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/prosthetics_manufature-300x227.jpg
    34. 34. The Making of Prosthetics23)http://www.amputeesunite.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/prosthetic_new.jpg 24)http://www.lotempiolaw.com/uploads/image/3720955827_c469cc0d38.jpg Inventor Dean Kamen 25)http://pofsea.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/prosthetics_manufature-300x227.jpg
    35. 35. The Making of Prosthetics23)http://www.amputeesunite.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/prosthetic_new.jpg 24)http://www.lotempiolaw.com/uploads/image/3720955827_c469cc0d38.jpg Inventor Dean Kamen 25)http://pofsea.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/prosthetics_manufature-300x227.jpg
    36. 36. The Making of Prosthetics23)http://www.amputeesunite.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/prosthetic_new.jpg 24)http://www.lotempiolaw.com/uploads/image/3720955827_c469cc0d38.jpg Inventor Dean Kamen 25)http://pofsea.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/prosthetics_manufature-300x227.jpg
    37. 37. Therapy 26)http://www.mgh.org/rehab/graphics/prosthetic5.jpg Marquette GeneralRehabilitation Center 27)http://pt.med.miami.edu/images/Pros.jpg Miller School of Medicine Prosthetic and Amputee Reha
    38. 38. Therapy 26)http://www.mgh.org/rehab/graphics/prosthetic5.jpg Marquette GeneralRehabilitation Center 27)http://pt.med.miami.edu/images/Pros.jpg Miller School of Medicine Prosthetic and Amputee Reha
    39. 39. Therapy 26)http://www.mgh.org/rehab/graphics/prosthetic5.jpg Marquette GeneralRehabilitation Center 27)http://pt.med.miami.edu/images/Pros.jpg Miller School of Medicine Prosthetic and Amputee Reha
    40. 40. A Different purpose 28)http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3138/2913327312_a58e34af3d.jpg
    41. 41. A Different purpose 28)http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3138/2913327312_a58e34af3d.jpg
    42. 42. CUTTING EDGE29)http://gajitz.com/hands-on-tech-double-amputee-gets-mind-controlled-arms/ 30)http://gajitz.com/hands-on-tech-double-amputee-gets-mind-controlled-arms/ Christian Kandlbauer
    43. 43. CUTTING EDGE29)http://gajitz.com/hands-on-tech-double-amputee-gets-mind-controlled-arms/ 30)http://gajitz.com/hands-on-tech-double-amputee-gets-mind-controlled-arms/ Christian Kandlbauer
    44. 44. CUTTING EDGE29)http://gajitz.com/hands-on-tech-double-amputee-gets-mind-controlled-arms/ 30)http://gajitz.com/hands-on-tech-double-amputee-gets-mind-controlled-arms/ Christian Kandlbauer
    45. 45. Alternatives? 31)http://news.sky.com/sky-news/content/StaticFile/jpg/2008/Jul/Week4/15059989.jpg 56 year old German gets 16 year old boys arm
    46. 46. Alternatives? 31)http://news.sky.com/sky-news/content/StaticFile/jpg/2008/Jul/Week4/15059989.jpg 56 year old German gets 16 year old boys arm
    47. 47. NEW TYPES OF PROSTHETICSEYE PROSTHETICS HEART PROSTHETICS32)http://www.knowledgerush.com/wiki_image/9/9e/Iris.eye.225px.jpg 33)http://www.beityeshua.org/images/heartpumping.gif?12
    48. 48. NEW TYPES OF PROSTHETICSEYE PROSTHETICS HEART PROSTHETICS32)http://www.knowledgerush.com/wiki_image/9/9e/Iris.eye.225px.jpg 33)http://www.beityeshua.org/images/heartpumping.gif?12
    49. 49. NEW TYPES OF PROSTHETICSEYE PROSTHETICS HEART PROSTHETICS32)http://www.knowledgerush.com/wiki_image/9/9e/Iris.eye.225px.jpg 33)http://www.beityeshua.org/images/heartpumping.gif?12
    50. 50. Prosthetic eye’s Artificial Silicon Retina (ASR)34)http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/artificial-vision3.jpg 36)http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/modern-medicine/modern-medicine-pictures9.htm 35)http://msnbcmedia4.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/070122/070122_OptobionicsChip_hmed_2p.grid-6x2.jpg
    51. 51. Prosthetic eye’s Artificial Silicon Retina (ASR)34)http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/artificial-vision3.jpg 36)http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/modern-medicine/modern-medicine-pictures9.htm 35)http://msnbcmedia4.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/070122/070122_OptobionicsChip_hmed_2p.grid-6x2.jpg
    52. 52. Prosthetic eye’s Artificial Silicon Retina (ASR)34)http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/artificial-vision3.jpg 36)http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/modern-medicine/modern-medicine-pictures9.htm 35)http://msnbcmedia4.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/070122/070122_OptobionicsChip_hmed_2p.grid-6x2.jpg
    53. 53. Prosthetic eye’s Artificial Silicon Retina (ASR)34)http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/artificial-vision3.jpg 36)http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/modern-medicine/modern-medicine-pictures9.htm 35)http://msnbcmedia4.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/070122/070122_OptobionicsChip_hmed_2p.grid-6x2.jpg
    54. 54. prosthetic heart 37)http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.amyshah.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/pacemaker.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.amyshah.com/page/2/&usg=_ 39)http://www.blogcdn.com/www.engadget.com/media/2008/11/11-1-08-artificial-heart.jpg38)http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/modern-medicine/modern-medicine-pictures5.htm
    55. 55. prosthetic heart 37)http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.amyshah.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/pacemaker.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.amyshah.com/page/2/&usg=_ 39)http://www.blogcdn.com/www.engadget.com/media/2008/11/11-1-08-artificial-heart.jpg38)http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/modern-medicine/modern-medicine-pictures5.htm
    56. 56. prosthetic heart 37)http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.amyshah.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/pacemaker.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.amyshah.com/page/2/&usg=_ 39)http://www.blogcdn.com/www.engadget.com/media/2008/11/11-1-08-artificial-heart.jpg38)http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/modern-medicine/modern-medicine-pictures5.htm
    57. 57. prosthetic heart 37)http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.amyshah.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/pacemaker.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.amyshah.com/page/2/&usg=_ 39)http://www.blogcdn.com/www.engadget.com/media/2008/11/11-1-08-artificial-heart.jpg38)http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/modern-medicine/modern-medicine-pictures5.htm
    58. 58. The Surgery40)http://media.photobucket.com/image/recent/Saso4M/artificial-heart-abiocor-implanting.jpg
    59. 59. The Surgery40)http://media.photobucket.com/image/recent/Saso4M/artificial-heart-abiocor-implanting.jpg
    60. 60. Availability and costsLeg $5,000 to $50,000Arm $3,000 to $30,000Heart $100,000 to $300,000
    61. 61. Agencies, centers, Hospitals and programsBlatchford Clinical Services- LeadingProsthetics and Orthotics Company in UKAbilities Unlimited Inc. Colorado Springs,COAdvanced Prosthetics and OrthodonticsMount Dora, FLAmerican Prosthetics and Orthotics Inc.Clive, IAExcel Prosthetics and Orthotics Roanoke, VA
    62. 62. Facial Prosthetics41)http://www.nimbacreations.com/special-effects-supplies/components/com_virtuemart/ 43)http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_uDFMocvtGU4/TN4rzoa6F0I/AAAAAAAAAIU/GaARLwIsgOw/s1600/f 42)http://www.mostlydead.com/images/MSApe_sm.jpg
    63. 63. Facial Prosthetics41)http://www.nimbacreations.com/special-effects-supplies/components/com_virtuemart/ 43)http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_uDFMocvtGU4/TN4rzoa6F0I/AAAAAAAAAIU/GaARLwIsgOw/s1600/f 42)http://www.mostlydead.com/images/MSApe_sm.jpg
    64. 64. Facial Prosthetics41)http://www.nimbacreations.com/special-effects-supplies/components/com_virtuemart/ 43)http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_uDFMocvtGU4/TN4rzoa6F0I/AAAAAAAAAIU/GaARLwIsgOw/s1600/f 42)http://www.mostlydead.com/images/MSApe_sm.jpg
    65. 65. Facial Prosthetics41)http://www.nimbacreations.com/special-effects-supplies/components/com_virtuemart/ 43)http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_uDFMocvtGU4/TN4rzoa6F0I/AAAAAAAAAIU/GaARLwIsgOw/s1600/f 42)http://www.mostlydead.com/images/MSApe_sm.jpg
    66. 66. ApplicationImitate for one day how it would be like tolive without an arm, eyes, or legs.
    67. 67. Legs
    68. 68. Sight
    69. 69. Arm
    70. 70. Class ActivityNOW ITS YOUR TURN!!!
    71. 71. Works Cited 1)Discovery Health. “How Artificial Vision Will Work.” www.health.howstuffworks.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. <<a rel=nofollow href="http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/modern/artificial-vision.htm">http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/modern/artificial- vision.htm>;. Discovery Communications Inc. is the leading global real-word media source. Some of their networks include Planet Green, TLC, Discovery News and How Stuff Works. In their Discovery Health website informtion of how artificial visions will work they cover the topic of prosthetic eyes. At first they go into depth as to how a regular healthy eye works. Later they discuss on how an artificial eyes is installed and how it can bring eye sight back to the wearer. This article is important to my research for it goes into depth of one the artificial organs/limbs that I tend to present and simulate as part of my application. 2)Discovery Health. “How Prosthetic Limbs Work.” www.health.howstuffworks.com. N.p., 2010. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. <<a rel=nofollow href="http:// health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/modern/prosthetic-limb.htm">http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/modern/prosthetic-limb.htm>;. Discovery Communications Inc. is the leading global real-world media source. Their networks include the Discovery Channel, Science Channel, Military Channel and Animal Planet among others. Prosthetics can be found in their Discovery Health website. In the article they introduce prosthetics and its value for wounded veterans or victims of horrible accidents. They also cover on the history of prosthetics and on modern prosthetics. On top of that they go into some depth of how modern day prosthetics are able to function properly. The article is relevant to my research for it gives me an overall and general insight into prosthetics.3)Tortora, Gerard J., and Nicholas P. Anagnostakos. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. Ed. Elizabeth A. Dollinger. 6th ed. New York, Philadelphia, St.Louis, London, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo: Harper & Row, 1990. Print.The book was important for my research because it helped me understand some vocabulary that i have never heard of. Because i am doing prosthetics somemedical words come up and i look to this book to help me understand what i am reading in other articles and books.4) Pitkin, Mark R. Biomechanics of Lower Limb Prosthetics. Heidelberg: Springer, 2010. Print. This book was important for my research for it explained why there was a need the need for prosthetics was so great in the last century. It also gave numbersthat helped show why prosthetics were need and how they worked so well but still needed improvements.5) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6) Halpern, Adina. "Limb Transplants -- Modern Miracle or Future Frankenstein?" Web log post. Serendip. Bryn Mawr, 18 Jan. 2008. Web. 7 Feb. 2011. <http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/1920>.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7) Gajitz. "Hands-on Tech: Double Amputee Gets Mind-Controlled Arms | Gadgets, Science & Technology." Gajitz | Awesome Gajitz, Weird Science & FuturisticTechnology. Misname Media, 2009. Web. 27 Jan. 2011. <http://gajitz.com/hands-on-tech-double-amputee-gets-mind-controlled-arms/>. This was important for my research for it gave me an example of someone who is live and breathing and has some of the best prosthetics today. It wentinto detail about his condition and how he got through it and living life today.
    72. 72. Pictures 1)http://www.amputee-coalition.org/inmotion/nov_dec_07/history_prosthetics01.jpg 2)http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_l9_M3jYn25I/SQe0QXbqR8I/AAAAAAAADAE/wzmzu0brL0c/s320/new+eye.JPG 3)http://www.technovelgy.com/graphics/content08/i-limb-i-robot-bionic-arm.jpg 4)http://images.wikia.com/starwars/images/a/af/LukeHand.jpg 5)http://www.southafricabooks.com/images/DarthVader.jpg 6)http://nms.scran.ac.uk/database/media.php?file=postcard/image/0098/00987719.jpg&PHPSESSID=c 7)http://www.clipartoday.com/_thumbs/018/people/pirate_tnb.png 8)http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/prosthetic-limb-2.jpg 9)http://www.karlsimon.com/gallery/albums/sketches_studies/prosthetics.jpg 10)http://industrialanatomy.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/prosthetics1.jpg11)http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/Ambroise_Paré.jpg/200px-Ambroise_Paré.jpg 12)http://classicalgreg.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/inflandersfields.jpg13)http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/ww2/images/after/korea.jpg 14)http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/01/09/article-1241798-0061A55400000258-490_468x370.jpg 15)http://dvice.com/assets_c/2009/04/JaipurKnee-Project-cheap-prosthetic-thumb-550xauto-16564.jpg 16)http://news.cnet.com/i/ne/p/2007/prosthetics_01_550x360.jpg 17)http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2009/03/03/article-1158869-03B4754A000005DC-855_468x286.jpg 18)http://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_wm_image.html/M610010-Development_of_a_prosthetic_hand-SPL.jpg?id=776100010 19)http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/08/21/steampunk_cyber_limb/ 20)http://classes.design.ucla.edu/Spring07/9-1/uploaded_images/prosthetic_legs-758746.jpg 21)http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/dailypix/2005/Dec/18/C-LegChart.gif 22)http://www.ossur.com/?PageID=15418 23)http://www.amputeesunite.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/prosthetic_new.jpg 24)http://www.lotempiolaw.com/uploads/image/3720955827_c469cc0d38.jpg 25)http://pofsea.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/prosthetics_manufature-300x227.jpg 26)http://www.mgh.org/rehab/graphics/prosthetic5.jpg 27)http://pt.med.miami.edu/images/Pros.jpg 28)http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3138/2913327312_a58e34af3d.jpg 29)http://gajitz.com/hands-on-tech-double-amputee-gets-mind-controlled-arms/ 30)http://gajitz.com/hands-on-tech-double-amputee-gets-mind-controlled-arms/ 31)http://news.sky.com/sky-news/content/StaticFile/jpg/2008/Jul/Week4/15059989.jpg
    73. 73. Pictures 32)http://www.knowledgerush.com/wiki_image/9/9e/Iris.eye.225px.jpg 33)http://www.beityeshua.org/images/heartpumping.gif?12 34)http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/artificial-vision3.jpg35)http://msnbcmedia4.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/070122/070122_OptobionicsChip_hmed_2p.grid-6x2.jpg36)http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/modern-medicine/modern-medicine-pictures9.htm37)http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.amyshah.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/pacemaker.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.amyshah.com/page/2/&usg=_38)http://curiosity.discovery.com/topic/modern-medicine/modern-medicine-pictures5.htm39)http://www.blogcdn.com/www.engadget.com/media/2008/11/11-1-08-artificial-heart.jpg40)http://media.photobucket.com/image/recent/Saso4M/artificial-heart-abiocor-implanting.jpg 41)http://www.nimbacreations.com/special-effects-supplies/components/com_virtuemart/42)http://www.mostlydead.com/images/MSApe_sm.jpg 43)http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_uDFMocvtGU4/TN4rzoa6F0I/AAAAAAAAAIU/GaARLwIsgOw/s1600/fff.gif
    74. 74. ConclusionWhat I’ve learned. How each prosthetic device works. How difficult it would be to be without having prosthetics to regain limb or ability. Never take your limbs for granted!

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