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4 Control

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4 Control

  1. 1. LAST WEEK 1
  2. 2. Q: HOW DID THEY REPRESENT ‘THE NEW FRONTIER’? 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Q: WHAT IF YOU WERE LIVING IN THE ‘BLANK’ PART? WHAT DOES THAT DO DO YOU? 7
  5. 5. THIS WEEK 8
  6. 6. CON TODAY •A. FIRST IND. REV. AND THE DO WE HAVE MASTERY OVER OUR PANOPTICON TOOLS? •B. SECOND IND. REV TROL ARE OUR TOOLS BEYOND OUR CONTROL? OF CONTROL •CRISIS •CONTROL REVOLUTION 9
  7. 7. .......,• '< . .. til P A TIC ON: OR, THE INS P E CT 10 N-HOUS E. CONTAINING THE IDEA of a NEW PRINCIPLE of CONSTRUCTION applicable to any Sort of ESTABLISHMENT, in which Perfous of any Defcription are to be kept under INSPECTION. AND IN PARTICULAR TO PENITENTIARY.H'oUSES, P 0 0 R - H 0 USE S. P R ISO N S, MA NUFACTORIES, HOUSES OF INDUSTRY, MAD - H 0 USE S, WORK -H OUSE S, HOSPITALS, AND S C H 0 0 L S. WITH A PLAN OF MANAGEMENT ADAPTED TO THR PltINCIPLl.. IN A S E R I E S 0 F LET T E R S. Written in the Year 1787, FROM CREcnEFF IN TYHITE RUSS14, TO A FRIEND IN ENGLAND. . . By J ERE M Y BEN T HAM, OF LINCOLN'S INN, E50... 11
  8. 8. A. FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 12
  9. 9. late 18th and early 19th centuries 13
  10. 10. 14
  11. 11. TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION OF... 15
  12. 12. 20
  13. 13. THE PANOPTICON 21
  14. 14. Morals reformed - health preserved - industry invigorated - instruction diffused - public burthens lightened - Economy seated - all by a simple idea in Architecture!- ---Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) 22
  15. 15. 24
  16. 16. pan-opticon (all-seeing) 25
  17. 17. A Prison-Factory A Penitentiary-house...designed at once as a place of safe custody, and a place of labour. ***Remember, the Panopticon was a reform of dirty, dark, inhuman practices of imprisonment)...reform ushered in these losses of freedoms!) 27
  18. 18. Capitalist’s Dream: The confinement, which is his punishment, preventing his carrying the work to another market, subjects him to a monopoly; which the contractor, his master, like any other monopolist, makes, of course, as much of as he can. 33
  19. 19. 38
  20. 20. ‘...that the persons to be inspected should always feel themselves as if under inspection.’ 44
  21. 21. Keepers and Employees Under Watch ...a small tin tube might reach from each cell to the inspector's lodge, passing across the area...the slightest whisper of the one might be heard by the other, especially if he had proper notice to apply his ear to the tube. 45
  22. 22. ...the apparent omnipresence of the inspector ...combined with the extreme facility of his real presence. 46
  23. 23. 49
  24. 24. 50
  25. 25. The Presidio Modelo was a quot;model prisonquot; of Panopticon design, built on the former Isla de Pinos (now the Isla de la Juventud) in Cuba 51
  26. 26. 52
  27. 27. 53
  28. 28. Labor AND discipline •The ultimate goal is a productive body – productive in terms of capitalist goals (i.e. a good, docile worker). 54
  29. 29. BUREAUCRACY AND DISCIPLINE •goal is not to punish but to discipline •docile workers, docile bodies rather than ones that will revolt •regulations, rules, records, 55
  30. 30. Millbank Penitentiary House, London, 1821 The prisoners were to be kept silent and made to produce various commercial items. Bentham theorized that this would serve as punishment while at the same time develop an appreciation of labor. 59
  31. 31. Q: SPATIALLY-SPEAKING...How is UWO like a city? Like a prison? Like a factory? Like a panopticon? 60
  32. 32. THINK ABOUT PANOPTIC AND BUREAUCRATIC PRINCIPLES AS THEY ENTER THE MODERN AGE... 61
  33. 33. THE GAZE IS INTERNALIZED 62
  34. 34. B. SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 67
  35. 35. BEGINNING ab. 1850... 68
  36. 36. ....led to.... need for more rail... 70
  37. 37. CHEMICAL PETROLEUM ELECTRICAL AUTOMOTIVE 72
  38. 38. GROWTH OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS 73
  39. 39. 1. CRISIS OF CONTROL 74
  40. 40. GROWING: 1840S-1870S 75
  41. 41. PRODUCTION •RAIL MILLS STRUGGLE TO PRODUCE ENOUGH •PRODUCERS OF MATERIAL STRUGGLE WITH DEMAND •CONTINUOUS MANUFACTURE 76
  42. 42. DISTRIBUTION •TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM CANNOT KEEP UP •NEW DEPT. STORES REQUIRE DIVERSE STOCK 77
  43. 43. CONSUMPTION •NEED TO STIMULATE CONSUMPTION •DIFFERENTIATE PRODUCES •CREATE BRAND LOYALTY 78
  44. 44. CONTAINED: 1880S 79
  45. 45. INNOVATIONS IN... •INFORMATION PROCESSING •BUREAUCRATIC CONTROL •COMMUNICATION 80
  46. 46. A. CONTROL AND SAFETY 81
  47. 47. 82
  48. 48. OLD ‘SYSTEM’ •[FOR SIX TRAINS, TWO TRACKS] •1. TIMETABLES •2. CONTINGENCY PLANS 83
  49. 49. NEW ‘SYSTEM’ •CONDUCTORS •CENTRAL AND REGIONAL OFFICE •TELEGRAPH 84
  50. 50. NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES 85
  51. 51. 86
  52. 52. 87
  53. 53. NO LONGER A CRISIS OF SAFETY, BUT CRISIS OF EFFICIENCY 88
  54. 54. B. CONTROL AND EFFICIENCY 89
  55. 55. 2. CONTROL REVOLUTION 90
  56. 56. A. BUREAUCRATI- ZATION, RATIONALI- ZATION 91
  57. 57. 92
  58. 58. BY THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY...CHANGES 94
  59. 59. BANK OF THE US. •22 BRANCHES; •1830S: MANAGED BY THREE PEOPLE 95
  60. 60. US GOVERNMENT •1831: MANAGED BY 661 CIVILIANS + THE PRESIDENT •1880S: THIRTEEN THOUSAND EMPLOYEES 96
  61. 61. 1. BUREAU- CRACY 97
  62. 62. A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY 98
  63. 63. CHARACTERISTICS •DIVISION OF LABOR •DEFINITION OF RESPONSIBILITIES •HIERARCHICAL AUTHORITY •SPECIALIZED COMMUNICATION 99
  64. 64. 100
  65. 65. 101
  66. 66. 102
  67. 67. 103
  68. 68. anomie 104
  69. 69. segmentation 105
  70. 70. 2. RATIONAL- IZATION 106
  71. 71. CHARACTERISTICS •NOT ‘MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE’ •BUT: ADMINISTRATION OF ‘THINGS’ •PEOPLE AS THINGS 107
  72. 72. DEFINITION: THE DESTRUCTION/ IGNORING OF INFORMATION TO FACILITATE ITS PROCESSING 108
  73. 73. A. STANDARDIZED FORMS 109
  74. 74. 110
  75. 75. Bertillon card for Thomas Conway, arrested for larceny 112
  76. 76. 113
  77. 77. Q: WHAT DOES THE STANDARDIZED FORM ELIMINATE? 114
  78. 78. PROBLEM SOLVED! IGNORING INFORMATION! 115
  79. 79. EXAMPLE: THE TRANSCRIPT 116
  80. 80. 117
  81. 81. Q: HOW DOES IT REDUCE INFORMATION? Q: WHAT DOES IT LEAVE OUT? 118
  82. 82. Q: HOW DOES THE TRANSCRIPT SEE YOUR LIFE? 119
  83. 83. B. NEW CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 122
  84. 84. 1. MEDIA 123
  85. 85. 125
  86. 86. 126
  87. 87. 127
  88. 88. 2. MASS FEEDBACK 128
  89. 89. QUESTIONNAIRES CENSUS (improved around 1850) A.C. NEILSEN (1923) GALLUP (1958) 129
  90. 90. 3. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 130
  91. 91. the ‘old’ factory... 131
  92. 92. 132
  93. 93. MACHINES COULD SERVE AS MODEL FOR HUMAN LABOR 133
  94. 94. FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR AND SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT 134
  95. 95. a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflow processes, improving labor productivity. 135
  96. 96. 136
  97. 97. THE CLOCK 137
  98. 98. example: 138
  99. 99. McFACTORY, McTAYLORISM •assembly line approach to food •menial, repetitive and tedious •division of labor between management and worker: the selection of the right worker 139
  100. 100. ‘one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type’ -FW Taylor 140
  101. 101. separation between thinking and doing 141
  102. 102. work is more efficient by eliminating waste (effort, material, etc.) 142
  103. 103. FRANK GILBRETH TIME AND MOTION STUDIES (beginning 1920s) 143
  104. 104. IMPROVING EFFICIENCY 144
  105. 105. AIDING OTHERS... 145
  106. 106. BREAKING THE BODY DOWN INTO AN ABSTRACTION 146
  107. 107. Q: WHAT DISAPPEARS UNDER THESE TESTS? 147
  108. 108. 148
  109. 109. Q: LIKE THE TRANSCRIPT, WHAT DO THESE TESTS SHOW AND NOT SHOW? 149
  110. 110. the worker is de-skilled in general, yet highly skilled in one narrow way. 150
  111. 111. Q: if someone is highly skilled in a narrow, repetitive way, what does that do to human spirit? to a feeling of ownership in comparison to...an artisan? 151
  112. 112. C. THE INFORMATION AGE 153
  113. 113. DIGITAL PANOPTICISM 154
  114. 114. 155
  115. 115. 156
  116. 116. 157
  117. 117. 158
  118. 118. 159
  119. 119. Q: DOES YOUR KNOWING THAT I CAN VIEW STATISTICS ON YOUR HABITS CHANGE HOW YOU MIGHT BEHAVE? 160

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