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  1. 1. Research Forum- Brokenshire College Presentation Transcript 1. TOPICS COVERED: RESEARCH FORUM Lesson 1: Introduction to Research Lesson 2: Research Problem Lesson 3: Literature & Studies February 21, 2014 Audio Visual Room, Broeknshire College, GSC Lesson 4: Methodology Lesson 5: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation Lesson 6: Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation Speaker: 09494254281 2. Why study research? Research is basic and it is paramount important in any development at all times.- Bermudo (2010)Research is a key to progress, without research there will be no progress in all human endeavor. –Calderon (1993) Research is a course, fundamental requirements for a degree Research could offer solution to our numerous, biological, social, educational, cultural and behavioral problems. Our health, economy, security depends largely on research. 4 3. What is Research? 5 Research is a process of gathering data or information to solve a particular or specific problem in a scientific manner (Manuel and Medel,1976 ) Research is a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information or data in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested in (Leedy &Ormrod, 2001)  Research is a systematic, testable and objective nature of research permits careful examination of the process and results (Allyn and Bacon, 2008) 4. What is Research? 6 Research is a scientific investigation of phenomenon which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that links on man’s speculation or assumption with reality (Calmorin, 2010)  RESEARCH is derived from the old French word cerchier meaning to “ seek or search”, SEARCH meaning to investigate. The prefix RE means again and signifies of the search. Literally this mean to “ investigate again” (Garcia,2011)  Research is a careful, systematic, objective and comprehensive investigation of certain phenomenon which involves accurate gathering and recording and critical analyses and interpretation of all facts about the phenomenon for theoretical or practical end (Ardales,nd ) 5. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH Discover more facts about unknown phenomena Find answer to the problems by existing methods and information Improve existing techniques and develop new instruments or products Discover unrecognized substance Discover pathways of action Order related, valid generalization into systematized science Provide basis for decision making To satisfy researcher‟s curiosity To find answers to queries Acquire better and deeper understanding To expand and verify existing knowledge To serve man and provide a good life Improves efficiency, efficacy and quality Improves exportations of goods Respond to economic recovery & austerity 6. Charactersitics of Good Research EMPERICAL Direct experience or observation LOGICAL Valid procedure and principles CYCLICAL Starts with problem & ends with problem ANALYTICAL Utilizes proven analytical procedures CRITICAL Exhibits careful and precise judgment METHODICAL Uses systematic method and procedures REPLICABILITY Repeated to arrive at valid and conclusive results
  2. 2. 7. Functions of Research 9 Research corrects perceptions as well as expand them It gathers information on subjects or phenomenon we lack or limited knowledge about it It develops and evaluates our concepts, practices and theories Develops and evaluates methods that tests concepts and theories It obtains knowledge for practical purposes It provides hard facts which will bases for further research 8. 10 QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER Qualities 5 4 3 1. Research Oriented- researcher continuously searches for knowledge with open mindedness, novelty and solve existing problems systematically 2. Efficient- produces results without wasting time and resources 3. Scientific- exhibits principles and scientific methods of science 4. Experiential- takes actual action, data, information experimentally on field 5. Active- takes immediate action rather than contemplation or speculation 6. Resourceful - meets situation, capable of devising ways and means to solve specific problem or arriving at a desired result 7.Creative - creates quality novel facts, information or problems 8. Honest- establishes legal forms and requirements free from fraud or deception 9. Economical- marks careful , efficient and prudent use of resources 10. Religious - manifests faithful devotion to acknowledge ultimate reality or deity INTERPRETATION: 1.00-1.80-NEEDS IMPROVEMENT ; 3.41-4.20-VERY SATISFACTORY;4.21-5.0 EXCELLENT ;2.61-3.40-SATISFACTORY; 2 1 9. 11 Hindrances of Selective Observation Effective Research Made up observation 10. 12 HINDRANCES OF EFFECTIVE RESEARCH 1. 2. 3. Traditions- accepted norms, beliefs, practices and superstitions are true and are part of the daily lives of men. Authority- Accepting without question, an opinion of someone who is considered in authority on the subject. Inaccurate observation- describing wrongly what is actually observe 11. HINDRANCES OF EFFECTIVE RESEARCH 13 4. Overgeneralization- establishing pattern out of few instances 5. Selective Observation – Persisting to believe an observed pattern from overgeneralization and ignoring other pertinent pattern 6. Made-up information – making up information to explain away confusion. 12. 14 HINDRANCES OF EFFECTIVE RESEARCH 7.Illogical Reasoning – attributing something without logical bases. 8. Ego-involvement in understanding– giving explanation when one finds himself in an unfavorable situation. 9.Mystification– attributing to supernatural power, phenomena that cannot be understood. 13. Idea Generating Phase Communication Phase ProblemDefinition Phase Interpretation Phase Procedure Design Phase Data Analysis Phase Data Collection Phase 14. Research Problem Statement of the Problem Hypothesis Scope and Delimitation Significance of the Study 15. 17 Where does idea come from? Courtesy of youtube 16. Source: Bermudo,, (2010). Research Writing Made Simple. A Modular Approach for Graduate Students Research Problem is any significant, perplexing situation, real or artificial solution that requires reflective thinking Helps determine the direction of subsequent inquiry A problem that someone would like to research 17. How to Discover and Identify Research Problems Source: Bermudo,, (2010). Research Writing Made Simple. A Modular Approach for Graduate Students Reading a lot if literature in your field of
  3. 3. concentration and be critical to what you read Attend professional lectures Being a keen observer of situation and happening around you Thinking out the possibility of research for most topics or lesson taken in content courses Conducting mini-researches and note taking on the obtained findings Compiling researches Visiting various libraries for possible discovery of researchable topics Subscribing to journals Building up a library of materials in your field 18. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Describes the general statement of the whole problem followed by specific questions or subproblems into general problem Formulated at the beginning of the study STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 19. Source: Bermudo,, (2010). Research Writing Made Simple. A Modular Approach for Graduate Students EXTERNAL CRITERIA 1. Novelty and avoidance of unnecessary duplication. Concerned with newness 2. Importance in the field 3. Availability of data 4. Choice of method 5. Funding support or sponsorship 6. Facilities and equipment 7. Ethical Considerations INTERNAL CRITERIA 1. 2. 3. 4. SOURCE OF PROBLEMS 1. Actual problems encountered 2. Technological changer and curricular development 3. Graduate‟s academic experience 4. Consultations 5. Specialization 6. Analysis of an area of knowledge 7. Consideration of exisitng practices and needs 8. Repetition or extension of investigation Interest/ Experience of the researcher Training Cost Time 20. Source: Bermudo,, (2010). Research Writing Made Simple. A Modular Approach for Graduate Students Research problem implies that an investigation, inquiry or study is to be conducted or that a problem is ready for investigation, inquiry or study . (See et.a., 2000) WHY? ( Aim or purpose of the problem for investigation) WHAT? (the subject matter or topic to be investigated) WHERE? (the place of locale where the research is to be conducted) WHEN? (The period or time of the study during which the data are to be gathered) WHO? OR from whom? Population or universe from whom the data are to be collected) 21. Source: Bermudo,, (2010). Research Writing Made Simple. A Modular Approach for Graduate Students WHY? ( Aim or purpose of the problem for investigation) WHAT? (the subject matter or topic to be investigated) WHERE? (the place of locale where the research is to be conducted) WHEN? (The period or time of the study during which the data are to be gathered) WHO? OR from whom? Population or universe from whom the data are to be collected) WHY Aim/Purpose To determine the status of ... WHAT Subject Matter The Teaching of Mathematics WHERE Place or Locale National High Schools in General Santos City WHEN Period or Time School Year 2013-2014 WHO Population/Universe The respondents are implied ito be teachers or pupils or both TITLE: The Teaching of Mathematics in National High Schools in General Santos City During SY 2009-2010 The Teaching of Mathematics in National High School in General Santos City 22. Are an available and accessible 1. The topic must be chosen by the researcher Meet standards of accuracy, objectivity and verifiability GUIDELINES in the selection of Research Problem or Topic Answers specific questions It must be within the interest and specialization of the researcher It must be within the competence of the researcher tackle Hypothesis formulated are testable can be accepted or rejected Equipments and instruments are available and can give valid and reliable results Completed w/in reasonable time Significant, important and relevant to present time and situation, timely and of current interest Results are practical and implementable Within the ability of the researcher to finance Original, critical and promotes reflective thinking Delimited to suit the resources of the researcher Contribute to national development goals & human knowledge Data must be manageable Not
  4. 4. undermine moral and spiritual values Not advocate violence but peaceful means Return of investment ( monetary, advancement of position, promotion, improve specialization, competence and skills in professional work. 23. GUIDELINES IN FORMULATING GENERAL PROBLEM 1. General Statement of the problem and sub- problems should be formulated first. 2. State specific problems in interrogative form. 3. Each specific questions must be clear and unequivocal 4.Each question must be researchable 5Questions must be based on known facts and phenomena 6Questions can be interpreted apart from other questions 7Answers must contribute to complete development of the study 8Specific questions should be enough to cover the development of the entire study 9There should be a general statement of the problem and broken into subproblems 24. Research Title •LOCAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT : ITS EFFECT ON THE DELIVERY OF BASIC HEALTH AND SOCIAL SERVICES AND SATISFACTION OF BENEFICIARIES IN GENERAL SANTOS CITY SAMPLE RESEARCH STUDY Statement of the Problem •This study describes the financial management of the City of General Santos and its effect on the delivery of basic health and social services and satisfaction of beneficiaries in General Santos City as perceived by both implementors and beneficiaries. Specifically , the answered the following questions: Specific Problems •1. What are the perceptions of implementors on the handling of financial resources for the delivery of basic health and social services to General Santos City constituent? •2. How is the delivery of the basic health and social services perceived by the implementors and beneficiaries? WHY •3. WhatWHAT WHAT WHERE WHEN WHO is the level of satisfaction of the beneficiaries in the availment of ( Aim or (Dependent Place or Period or time Population or (Independent basic health and social service? purpose of the Variable) Variables) locale where of the study universe from •4. delivery whom the problem) How has the city‟s financial management affected thew/c the of basic the research during health and social services? is to be data are to be data are to •5. How has the delivery of basic health and social services affectedbe collected the conducted gathered satisfaction of the beneficiaries? •6. What are the problems encountered in the delivery and availment of the Find the Financial Delivery of General Implementors basic health and social services? perceived Management Services Santos City and •7. How have the problems encountered in the delivery and availment of effect on System Satisfaction of Beneficiaries basic health and social services affected: delivery and Beneficiaries • satisfaction a. the delivery of the basic services by the implementors? • b. the satisfaction of the beneficiaries? 25. Research Title •ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE, CULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY AND EFFECTTO TEACHER’S PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY TEACHERS OF GENERAL SANTOS CITY DIVISION: BASES FOR TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SAMPLE RESEARCH STUDY Statement of the Problem •This study aimed to design a Teacher‟s Competency Development Program for the secondary schools teachers in General Santos City Division. Specifically, this study attempted to answer the following questions; Specific Problems •What is the teachers‟ degree of adaptation to organizational change in secondary schools of GSC Division as perceived by the teachers themselves and their administrators in the areas of 2.1.External Change; 2.1.1Demographics characteristics 2.1.2.Political Pressures WHY WHAT WHERE WHEN WHO WHAT 2.1.3.Social Pressures (Dependent ( Aim or Place or Period or time of Population or (Independent purpose of 2.2. Internal Change? Variables) the locale where the study during universe from Variable) problem) 2.2.1.Emergence of Human Resource Problems the research w/c the data are whom the data is to be to be gathered are to be 2.2.2.Managerial Behavior conducted collected 2.2.3.Decision making What are the organizational
  5. 5. changes that affect the performance of Secondary Design a Org. Change Teachers Secondary secondary teachers in General Santos Teachers in City Division? teachers Culture Performance Teachers and Are there significant difference in the degree of teachers‟ adaptationAdministrators to competency Technology General organizational change as perceived by themselves and the administrators in development Santos City program secondary schools of GSC Division? Division 26. OPERATIONAL FORM Stated in affirmative and that there is a difference between two phenomena NULL FORM stated in negative and that there is no difference between two phenomena. In other words it expresses equality between two phenomena GUIDELINES in formulating hypothesis HYPOTHESIS Is a tentative conclusion or answer to a specific raised at the beginning of the investigation. It is an educated guess about the answer to a specific questions Experimental investigations, hypothesis have to be explicit, they have to be express also in comparative and correllational studies In descriptive and historical investigation, hypothesis is seldom expressed if not entirely absent It is usually stated in null hypothesis It is formulated from the specific questions upon which they are based. 27. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The rationale, timeliness and relevance of the study Possible solutions to existing or improvement to unsatisfactory conditions Who are to be benefited and how they are going to be benefited Possible contribution to the fund of knowledge Possible implication 28. GUIDELINES IN WRITING SCOPE & DELIMITATION SCOPE AND DELIMITATION Brief statement of the general purpose of the study The subject matter and topics studied and discussed The locale of the study, where the data were gathered or the entity to which the data belong The population or universe from which the respondents were selected. This must be large to make generalizations significant. The period of the study, this is the time, either months or years, during which the data were gathered. 29. Review of Related Literature Review of Related Studies Conceptual Framework Definition of Terms 30. RESEARCH PROBLEM Why Literature is of value? • A Literature review is helpful in two ways. • It will not only help researchers clean the ideas of others interested in a particular research question, • but it also lets them read about the results of the other studies. 31. TYPES OF SOURCES GENERAL REFERENCES -are the sources researchers often refer to first. Like articles, monographs, books and other documents that deals directly with the research question. Most general references are either indexes, which list the author, title and place of publication of articles •Education Index•Current Index to Journals •(ERIC)Resource in Education (RIE) •Psychological Abstracts SECONDARY SOURCES PRIMARY SOURCES - are publication in which researchers report the results of their studies. Authors communicate their findings directly to readers, most of these are journals refer to publications in which authors describe the work of others like textbooks. • Encyclopedia of Educational Research • Handbook of Research on Teaching • National Society for the Study of Education Yearbooks • Review of Educational Research • Review of Research in Education • Subject Guide to Books in Print 32. STEP 1: STEPS IN LITERATURE SEARCH Define The research problem as precisely as possible STEP 6: Obtain and read relevant primary sources and note and summarize key points in the sources. STEP 2: Look at relevant secondary sources STEP 5: Search the general references for relevant primary sources STEP 3: Select the peruse one or two appropriate general reference works STEP 4: Formulate search terms (keywords or phrases) pertinent to the problem or question of interest
  6. 6. 33. SEARCHING FOR GENERAL REFERENCE If there are any articles related to topic under the descriptors then list the bibliographical data of pertinent articles on bibliographic cards (5x8 inch index card) write the researchers topic, the author, title, page, publication date and publication source . A separate note card should be used for each reference listed. Research Topic: Research Topic: Author: Author: Thesis / DissertationTitle: Title of the Book: Publication Date: Publication Date: Name of the University: Publication Source: Pages: Pages: ============================================== =========================================== === (Write your data/ information searched) (Write your data/ information searched) 34. Reading the primary source. When all the desired journal articles are gathered together, the review can begin It is good idea to begin with the most HOW TO OBTAIN PRIMARY SOURCES articles and work backward. recent Read the abstract or summary first. This will tell whether the article is worth reading in its entirety. Record the bibliographic of a note card data at the top Take notes on the article or photocopy the abstract or summary. Almost all research articles follow approximately the same format. They usually include an abstract; an introductory section that presents the research problem or question and reviews other related studies; the objectives of the study or the hypotheses to be tested; a description of the research procedures including the subject studied, the research design. 35. LEADING SEARCH ENGINES LEADING SEARCH ENGINES Altavista ( fast, powerful and comprehensive. It is extremely good in locating obscure facts and offers the best field- search capabilities. Excite ( particularly strong on locating current news articles and information about travel Google ( Increasingly popular. A very detailed directory. Good place to go first when doing a search on the internet HotBot ( very easy to use when searching for multimedia files or to locate websited by geography. Lycos ( offers very good websites reviews. Has a very good multimedia search feature. Teoma ( very good review and easy to use 36. Writing a Review of Related Literature The Introduction The body of the review The summary of the review Any conclusions the researcher feels A bibliography 37. Writing Review of Related Literature and Studies Writing a Review of Related Literature The Introduction briefly describes the nature of the research problem and states the research questions. The researcher also explains in this section what led him or her to investigate the question and why it is an important question to investigate The body of the review briefly reports what others have found or thought about the research problem. Related studies are usually discussed together, grouped under subheads. Major studies are described in more detail, while less important work can be reffered to several studies that reported similar results in a single sentence, somewhat like this : “Several other small scale studies reported similar results (Adams,1976; Brown,1980; Cartright,1981; Davis,1985)” The summary of the review ties together the main threads revealed in the literature reviewed and presents a composite picture of what is known or thought to date. Findings may be tabulated to give readers some idea of how many others researchers have reported identical or similar findings or have similar recommendations Any conclusions the researcher feels are justified based on the state of knowledge revealed in the literature should be included. What does the literature suggest are appropriate courses of action to take to try to solve the problem? A bibliography with full bibliographic data for all sources mentioned in the review is essential. There are many ways to format reference lists
  7. 7. 38. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK/ PARADIGM CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK INPUT • Qualified Teachers • Effective Methods • Adequate Facilities • Adequate Supervisory Assistance A tentative explanation of phenomenon problems that serves as basis in formulating research hypothesis. Considered as central theme, focus, and main thrust of the study PROCESS OUTPUTs • Science • Instructional • Program • Superior Science Knowledge and skills of the students 39. DEFINITION OF TERMS DEFINITION OF TERMS Terms should be defined operationally, that is how they are used in the study. The researcher may develop his own definition from the characteristics of the term defined. Definitions may be taken from encyclopedias, books, magazines and newspaper articles, dictionaries and other publications but the researcher must acknowledge his sources. Definitions taken from published materials are called conceptual or theoretical definitions. Definitions should be as brief, clear and unequivocal as possible. Acronyms should always be spelled out fully especially if it is not commonly known or if it is used for the first time. 40. Research Design Respondents and Sampling Techniques Research Instruments Research Procedure Statistical Treatment 41. 43 WHAT IS RESEARCH DESIGN ?  Task of defining the research problem is the preparation of the research project, popularly known as the “research design".  Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, by what means concerning an inquiry or a research study constitute a research design. Chapter 3 Research Method 42. 44 Meaning of research design 1 • A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. 2 • Blueprint of the study. It guides the collection, measurement and analysis of data 3 • A plan or structure of the investigation in order to obtain answers to research questions. It outline what the researcher would like to do until the final analysis of the data Chapter 3 Research Method 43. 45 Parts of Research Design Sampling Design Which deals with the methods of selecting items to be observed for the study. Observational design Which relates to the condition under which the observation are to be create Statistical Design Which concern the question of the of How the information and data gathered are to be analyzed ? Operational design Which deals with techniques by which the procedures satisfied in sampling . Chapter 3 Research Method 44. 46 Features of Good RS A research design appropriate for a particular research problem, usually involves the following features. The mean of obtaining information. The availability and skills of the researcher and his staff, if any. The objective of the problem to be studied. The nature of the problem to be studied . The availability of time and money for the research work. Chapter 3 Research Method 45. 47 Different research design  exploratory research method are also termed as formulative research studied. The main purpose is that of formulate the research problem .three methods are In case of Exploratory research study in case of descriptive and diagnostic research In case of hypothesistesting research studies 1. The survey of concerning literature 2. The experience survey 3. The analysis of „inside-stimulating in case of descriptive research study –one those studied which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular Individual , or a group. In diagnostic research study determine the frequency which some thing occur hypothesis-testing research studies known as
  8. 8. experimental studies are those researcher tests the hypothesis of casual relationship between variables. Chapter 3 Research Method 46. 48 Difference between formulative= descriptive/diagnostic  Flexible design  Judgmental sampling  No predetermined design  No fixed decision about the operational procedures No flexibility  Random sampling  Pre-determined design for analysis  Advanced decisions Chapter 3 Research Method 47. Research Designs/Approaches Type Purpose Time frame Degree of control Examples Experimental Test for cause/ effect relationships current High Quasi-experimental Test for cause/ effect relationships without full control Current or past Moderate Gender differences to high in visual/spatial abilities Nonexperimental correlational Examine relationship between two variables Current (crosssectional) or past Low to medium Relationship between studying style and grade point average. Ex post facto Examine the effect of past event on current functioning. Past & current Low to medium Relationship between history of child abuse & depression. Chapter 3 Research Method Comparing two types of treatments for anxiety. 49 48. Research Designs/Approaches Type Purpose Time frame Degree of control Nonexperiment al correlation al Examine relationship bet 2 var. where 1 is measured later. Future predictive Low to moderate Relationship bet history of depression & development of cancer. Cohortsequential Examine change in a var. over time in overlapping groups. Future Low to moderate How motherchild negativity changed over adolescence. Survey Assess opinions or Current characteristics that exist at a given time. None or low Voting preferences before an election. Qualitative Discover potential relationships; descriptive. None or Low People‟s experiences of quitting smoking. Past or current Chapter 3 Research Method 50 Examples 49. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS One of the most important components of a research design is the research instruments because they gather or collect data or information. These research instruments or tools are ways of gathering data. Without them, data would be impossible to put in hand. 50. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Questionnaire -The most common instrument or tool of research for obtaining the data beyond the physical reach of the observer CLOSED FORM OR CLOSED ENDED OR OPEN FORM/ OPEN ENDED Guidelines in Using the Questionnaire 1. Clarity of language 2. Singleness of purpose 3. Relevant to the objective of the study 4. Correct grammar Advantages Disadvantages Facilitates data gathering Is easy to test data for reliability and validity Is less time-consuming than interview and observation Preserves the anonymity and confidentiality of the respondents’ reactions and answers Printing and mailing are costly Response rate maybe low Respondents may provide only socially acceptable answers There is less chance to clarify ambiguous answer Respondents must be literate and with no physical handicaps Rate of retrieval can be low because retrieval itself is difficult 51. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Interview -It is in a sense of an oral questionnaire. Instead of writing the response, the interviewee gives the needed information orally and face-to-face. With a skillful interviewer, the interview is often superior to other data-gathering device. The purposes of interview are : - to verify information gathered from written sources - to clarify points of information - to update information and - to collect data TYPES 1. Structured or standardize 2. Unstructured or unstandardized 3. Telephone Interview
  9. 9. 52. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Rating Scale -It involves qualitative description of a limited number of aspects of a thing or traits of a person. TYPES 1. Thurstone Tehnique 2. Likert Method 3. Semantic Differential 53. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Checklist- The simplest of the devices, consists of a prepared list of items. The presence or absence of the item may be indicated by inserting the appropriate word or number. Use in descriptive and historical researchers Sociometry- Technique for describing the social relationships among individuals in a group. In a indirect way it attempts to describe attractions or repulsions between individuals by asking them to indicate whom they would choose or reject in various situations Document or Content Analysis- Used as a main tool of research or a subsidiary tool Main tool in historical research but a subsidiary tool in descriptive research and less used in experimental research 54. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Scorecard- A rating that may yield a total weighted score that can be used in evaluating communities, buildings, sites, schools, or textbooks. Similar in some respect to checklist and rating scale Teacher or Research Made Tools- Very popular in research. Part of the overall instruments used in research studies. It combined with other standardized tests in the assessment of individuals’ operations and situations 55. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Tape Recorded Data - Observe through the ear as well as through the eye. Also use video tape recorder or radio cassette recorder Tape Recorded Data - An information form that attempts to measure the attitude or belief of an individual. Also known as attitude scale Observation - Perceiving data through the senses: sight, hearing, taste touch and smell. Most direct way used in studying individual behavior Participant and non-participant observation Structured and unstructured observation Controlled and uncontrolled observation 56. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Psychological Test- An instrument designed to describe and measure a sample of certain aspects of human behavior. E.g. performance, achievement, personality and projective devices Ready to Use Instrument of Standardize Test- Product of long years of study. Tend to be highly reliable and cover a wide range of student performance level. Criteria for Measuring 1. VALIDITY- measure what is intends to measure 2. RELIABILITY- stability in maintaining consistent measurement in a test administered twice 57. Matching methods to research paradigm Method Quantitative Qualitative Written Instrument Standardized Instrument (validity and reliability established) Constructed survey or interview guide (Use some questions from other surveys; construct new questions). May determine validity and reliability after administration No predeveloped questions in survey or interview guide Predeveloped questions – may be administered in no established order; questions may be added depending on circumstances. Predeveloped questions – established order Observation Structured observation – predetermined items are counted in terms of frequency, duration, occurrence, permanent product, etc. Open-ended observations – trying to identify themes and patters Content analysis Structured counting of a predetermined phenomena in terms of frequency, etc. Open-ended analysis; themes and patterns are identified. 58. SAMPLING DESIGN Sampling is a process of choosing a representative portion of a population to represent the entire population. Sample. It is a proportion, an element or a part of the population which is scientifically and randomly drawn that actually possesses the same characteristics as the population. This implies that every person has an equal opportunity to be selected for your sample Sample size is
  10. 10. the number of subjects in your study. Margin of Error is the allowable error in percent due to the use of the sample, instead of the population Sampling Error is the error attributed to chance difference between a random sample and the chosen population. It does not result from measurement or computation errors but contributory to inaccuracy of data. 59. SAMPLE VS POPULATION As follows are some reasons why researchers use a sample rather than the entire population in the conduct of their study. Sometimes population is difficult to identify who makes up the entire population. Sample is cheaper, faster, more accurate and can yield to more comprehensive information. Getting the population is too costly in terms of human resources and other expenses, and time consuming. In population, there is a lot of error to control and monitor. Sometimes lists are rarely up to date. 60. Keys to Good Sampling Defective Sampling formulate the aims of the study decide what analysis is required to satisfy this aims decide what data are required to facilitate the analysis collect the data required by the study Sampling that is too small or not a representative will be biased, invalid and unreliable. The sampling becomes very complicate if the population is too large or has many sections and subsection. The sample (respondents) should have common characteristics in order to eradicate faulty conclusions. The sampling becomes biased and unrepresentative if the researcher does not possess the necessary skills and technical know-how of the sampling procedure. 61. Types of Sampling Technique Non-probability Sampling (Nonscientific). This type of sampling does not provide every member of the population an equal chance of being selected as part of the sample. Purposive sampling is Quota sampling Convenience sampling, Probability Sampling (Scientific sampling). In this type of sampling, the researcher follows a procedure that assures that all elements in the population are given equal chance of being selected as a sample unit Simple random sampling Systematic random sampling Stratfied random sampling Cluster random sampling Multi-stage sampling 62. Data Processing Sample Table Results 63. DATA PROCESSING is the process of categorizing, organizing and presenting data in order to have efficient processing of statistical analysis and accurate interpretation.  Data which are correct, accurate, consistent and complete  Data which are coded, organized and easily stored. Tables, graphs and other data presentation which are easily generated.  Statistical analysis and outputs which can be easily and quickly made. 64. REFERENCES: ( Rebustes, 2002 and Bermudo,2010) STEPS IN DATA PROCESSING RAW DATA EDITING CODING PREPARATION OF DATA/ TABLE/ GRAPH DATA ANALYSIS 65. RAW DATA Source: Catane, Juliet( 2000). Conducting Research. A Practical Application An information or data taking from sources can either be taken from different sources like a. Questionnaires b. Interview data c. Documents d. Observations e. Focus Group Discussions 66. EDITING Source: Bermudo 2010 The researcher should first edit the retrieved questionnaires, interviews or observations conducted to detect errors or omissions and correct them when possible to assure that the minimum data are (1) accurate (2) consistent with other information (3) uniformly entered (4) complete and (5) arranged to facilitate coding and tabulation.
  11. 11. 67. CODING Source: Bermudo 2010 A process of groupings and assigning numeric codes to facilitate analysis of respondents responses to questions. The following are some tips in coding data. Determine whether the responses to the questions asked are names or numbers. If the responses are names, then the researcher can use numeric codes. Always place the code for each variable at the bottom part of the questionnaire or data matrix and mark it “legend” 68. Source: Bermudo 2010 The researcher should prepare a data matrix or template to facilitate preparation of tables before analyzing the data. For computer-generated data, the researchers are advised to follow the steps in the preparation of the data matrix (Bermudo, 2010). Data Matrix Preparation of Determine the variables used in the study Count the number of variables as found in the questionnaire. The number of columns in the matrix or worksheet should be the same os the number of variables found in the questionnaire. Pre-numbered the questionnaire retrieved. If your respondents are grouped then, number them chronologically from 1 to n. Do this for the rest of the group. Enter the responses for each respondent in the matrix using the code you previously decide to use The columns represents the variables or the study and the rows represent the respondents. Thus, all responses of the respondents are entered in one row. 69. Source: Bermudo 2010 of Tables Preparation The researcher will now organized the data into logical, sequential and meaningful categories and classification in order to make them amenable to analysis and interpretation (Rebustes,2002). TABLES provide a more precise description of the results and figures makes it easier to see trends or patterns in the data. Whichever the researcher chooses, trends must be discussed in the text itself. The highest and least figures or findings of the study normally highlighted in the textual presentation. Data from these tables are integrated into the textual discussion. In framing the table, the researcher must be guided by specific questions as presented in statement of the problem. The table should clearly define the problem to be answered. It should bear captions and headings to ensure facility in understanding data aimed to answer questions posed (Bermudo,2010) GRAPHS. Data presented in graphs add clarity, more impact and color to the study. Graphs however, becomes useful if the research tries to compare one data from the other. 70. During the interpretation of data, both the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of the study are considered. It is in this part where the researcher looks for theories or earlier studies, findings of which substantiate or repudiate the findings of the present research being discussed. Interpretation Data Analysis & Source: Bermudo 2010 When certain elements of the theoretical backgrounds do not conform the researcher justifies why this is so relating to theories, principles, related literature and studies or conditions attributed to the present study. The following levels of interpretation of data may be observed (Bermudo,2010). 71. Source: Bermudo 2010 Interpretation Data Analysis & Level 1 TRENDING LEVEL 2 CLASSIFYING LEVEL 3 SERIATING The interpretation of the findings of the investigation focuses mostly on qualitative description i.e. ranks, order, ratio and others which established implications as to skewedness, distribution and other features showing direction, heaviness, preferences or strength, among others, but independently Findings of the study are categorized given meanings, where implications of the study are drawn. Findings of the study are categorized, given meaning and scaled as to magnitude, degree, enormity or importance, among others 72. Source: Bermudo 2010 LEVEL 4 Interpretation Data Analysis & CORRELATING Findings of the study are categorized given meaning, measures and compared with other factors to established
  12. 12. variation or relationship LEVEL 5 Findings of the study resulted to a statistically defined steady associations of factors, path and relationships where logical constructs and generalization explains the phenomenon investigated resulting to a theory. THEORIZING 73. Source: Bermudo 2010 Variables Age 63-69 56-62 49-55 42-48 Total Frequency Frequency and Percentage Distribution. It consists of summarized data & the information derived from such can tell the relationship between a part to its whole. Percent Ordinal Variables: like age, number of years in service and monthly salary. Sex # of Respondents (n) 40 % (n/N x100) Female 60 60 Total 100 100 Male 40 74. Source: Bermudo 2010 Leadership Skills Human Skills Technical Skills Administrative Skills Institutional Skills Weighte Verbal d Means Interpret ations 4.583 Very High 4.382 High 4.623 4.302 Weighted Mean. This is used when the options to the items of the questionnaire are assigned points. Rank Very High High 2 3 1 4 Interpretation: Through ranking, it is shown that the middle managers were best in Administrative Skills (Rank 1) followed by Human Relation Skills (Rank2), Technical Skills (Rank 3) and last in Institutional Skills (Rank 4). Indicators WM INTERPRETATION 1.Punctuality 3.583 VS 2.Tardiness 4.293 O Weighted Mean 3.938 VS 75. Source: Bermudo 2010 Inferential Statistics – deals with the description of the parameters based on the characteristics of a representative sample. It consists of procedures for making generalizations about characteristics of the population, based on information contained in a sample taken from the population. When the entire population is studies there is no need to use inferential statistical method since the parameters of interest in the population can be exactly computed. Parametric Tests (require normal distribution and utilize both interval and ratio data) z-test – used for testing significance for n>30 (greater than) Mean Method A 74.0 p-value Decision -4.27 0.070 Reject Ho 70 Method B z-value remarks Method B is more effective 76. Source: Bermudo 2010 Parametric Tests (require normal distribution and utilize both interval and ratio data) t-test - used for testing significance for n<30 (less than) - used to test the significance of 2 independent samples - used to compare 2 means (before and after treatment) GROUP Experiment al Control Mean Gain Score 4.11 SD No of t-stat Items p-value 2.78 27 0.000025 Significa nt 0.92 3.51 4.33 F-test or Analysis of Variance or ANOVA of 3 or more independent samples Source of Variation Between Groups Within Groups Total remarks - This is used to test the means Remarks SS 73.6875 27.75 101.4375 df MS 3 12 15 24.5625 2.3125 F 10.62162 P-value 0.001075 F crit significa 3.490295 nt 77. Source: Bermudo 2010 Parametric Tests (require normal distribution and utilize both interval and ratio data) Indicator Model Instructional Competence Y=4.057 - 0.013(CL) + 0.081(UIT) -0.093(IL) Professional and Personal Characteristics Punctuality and Attendance Y=4.266 +0.018(CL) + 0.063(UIT) - 0.091(IL) Y=3.949 - 0.057(CL) - 0.162(UIT) +0.188(IL) Organizational Technology on Teacher‟s Performance 78. Source: Bermudo 2010 Chi-square Test ( Non- Parametric Tests (don‟t require normal distribution and utilize both nominal and ordinal data) CHI-SQUARE TEST- is a test of difference between the observed frequencies and expected frequencies Kruskal-Wallis Test or H-Test -this is used to compare 3 or more independent groups… an alternative for Anova in parametric test Source of Variation Teaching oriented Teachers Administration Oriented Research Oriented Total Remarks df 2 H P-value H crit 19.17566 0.001075 4 9.21 significant
  13. 13. 79. Data Processing Sample Table Results 80. Overview of the Contents. First introduce the chapter by providing an overview of contents. Resume of the Study. Provide a brief resume of the study indicating the main problem and specific problems, the research methods used, the tools used in gathering the data, the respondents of the study, methods used and how the data were statistically treated. All these parts must be explained/ described briefly in just one paragraph. 81. Summary of Findings. This section includes the summary of findings which are based on the statement of the problems or objectives. If the study has five (5) specific problems, there must be also five major findings of the study. However, the researcher should not limit their findings to the number of specific questions. The subheadings under specific questions being answer will give clarity and coherence of the presentation. This will accommodate several related findings under one specific problem. However, a summary of all the findings to be problem be presented under one heading. 82. Conclusions. Write down the conclusions drawn from the findings of the study. This part gives the direct answers to the problems posed in the study. As mentioned previously, generally, if the study has five (5) specific questions, it must also have 5 conclusions. No further elaboration is required in writing the conclusions. Here are some guidelines in writing conclusions (Rebustes, 2002). 83. 1. Conclusions are inferences, deductions, abstractions, implication, interpretation, general statements and/or generalizations based upon findings. They should not contain any numerals because it will limit the forceful effect or impact and the scope of the generalization. No conclusions should be made that are not based upon findings 2. Conclusions should appropriately answer specific questions raised at the beginning of the investigation in the order they are given under the statement of the problem. 3. It should point out what were factually learned from the inquiry. No conclusions should be drawn from the implied or indirect effects of the findings 4. Conclusions should be formulated concisely, that is, brief and short, yet they convey all the necessary information resulting from the study as required by specific questions. 5. Without any strong evidence to the contrary, conclusions should be stated categorically. They should be worded as if they are 100 percent true and correct. They should not give any hint that the researcher have some doubts about their validity and reliability. The use of qualifiers such as probably, perhaps, may be and the like should be avoided as much as possible. 6. Conclusions should refer only to the populations, area or subject of the study. 7. Conclusions should not be repetitions of any statements anywhere in the thesis. They may be recapitulations if necessary but they should be worded differently and they should convey the same information as the statement recapitulated. 84. Conclusions. Write down the conclusions drawn from the findings of the study. This part gives the direct answers to the problems posed in the study. As mentioned previously, generally, if the study has five (5) specific questions, it must also have 5 conclusions. No further elaboration is required in writing the conclusions. Here are some guidelines in writing conclusions (Rebustes, 2002). 85. Recommendations. Recommendations should follow the same logical flow as the findings and interpretations; presenting each around the major theme or results of testing in the same order (Creswell, 2004). Recommendations are suggestions for actions, how leaders can apply the results of the study, for whom, when, and where. Recommendations state who needs to pay attention to the research results, and how the results might be disseminated (Simon, 2006). Relate each recommendation back to
  14. 14. the problem. Include a narrative of topics that need closer examination to generate a new round of questions. Be sure to make specific recommendations for leaders in the field and policy makers. Below are the characteristics of a good recommendations (Rebustes,2002) 86. 1. Recommendations should aim to solve or help solve problems discovered in the investigation. 2. No recommendations should be made for a problem or anything for that matter that has not been discovered or discussed in the study. Recommendations for things not discussed in the study are irrelevant. 3. There may also be recommendations for the continuance of a good practice or system or even recommendations for its improvement. This is to ensure a continuous benefit being accorded to the universe involved. 4. Recommendations should aim for the ideal but they must be feasible, practical, doable or attainable. It is useless to recommend the impossible. This, of course depends upon the situation. 5. Recommendations should be logical and valid.If the problem is the lack of facilities, it is only logical to recommend the acquisition of the lacking facilities 6. Recommendations should be addressed to the persons, entities, agencies or offices who or which are in the position to implement them. 7. There should be a recommendation for further research on the same topic in other places to verify, amplify or negate the findings of the study. This is necessary so that if the findings are the same, generalizations of wider application can be formulated. 87. Offer areas for further research. These are topics to be researched which are usually offshoots of the present investigation. The topics to be suggested should be those which have bearing to the study investigated, replication of the study to be conducted in other places and some possible gaps which the researcher failed to include but which were found important in the holistic solution of the problem. 88. Magandang Gensan!