Part i launching a redesign effort 12-7-10


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  • Background behind IBM Center How to use the polling software
  • Articulated a set of principles and an inspiring vision Set ambitious deadlines Created teams of civil servants Facilitated a consensus-building “tollgate” process Personally involved the Vice President 4 Phases: initial 6-month review – HOW govt works (went well; careerists) subsequent 4-month review – WHAT govt should be doing small agency reviews (no action) large agencies stonewalled (didn’t want to cut programs) regulatory reform Focus on incentives – PBOs, customer service Focus on impact on citizens, piloting new govt’l approaches – B4K, safe cities – networks; shift from emphasis on process (customer standards) to outcome measures (trust, citizen satisfaction). Emphasis on the 32 agencies that had the most contact with citizens.
  • Reduce overhead 2-year budget process; streamline process overall Streamline personnel, procurement processes Launch customer service standards Developed first governmentwide IT plan
  • Rather than bringing in outside experts, VP Gore insisted on using government workers themselves – the problem was the system, not the people in it. And who knew the system better than the people work work in it? GTO-21 Report by the TechAmerica Foundation in early November 2010: Many studies have been performed to answer the question of why Federal projects fail. Notable among these are Martin Cobb’s Paradox . . . Cobb's Paradox states that we know why software projects fail, we know what we should do to avoid failure in the future, but for unexplained reasons we don't do it. Root cause analysis. . .
  • Principles Scope: what’s on/off the table (e.g., how vs. what) Strategic approach: systems vs. agencies Don’t move boxes No studies Operations: Charter for teams, areas of focus, questions to address Tollgates Townhalls (employees, citizens, business) Rollout Stakeholders, engage employees Implementation Create sense of urgency, commitment, follow through Use adminis tools, Exec Orders, where possible Legislation to be integrated into regular auth/approp processes
  • Both top-down and bottom-up Centralize vs. fan 1,000 fires Chunk vs. integrated whole Customer-, employee-driven vs. driven by center Define customers/services, work back from there to programs, agencies Rotated 1,300 employees through team over 8 years Today: Use of Stat process by agencies emphasis is engaging citizens in identifying innovations, redesigning processes, commenting on/participating in decision-making, helping co-deliver services
  • Don’t Needlessly Alienate OMB – “You are the government.” Report changed after went to printers. Would not stand behind cost savings. Agencies -- VP met one-on-one with each of his cabinet members to go over recommendations, enlist their support for agency-specific, govt-wide recs. Opinionmakers – good with all but academics Hiding Success field office closures bury legislative changes: IT, travel reform in DOD bill Focus on success Ignore those who don’t want to go along; too much energy to push. Save energy and attention for those who want to make a difference Hammer Awards: $50B in savings/cost avoidance
  • Design elements: Value-driven vs. rule-driven Top-down/bottom-up Centralize vs. 1,000 flowers bloom Chunk vs. integrated whole Agency-focus vs. systems-focus Plan-do vs. logic model Use of transparency Broad vs. targeted/pilots How vs. what government does Customer service vs. fix processes Accountability to top vs. accty to customers Inside vs. outside Start with fiscal (e.g., WA, IA) vs. start with people, process
  • Scope of an effort: How vs. What External commission vs. internal task force Define vision, values, principles of a redesign effort Identify cross-agency initiatives Identify agency-specific initiatives
  • Part i launching a redesign effort 12-7-10

    1. 1. Launching a Redesign Effort Lessons from the Reinventing Government Effort John M. Kamensky, IBM Center for The Business of Government
    2. 2. Overview of Clinton-Gore National Performance Review <ul><li>Started 6 weeks into Clinton Presidency </li></ul><ul><li>Based on set of principles, guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Staff of 250 civil servants at White House, plus teams in every agency </li></ul><ul><li>Six month deadline </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overview of NPR <ul><li>Advice from business leaders: focus on customers and listen to workers </li></ul><ul><li>1,200 recommendations -- reduce “overhead” by 252,000, fix systems, and save $108 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Continued and evolved over next 8 years </li></ul>
    4. 4. What Did I Learn About Government Redesign? <ul><li>The Process </li></ul><ul><li>The Principles </li></ul><ul><li>The Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>The Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>The Aftermath </li></ul><ul><li>The Lessons You Can Apply </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Process <ul><li>Teams – for systems and agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Terms of Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Tollgates </li></ul><ul><li>Townhalls </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Report </li></ul><ul><li>Rollout </li></ul>
    6. 6. Examples of “Systems” Teams <ul><li>Redesigning Management Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Transforming Organizational Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Mission-Driven, Results-Oriented Budgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Financial Management </li></ul><ul><li>Reinventing Support Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Reinventing Personnel Management </li></ul><ul><li>Reengineering Through Info Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Regulatory Systems </li></ul>
    7. 7. Initial Premises of NPR <ul><li>Focus on how Government works, not on what it should do </li></ul><ul><li>Do not move “boxes” </li></ul><ul><li>Target overhead </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t make recommendations to do more studies </li></ul><ul><li>Tie administrative changes to policy priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Identify “Champions” for recommendations </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Principles <ul><li>Customers first </li></ul><ul><li>Empower employees </li></ul><ul><li>Cut red tape </li></ul><ul><li>Create partnerships </li></ul>Outcome: Increased Citizen Trust
    9. 9. Others Have Principles, Too <ul><li>Anticipatory Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Results-Focused Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent Governance </li></ul>“ Four Strategies to Transform State Governance,” by Keon Chi
    10. 10. The Recommendations <ul><li>Cut overhead positions by 15 percent, consolidated mission support functions </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered front-line employees via waivers, reinvention labs </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Used performance agreements, flexibility, measurement </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Implementation Phase <ul><li>Created President’s Management Council </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining staff focused on implementation via networks, best practices, recognition, tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Increased transparency of performance using Balanced Scorecard </li></ul>
    12. 12. NPR Implementation Guidelines <ul><li>Focus on what works, not what doesn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Be value/principle-driven, not rule-driven </li></ul><ul><li>Be customer-centric, not agency-centric </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on services and results, not agencies and programs </li></ul>Recommendations weren’t the ultimate goal – culture change was. . . But how?
    13. 13. Insights During Implementation <ul><li>Congress eats dessert first. </li></ul><ul><li>Headquarters doesn’t cut headquarters; it cuts field. </li></ul><ul><li>Departments don’t do work; bureaus do it. Focus on them during implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Link reforms to mission and performance </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t always trumpet your successes if you want to keep them. . . . </li></ul><ul><li>. . . But shining light on success begets more success. </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Aftermath <ul><li>What continued </li></ul><ul><li>President Bush’s Management Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>President Obama’s Management Agenda </li></ul>
    15. 15. What Continued . . . <ul><li>Chief Operating Officers in agencies </li></ul><ul><li>President’s Management Council </li></ul><ul><li>Employee, Customer Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on performance and results </li></ul>
    16. 16. Bush Management Agenda <ul><li>Bush Administration shifted from “let a thousand flowers bloom” to 5 centralized initiatives. Maintained course over 8 years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small handful of “catalytic mechanisms” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scorecard public, follow through relentless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify, unify technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build once, use many times – central standards, architecture, investment decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tie performance to budget </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Bush’s Strategic Themes <ul><li>Citizens-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Results-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Market-based </li></ul>Outcome: Fiscal Responsibility and Program Accountability Human Capital Competitive Sourcing Budget & Performance Integration Financial Performance Expanded E-Government
    18. 18. How Bush Measured Progress June 3 0 , 200 3 Progress in Implementing the President's Management Agenda E -Gov Human Capital Competitive Sourcing Financial Perf. Budget/ Perf. Integration Human Capital Competitive Sourcing Financial Perf. E- Gov Budget/ Perf. Integration AGRICULTURE COMMERCE DEFENSE EDUCATION ENERGY EPA HHS HOMELAND HUD INTERIOR JUSTICE LABOR STATE
    19. 19. Obama Accountable Govt Initiative <ul><li>Drive cross-cutting and agency-level high priority goals </li></ul><ul><li>Promote Open Government, transparency, citizen role </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize efficiency: technology spending, improper payments, customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Reform contracting, hiring processes </li></ul>
    20. 20. Obama Uses Dashboards
    21. 21. <ul><li>NPR attempted to go around central control agencies . . . PMA uses them heavily; AGI less so </li></ul><ul><li>NPR relied on temporary, dedicated staffing . . . . </li></ul><ul><li>PMA relied on permanent staff, as supplemental task, AGI same </li></ul><ul><li>NPR attempted to engage front line . . . . </li></ul><ul><li>PMA attempts to engage agency political leaders; AGI hasn’t </li></ul><ul><li>NPR focused on recognizing success . . . . </li></ul><ul><li>PMA focuses on scorecards of all; AGI dashboards for key items </li></ul>Contrast between NPR, PMA, AGI
    22. 22. The Lessons You Can Apply <ul><li>Clear purpose, scope </li></ul><ul><li>Support from the top </li></ul><ul><li>A champion in charge </li></ul><ul><li>Create sense of urgency to act </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on mission, organize around customers </li></ul><ul><li>Quick wins, stories, measurement – builds support for longer-term initiatives </li></ul>
    23. 23. You Can Send Your Questions to: Text message: Short code: 22333 USVI [text] Twitter: @poll USVI [text] Smartphone: USVI [text]
    24. 24. Break-Out Groups: 30 minutes <ul><li>Two areas of conversation: </li></ul><ul><li>Where should we focus? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What themes, principles, strategies should we use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What cross-agency initiatives make sense? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are there “Fix-It Suggestions” we can act on now? </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Identify selected areas for action </li></ul>
    25. 25. Final Insights: Agency Leadership Matters <ul><li>Transformation is possible when pursued in a systematic way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic plan, operating plan, tie to budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define customers, services & products, strategies, processes and link to dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure relentlessly – organizational, team, individual scorecards – and reward performance </li></ul></ul>Shift thinking from “agencies and programs” to “services and results”
    26. 26. I Left REGO Inspired . . . . <ul><li>There are transformational leaders that make a difference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ken Kizer, James Lee Witt, Joe Dear, Dan Beard, Dan Goldin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employees saw the difference in their workplace: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>84 percent satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citizens saw the difference: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60 percent saw improvement by 2000. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction almost equal to private sector. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory streamlining: artificial skin </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Resources <ul><li>NPR Archived Website </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sylvester & Umpierre, “Red Tape, Silver Hammers, Shattered Ashtrays: What States and Communities Can Learn From Eight Years of Federal Reinvention” Annie Casey Foundation (2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osborne & Plastrik, “Reinventors’ Fieldbook” Jossey Bass Publishers (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>IBM Center for The Business of Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Kamensky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] ; 202-551-9341 </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Vote on the Quick Poll Now: <ul><li>Text message: </li></ul><ul><li>22333 [insert pre-designated word] </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> [insert pre-designated word] @poll </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smartphone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> [insert pre-designated word] </li></ul></ul>