Atlantic Continuum:A Look at DNA & Ancient Human Migration Patterns - by Karl Hoenke for AAPS 6th Annual International Con...
Atlantic Continuum<br />Presented by Karl Hoenke<br />to Ancient Artifact Preservation Society<br />17 September 2010<br /...
Overview<br />High-level observations about DNA<br />Revisit Haplogroup X<br />Assemble some interesting scraps<br />Sugge...
Usefulness of DNA<br />Determine relationships<br />Estimate timing of divergences<br />Estimate locations of divergences<...
DNA Assumptions when Estimating Time<br /><ul><li>Size of founding group
Mutation rates: Constant, Only once, not reversed
Degree of isolation
Degree of inbreeding/outbreeding
Shared ancestry
Sampling is “random”, not “convenience”
Sampling “within-local-population”</li></li></ul><li>Generally Accepted DNA “Tree”<br />October 11, 2010<br />6<br />C<br ...
Haplogroup X -- Updated<br />
Haplogroup X<br />Note 1:  Inland “footprints” of X absent in both Asia and Europe.  It is present in populations associat...
Outlier Haplotypes in Cherokees52-member study group<br />Sampling of Central Band of Cherokees; published in Ancient Amer...
European Pattern of SpreadingGenetics & Farming<br />~5,000 BC<br />~6,000 BC<br />
BASQUE mtDNA FREQUENCIES<br />mtDNA “J” originated in Mid-East<br />mtdDNA “K” originated in Levant ~10,000 ybp<br />mtDNA...
Maritime Cultures<br />
Phoenicians<br /><ul><li>Known to have circled Africa
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Atlantic continuum final

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There are many and varied opinions on whether there were early visitors to the North Ameri

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  • DriftBottlenecks
  • Farming arrived Balkans ~7,950 ybp, stalled 800 years, reached coast ~1,000 years laterHaplogroup J brought farming to EuropeRed Paint Culture on coast 7,500 ybp to 3,500 ybpBritish Isles settled from Iberia via Normandy over 7,000 ybpPattern same for genes and farming; this is presumptive pattern for Basque marginalization
  • Ancient Basques consistent with Eastern Mediterranean peoples, as shown by X, K and J.Modern Basques consistent with current Europeans, prior DNA very diluted
  • Barry Cunliffe advocates the “circum-Atlantic” culture; Jay Wakefield and Renoud de Jongue have produced ample supporting evidence.“Red Paint People” (7,000 to 3,000 ybp) both sides of AtlanticAdvance of farmers into Europe stopped short of coastAtlantic coastal trading culture consistent with artifacts and geneticsMegaliths of Atlantic coast were precedents to Minoan/Mediterranean megalithic culturesMinoans were major Mediterranean maritime traders; then Phoenicians, Greeks, et alia
  • Before the PyramidsCracking Archaeology’s Greatest MysteryBy Christopher Knight &amp; Alan Butler
  • Before the PyramidsCracking Archaeology’s Greatest MysteryBy Christopher Knight &amp; Alan ButlerRocks and RowsJay Wakefield and Reinoud de Jonghe
  • Atlantic continuum final

    1. 1. Atlantic Continuum:A Look at DNA & Ancient Human Migration Patterns - by Karl Hoenke for AAPS 6th Annual International Conference on Ancient America<br />C<br />A<br />D<br />X<br />X<br />X<br />B<br />X<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />October 11, 2010<br />1<br />
    2. 2. Atlantic Continuum<br />Presented by Karl Hoenke<br />to Ancient Artifact Preservation Society<br />17 September 2010<br />Marquette, Michigan<br />
    3. 3. Overview<br />High-level observations about DNA<br />Revisit Haplogroup X<br />Assemble some interesting scraps<br />Suggest hypothesis to fit these together<br />Duck<br />
    4. 4. Usefulness of DNA<br />Determine relationships<br />Estimate timing of divergences<br />Estimate locations of divergences<br />mtDNA = Mitochondrial DNA follows female line<br />Y chromosome DNA = follows male line<br />
    5. 5. DNA Assumptions when Estimating Time<br /><ul><li>Size of founding group
    6. 6. Mutation rates: Constant, Only once, not reversed
    7. 7. Degree of isolation
    8. 8. Degree of inbreeding/outbreeding
    9. 9. Shared ancestry
    10. 10. Sampling is “random”, not “convenience”
    11. 11. Sampling “within-local-population”</li></li></ul><li>Generally Accepted DNA “Tree”<br />October 11, 2010<br />6<br />C<br />A<br />D<br />X<br />X<br />X<br />B<br />X<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />B<br />
    12. 12. Haplogroup X -- Updated<br />
    13. 13. Haplogroup X<br />Note 1: Inland “footprints” of X absent in both Asia and Europe. It is present in populations associated with coastal regions and history<br />Note 2: Haplotype X occurs as X1 and X2. X1 only in North Africa. X2 dispersed ~20,000 ybp. X2 not in Asia. X2a & X2g in North America, not Central America. X2 in Sioux (15%), Navajo (7%), Yakima (5%), Nuu-Chah-Nulth (12%)<br />Note 3: Haplotype X is 12-36,000 years old, must be among founding populations of North America <br />
    14. 14. Outlier Haplotypes in Cherokees52-member study group<br />Sampling of Central Band of Cherokees; published in Ancient American<br />
    15. 15. European Pattern of SpreadingGenetics & Farming<br />~5,000 BC<br />~6,000 BC<br />
    16. 16. BASQUE mtDNA FREQUENCIES<br />mtDNA “J” originated in Mid-East<br />mtdDNA “K” originated in Levant ~10,000 ybp<br />mtDNA “V” believed to be recent SW Europe development<br />
    17. 17. Maritime Cultures<br />
    18. 18. Phoenicians<br /><ul><li>Known to have circled Africa
    19. 19. Dominated Mediterranean commerce
    20. 20. Characterized by Haplogroup T
    21. 21. Called themselves Cana'ni or KHNAI
    22. 22. Many American towns & Conoy Indians considered cognates
    23. 23. William Penn around 1700 described Conoy Indians as resembling Italians, Jews and Greeks
    24. 24. Phoenicians visited England
    25. 25. And are rumored to have visited ………</li></li></ul><li>Pyramids and Henges<br />
    26. 26. Coincidence?<br />Poverty Point mounds date from 1.650 to 700 BC<br />Thornborough Henge dates from 3,500 to 2,500 BC<br />
    27. 27. Summary of Bits Presented<br /><ul><li>Haplogroup X distribution consistent with maritime trading culture
    28. 28. Pattern of continuous Atlantic rim coastal culture
    29. 29. Delayed spread of farming & genetics support identity of separate coastal culture
    30. 30. Orion’s belt pattern appears in diverse locations</li></li></ul><li>HypothesisRed Paint Culture of Maritime Atlantic in Europe<br /><ul><li>Was in routine contact with North America
    31. 31. Passed megalithic tradition to Mediterranean
    32. 32. Evolved into traders of Mediterranean (who visited North America for 5,000 years)
    33. 33. Left genetic remnants in refugia (i.e. Basques, Caucasus, Druze, Micmacs, et alia)</li></li></ul><li>QUESTIONS ????<br />

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