Kin 188 Components Of Injury Prevention Program


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Kin 188 Components Of Injury Prevention Program

  1. 1. KIN 188 – Prevention and Care of Athletic Injuries Components of Injury Prevention Program
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Evaluative tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness testing procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness testing parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercise prescription </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic/anaerobic training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Fitness Testing <ul><li>Typically done in some association with PPE </li></ul><ul><li>Pre- and post-season evaluations most common – little value with in-season testing </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for baseline to be established (pre-season) and evaluation of progress or identification of areas to focus on (post-season) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fitness Testing Procedures <ul><li>Muscular function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength, power and endurance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular function </li></ul><ul><li>Speed and agility </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition </li></ul>
  5. 5. Muscular Function <ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of muscle or group of muscles to overcome resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of performing work, requisite time element </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of muscle or group of muscles to perform repetitive action/s </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Muscular Strength <ul><li>Most common evaluative technique is using one repetition maximum (1RM) – maximal amount of resistance an individual can move one time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must ensure that test addresses appropriate muscle and/or muscle groups </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Muscular Power <ul><li>Evaluates ability to exert maximal force in as short a period of time as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Most common evaluation methods are vertical jump and standing long jump </li></ul>
  8. 8. Muscular Endurance <ul><li>Evaluated differently than strength as different energy system used </li></ul><ul><li>Most common evaluative methods include push-up tests (how many in given period of time), sit-up tests, repeated squat tests </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cardiovascular Function <ul><li>Aerobic – involves ability to use oxygen in performing work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly evaluated with timed run over prescribed distance (1.5 miles is typical) or step test (number of steps in given time frame at set pace) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic – involves work without or with very little use of oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly evaluated with timed shuttle test/line drill </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Speed and Agility <ul><li>Agility – ability to accelerate/decelerate and change direction under control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often evaluated with T-test or lateral shuffle test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speed – length of time required to cover distance or accomplish task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically evaluated with timed sprint over prescribed distance (40 yards/100 yards) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Flexibility <ul><li>Affected by the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint structure – size and shape of joint surfaces impacts available joint ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle size – hypertrophy can limit joint ROM via soft tissue approximation and/or tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligament/tendon composition – some individuals have more elastin than others = more flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age – flexibility generally decreases with age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender – generally thought that females more flexible than males </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Flexibility <ul><li>Hamstrings are most commonly evaluated muscle group regarding flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly evaluated by sit and reach test </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also can be joint or activity specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Wing” position for pectoralis major tightness </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Body Composition <ul><li>Evaluation of amount of fat in relation to lean tissue in the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms are 12%-18% for men and 14%-20% for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity at >25% for men and >30% for women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluative methods include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin calipers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body mass index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underwater (hydrostatic) weighing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical impedance </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Exercise Prescription <ul><li>Muscular strength/power/endurance training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aerobic endurance training </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic training </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility training </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching methods and factors </li></ul>
  15. 15. Strength Training Considerations <ul><li>Essentials to any program are resistance and overload </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance can take many forms – body weight, bands, machines, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Overload is key – must stress muscle beyond normal loads in order to generate response </li></ul>
  16. 16. Strength Training Considerations <ul><li>Exercise intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Periodization </li></ul><ul><li>Rest periods/frequency of training </li></ul>
  17. 17. Exercise Intensity <ul><li>Typically refers to percentage of 1RM and minimal intensity usually 60%-65% of 1RM </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertrophy method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to increase muscular mass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High intensity training method (HIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to increase or improve recruitment of existing muscle fibers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Periodization <ul><li>Cycling of different training volumes and intensities – allows gains in all areas/different times of year </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertrophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-6 sets, 8-20 reps, 65%-80% 1RM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-6 sets, 1-6 reps, 85%-120% 1RM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-3 sets, 10-30+ reps, 15%-60% 1RM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-6 sets, 8-20 reps, 15%-60% 1RM </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Rest Periods/Training Frequency <ul><li>Rest periods depend upon training volume and intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest rest periods (3-5 minutes) for strength exercises vs. shorter (30-60 seconds) for endurance/hypertrophy exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training frequency also depends upon training volume and intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternating days method is common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher loads (strength training) may require less frequent bouts of training to minimize risk of injury </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Strength Training <ul><li>Isometric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Force generated in absence of joint movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength gains only at specific point in ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isotonic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving joint through ROM against constant resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak points in ROM (typically mid-range) so variable tension on muscle/s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variable resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneered by Nautilus to address weak points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance varies through ROM but tension on muscle/s stays constant </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Strength Training <ul><li>Concentric vs. eccentric training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortening vs. lengthening of muscle with contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much greater tension in muscle with eccentric activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isokinetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular activity performed at constant velocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very expensive, theoretically more functional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plyometrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretch shortening cycle activities (eccentric contraction, amoritization phase, concentric contraction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slide board, box jumps, weighted ball tosses </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Equipment Considerations <ul><li>Free weights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dumbbells, barbells, plates, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strength training machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-station/”universal” machines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single muscle/movement specific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plyoballs, physioballs, Theraband/tubing </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Aerobic Endurance Training <ul><li>Recommended exercise intensity of aerobic conditioning (per ACSM) is 60%-90% of maximal heart rate over a period of at least 20 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Overload principle applied to generate desired response for individual </li></ul>
  24. 24. Anaerobic Training <ul><li>Most activities are blend of aerobic and anaerobic systems </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic training requires short, intense bouts of activity – best if can be sport specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprint training (running, biking, swimming) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combination activities include Fartlek training and interval workouts </li></ul>
  25. 25. Flexibility Training <ul><li>Research doesn’t support increased flexibility as reducing injury risk/rate </li></ul><ul><li>Passive stretching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed by trained personnel (ATC/PT/CPT) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active stretching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual stretches self (e.g. - standing calf stretch) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common is contract relax technique </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Static vs. dynamic vs. ballistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold on “stretch” vs. active movements (knee lifts) vs. “bouncing” maneuvers (typically unsafe) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Coaching Methods and Factors <ul><li>Equipment considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Adherence to rules associated with activity </li></ul><ul><li>Matching athletes on motor skill performance </li></ul><ul><li>Control biomechanical stresses – limits overuse opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Modify demands placed on participants per circumstances (fatigue, illness, etc.) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Illness Prevention <ul><li>Adherence to OSHA guidelines for cleanliness and sanitation of facility and clinician </li></ul><ul><li>Personal hygiene considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious disease transmission considerations </li></ul>