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Modes of Water Transportation

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Modes of Water Transportation

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Modes of Water Transportation

  1. 1. MODES OF WATER TRANSPORTATION
  2. 2. 1.FERRY Ferry- is a boat or ship (a merchant vessel) used to carry (or ferry) primarily passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi.
  3. 3. FERRY
  4. 4. TYPES OF FERRY Ferry designs depend on the length of the route, the passenger or vehicle capacity required, speed requirements and the water conditions the craft must deal with.
  5. 5.  Double-ended- ferries have interchangeable bows and sterns, allowing them to shuttle back and forth between two terminals without having to turn around. Well-known double-ended ferry systems include the Staten Island Ferry, Washington State Ferries, Star Ferry, several boats on the North Carolina Ferry System, and the Lake Champlain Transportation Company.
  6. 6.  Hydrofoils -have the advantage of higher cruising speeds, succeeding hovercraft on some English Channel routes where the ferries now compete against the Eurotunnel and Eurostar trains that use the Channel Tunnel. Passenger- only hydrofoils also proved a practical, fast and relatively economical solution in the Canary Islands but were recently replaced by faster catamaran "high speed" ferries that can carry cars. Their replacement by the larger craft is seen by critics as a retrograde step given that the new vessels use much more fuel and foster the inappropriate use of cars[3] in islands already suffering from the impact of mass tourism.
  7. 7. HYDROFOILS
  8. 8.  Hovercraft were developed in the 1960s and 1970s to carry cars. The largest was the massive SR.N4 which carried cars in its centre section with ramps at the bow and stern between England and France. The hovercraft was superseded by catamarans which are nearly as fast and are less affected by sea and weather conditions. Only one service now remains, a foot passenger service between Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight run by Hovertravel.
  9. 9. HOVERCRAFT
  10. 10.  Catamarans are normally associated with high-speed ferry services. Stena Line operates the largest catamarans in the world, the Stena HSS class, between the United Kingdom and Ireland. These waterjet-powered vessels, displacing 19,638 tonnes, are larger than most catamarans and can accommodate 375 passenger cars and 1,500 passengers. Other examples of these super-sizer catamarans are found in the Brittany Ferries fleet with the Normandie Express and the Normandie Vitesse.
  11. 11. CATAMARANS
  12. 12.  Roll-on/roll-off ferries (RORO) are large, conventional ferries named for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave.
  13. 13.  A cruiseferry is a ship that combines the features of a cruise ship with a RoRo ferry.
  14. 14.  Fast RoPax ferries are conventional ferries with a large garage intake and a relatively large passenger capacity, with conventional diesel propulsion and propellers that sail over 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph). Pioneering this class of ferries was Attica Group, when it introduced Superfast I between Greece and Italy in 1995 through its subsidiary company Superfast Ferries. Cabins, if existent, are much smaller than those on cruise ships.
  15. 15. RoPax Ferry
  16. 16.  Turntable ferry-This type of ferry allows vehicles to load from the "side". The vehicle platform can be turned. When loading, the platform is turned sideways to allow sideways loading of vehicles. Then the platform is turned back, in line with the vessel, and the journey across water is made.
  17. 17.  Pontoon ferries carry vehicles across rivers and lakes and are widely used in less-developed countries with large rivers where the cost of bridge construction is prohibitive. One or more vehicles are carried on a pontoon with ramps at either end for vehicles to drive on and off. Cable ferries (next section) are usually pontoon ferries, but pontoon ferries on larger rivers are motorised and able to be steered independently like a boat.
  18. 18. Pontoon Ferry
  19. 19.  A Train ferry is a ship designed to carry railway vehicles. Typically, one level of the ship is fitted with railway tracks, and the vessel has a door at the front and/or rear to give access to the wharves.
  20. 20.  Foot ferries are small craft used to ferry foot passengers, and often also cyclists, over rivers. These are either self-propelled craft or cable ferries. Such ferries are for example to be found on the lower River Schelde in Belgium and in particular the Netherlands. Regular foot ferry service also exists in the capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, and across the Yarra River in Melbourne, Australia at Newport. Restored, expanded ferry service in the Port of New York and New Jersey uses boats for pedestrians only.
  21. 21. Foot Ferry
  22. 22.  Cable or chain ferry, which is usually a pontoon ferry (see above), where the ferry is propelled along and steered by cables connected to each shore. Sometimes the cable ferry is human powered by someone on the boat.
  23. 23.  Reaction ferries are cable ferries that use the perpendicular force of the current as a source of power. Examples of a current propelled ferry are the four Rhine ferries in Basel, Switzerland. Cable ferries may be used in fast-flowing rivers across short distances.
  24. 24.  Air ferries In the 1950s and 1960s, travel on an "air ferry" was possible—aeroplanes, often ex-military, specially equipped to take a small number of cars in addition to "foot" passengers. These operated various routes including between the United Kingdom and Continental Europe. Companies operating such services included Channel Air Bridge, Silver City Airways, and Corsair.
  25. 25. Air Ferry
  26. 26.  The term is also applied to any "ferrying" by air, and is commonly used when referring to airborne military operations. 1. Boat- is a watercraft of any size designed to float or plane, to work or travel on water. Small boats are typically found on inland (lakes) or in protected coastal areas. However, boats such as the whaleboat were designed for operation from a ship in an offshore environment. In naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard another vessel (a ship). Another less restrictive definition is a vessel that can be lifted out of the water. Some definitions do not make a distinction in size, as 1000-foot bulk freighters on the Great Lakes are called oreboats. For reasons of naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as 'boats' rather than 'ships', regardless of their size and shape.
  27. 27. Boat
  28. 28. Boats can be categorized into three main types:  Unpowered or human-powered boats. Unpowered boats include rafts and floats meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include canoes, kayaks, gondolas and boats propelled by poles like a punt.  Sailboats, which are propelled solely by means of sails.  Motorboats, which are propelled by mechanical means, such as engines. ◦ Ski boats are specialized motorboats specifically designed to safely tow one or more water skiers. This is achieved by using a high-horsepower, marine automobile engine, usually positioned in the midsection and powered through a direct drive to the propeller. A skier is pulled on a towrope attached to a tow bar located in front of the drive motor and affixed to the bottom of the hull. Each approved towboat must meet or exceed a preset set of standards defined by the USA Water Ski Federation, formerly the American Water Ski Association, AWSA
  29. 29. 2. A ship is a large buoyant watercraft. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on size, shape and cargo or passenger capacity. Ships are used on lakes, seas, and rivers for a variety of activities, such as the transport of people or goods, fishing, entertainment, public safety, and warfare. Historically, a "ship" was a sailing vessel with at least three square- rigged masts and a full bowsprit. Ships and boats have developed alongside humanity. In armed conflict and in daily life they have become an integral part of modern commercial and military systems. Fishing boats are used by millions of fishermen throughout the world. Military forces operate vessels for combat and to transport and support forces ashore. Commercial vessels, nearly 35,000 in number, carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2007. As of 2011, there are about 104,304 ships with IMO numbers in the world.
  30. 30. Ship
  31. 31. Types of Ships  Dry cargo ships - tramp freighters, bulk carriers, cargo liners, container vessels, barge carriers, Ro-Ro ships, refrigerated cargo ships, timber carriers, livestock & light vehicle carriers.  Liquid cargo ships - Oil tankers, liquefied gas carriers, chemical carriers.  Passenger vessels
  32. 32.  Liners, cruise and Special Trade Passenger (STP) ships  Cross-channel, coastal and harbour ferries.  Luxury & cruising yachts  Sail training and multi-masted ships  Recreational boats and craft - rowed, masted and motorised craft  Special-purpose vessels - weather and research vessels, deep sea survey vessels, and icebreakers.  Submersibles - industrial exploration, scientific research, tourist and hydrographic survey.  Warships  Surface warships - deep and shallow draft  Submarines
  33. 33. 4. A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. The term most commonly refers to a large, crewed, autonomous vessel. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Used as an adjective in phrases such as submarine cable, "submarine" means "under the sea". The noun submarine evolved as a shortened form of submarine boat (and is often further shortened to sub). For reasons of naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size.
  34. 34. SUBMARINE

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