Gabarro, Kotter, & Ciampa  On Leadership, Transition, & Change Developed and  Presented by John Anthony
<ul><li>Executive transitions can manifest themselves on various levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions that are part of...
What does it all mean? <ul><li>Taking charge refers to the process by which a manager establishes mastery and influences a...
Benchmarking success Success Factors <ul><li>Factors accounting for managerial success include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior...
Benchmarking success <ul><li>Factors accounting for managerial success include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manner in which manag...
Five stages of change Taking Charge <ul><li>According to John Gabarro, there are five predictable stages that new managers...
Five stages of change Taking Charge <ul><li>According to John Gabarro, there are five predictable stages that new managers...
Parallels to Strategic Planning Process <ul><li>The writer underscores the linkages between taking charge, change manageme...
Not every leader is a great leader What does it  Take to lead? <ul><li>Additional qualities or success factors to be consi...
Are we there yet? When does Change happen? <ul><li>A set of three field studies conducted by John Kotter of 17 management ...
Doing the right thing in the right place at the right time <ul><li>In the early stages of transition, the manager’s prior ...
Who wins, who loses, and why? Success vs. Failure <ul><li>Successful managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessed the organizat...
How long does it take to take charge? It’s good  to be the King <ul><li>Two patterns were identified with regard to taking...
Doing the right thing in the right place at the right time <ul><li>John Kotter identified eight stages in the process of c...
Doing the right thing in the right place at the right time Transition and Transformation <ul><li>John Kotter identified ei...
Doing the right thing in the right place at the right time Transition and Transformation <ul><li>John Kotter identified ei...
Doing the right thing in the right place at the right time <ul><li>John Kotter identified eight stages in the process of c...
Implications for new leaders Staying the Course <ul><li>According to Dan Ciampa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition period ma...
Implications for new leaders Staying the Course <ul><li>According to Dan Ciampa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Momentum is created ...
Implications for new leaders <ul><li>According to Dan Ciampa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New leaders who fail to manage themselv...
Developed and  Presented by John Anthony Gabarro, Kotter, & Ciampa  On Leadership, Transition, & Change
 
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Gabarro, Kotter, and Ciampa On Leadership, Transition, and Change

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Gabarro, Kotter, and Ciampa On Leadership, Transition, and Change

  1. 1. Gabarro, Kotter, & Ciampa On Leadership, Transition, & Change Developed and Presented by John Anthony
  2. 2. <ul><li>Executive transitions can manifest themselves on various levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions that are part of a succession planning process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key senior executives that are fast-tracked and coached to assume the helm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief executives that are selected from external sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate restructuring activities such as merger and acquisitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly new startup companies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-profit leadership and public sector political appointments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions that result from non-controversial CEO departures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Executive Retirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary departures for business or personal opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural death or illness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions that result from controversial events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Career derailment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal, illegal, or unethical activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Board/CEO non-alignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance problems </li></ul></ul></ul>What causes an executive transition? Types of CEO Transitions
  3. 3. What does it all mean? <ul><li>Taking charge refers to the process by which a manager establishes mastery and influences a new assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery refers to the acquisition of grounded understanding of the organization, tasks, people, environment, and challenges or problems facing the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Influence means having an impact on the organization, structure, practices, and performance; e. g., being a change agent </li></ul><ul><li>Process begins when manager starts a new assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Process ends when manager has mastered in sufficient depth how to manage organization efficiently relative to resources, constraints, and personal KASOCs </li></ul>Some definitions
  4. 4. Benchmarking success Success Factors <ul><li>Factors accounting for managerial success include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior industry experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(though clearly some successful transitions are based more on executive leadership and managerial skills vs. industry specific knowledge-base; e. g., Lou Gerstner at IBM) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support from superiors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely does any corporate endeavor enjoy success without upper management support, this could relate to implementation of policy or business plan, CEO support of other senior managers and staff, or Board support for CEO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective interpersonal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-regulation and monitoring and strategic ability to cause change in others allow interpersonal relationships to be effective and transformational; they are essential to ensure success </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Benchmarking success <ul><li>Factors accounting for managerial success include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manner in which managers take charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial entry style, prior preparation, and perception of and by stakeholders have profound impact on the level of executive success or whether success is achieved at all </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change could entail a number of factors such as new organization cultures resulting from corporate restructuring activity, product differentiation, new business strategy, emerging environmental threats, or repairing damage done by a previous leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of success in mastering new situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is both a time-influenced variable as well as a process-influenced variable; that is, is change effected prematurely and/or is the wrong strategy being used? </li></ul></ul></ul>Success Factors
  6. 6. Five stages of change Taking Charge <ul><li>According to John Gabarro, there are five predictable stages that new managers undergo in the process of taking charge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking hold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is defined as a period of orientational and evaluative learning and corrective action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A period characterized by relatively little change but which which includes more reflective and penetrating learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reshaping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is considered a period that is accompanied by major change during which the new manager acts on the deeper understanding gained in preceding stages </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Five stages of change Taking Charge <ul><li>According to John Gabarro, there are five predictable stages that new managers undergo in the process of taking charge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is a period during which earlier changes that occurred leading to the same are consolidated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refinement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when fine-tuning of change process is underway and when there is relatively little major additional learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Parallels to Strategic Planning Process <ul><li>The writer underscores the linkages between taking charge, change management, and strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>In the classic strategic planning model, there are five stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting environmental scan and organizational assessment (Taking Hold) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting strategic direction and developing strategic plan (Immersion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing strategic plan (Reshaping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating and amending implemented strategies (Consolidating) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing changes made (Refinement) </li></ul></ul>Comparable Tracks
  9. 9. Not every leader is a great leader What does it Take to lead? <ul><li>Additional qualities or success factors to be considered in matching the right executive with the right organization are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to Intellect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moreover, to be successful change agents, chief executives must </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a mission that is clearly stated to internal and external stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be trustworthy and charismatic in the eyes of the workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt management style based on situation </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Are we there yet? When does Change happen? <ul><li>A set of three field studies conducted by John Kotter of 17 management successions in U. S. and Europe identified several patterns of change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational changes occurred in three waves during the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taking-hold, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reshaping, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidating stages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both stage and wave patterns were found in successful transitions regardless of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insider vs. outsider CEO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turnaround vs. non-turnaround of structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manager’s prior functional background </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Doing the right thing in the right place at the right time <ul><li>In the early stages of transition, the manager’s prior level (and type) of experience had profound influence on the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The manager’s actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The manager’s focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problems faced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary causes of failure to take charge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of prior experience that was relevant to the new assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor working relationships with key people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Successful managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Were effective in interpersonal work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed mutual expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established and gained trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced both subordinates and superiors </li></ul></ul>What causes CEO failure?
  12. 12. Who wins, who loses, and why? Success vs. Failure <ul><li>Successful managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessed the organization and correctly diagnosed the problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built management team focused on set of shared expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executed timely-changes addressing organizational problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failed managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approached process in a lone-ranger style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved others to a lesser degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnoses were narrowly focused and incomplete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited use of team-focused devices such as group meetings/task forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes were perceived as inappropriate or ineffective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes were based on partial or incorrect diagnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes were badly implemented by non-supporters or resistors </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. How long does it take to take charge? It’s good to be the King <ul><li>Two patterns were identified with regard to taking charge process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking charge is a long process at upper and middle management levels which takes two to two and a half years for American senior level managers and longer for their British counterparts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking charge process is not one of steadily increasing learning or action; rather, it consists of a series of stages where the manager’s emphasis alternates between learning and action </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Doing the right thing in the right place at the right time <ul><li>John Kotter identified eight stages in the process of creating major change which the writer believes influence the success of the executive transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing a sense of urgency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examining the market and competitive realities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying and discussing crises, potential crises, or major opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating the guiding coalition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Putting together a group with enough power to lead the change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Getting the group to work together like a team </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a vision and a strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a vision to help direct the change effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing strategies for achieving that vision </li></ul></ul></ul>Transition & Transformation
  15. 15. Doing the right thing in the right place at the right time Transition and Transformation <ul><li>John Kotter identified eight stages in the process of creating major change which the writer believes influence the success of the executive transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating the changed vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using every vehicle possible to constantly communicate the new vision and strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having the guiding coalition role model the behavior expected of employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowering broad-based action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Getting rid of obstacles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing systems or structures that undermine the change vision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging risk taking and nontraditional ideas, activities, and actions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Doing the right thing in the right place at the right time Transition and Transformation <ul><li>John Kotter identified eight stages in the process of creating major change which the writer believes influence the success of the executive transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating short-term wins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning for visible improvements in performance, or “wins” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating those wins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visibly recognizing and rewarding people who made the wins possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidating gains and producing more change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using increased credibility to change all systems, structures, and policies that don’t fit together and don’t fit the transformation vision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hiring, promoting, and developing people who can implement the change vision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes, and change agents </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Doing the right thing in the right place at the right time <ul><li>John Kotter identified eight stages in the process of creating major change which the writer believes influence the success of the executive transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchoring new approaches in the culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating better performance through customer- and productivity-oriented behavior, more and better leadership, and more effective management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Articulating the connections between new behaviors and organizational success </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing means to ensure leadership development and succession </li></ul></ul></ul>Transition and Transformation
  18. 18. Implications for new leaders Staying the Course <ul><li>According to Dan Ciampa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition period marks the beginning of an era of change that permanently affects performance and culture of organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New leaders must overlap learning and planning during this process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition period begins before entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New leaders must leverage valuable time prior to entry, preparing to learn and plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions that new leaders take during transition period to generate support for change agenda will determine ultimate success or failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New leaders must create quick momentum for change by tailoring approaches to fit technical, political, and cultural situations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Implications for new leaders Staying the Course <ul><li>According to Dan Ciampa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Momentum is created by securing early wins and building credibility and concurrently building foundation for sustained change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New leaders must find center of gravity and concentrate efforts relative to this center of gravity to motivate early successes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish A-item priority and pursue goals relentlessly with commitment and support of bosses, subordinates, and peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to perform required tasks rest on mastering enabling technologies of learning, visioning, and coalition building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New leaders must become oriented, develop a compelling personal vision, and build supportive coalitions very quickly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must work toward establishment of virtuous circles while avoiding vicious ones </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Implications for new leaders <ul><li>According to Dan Ciampa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New leaders who fail to manage themselves can end up on a ragged emotional edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To stay on rested edge, new leaders must learn to manage emotions under pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must also identify own style preferences and analyze how to make them work effectively </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest hazard to successful transition and transformation is isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical source of perspective is network of advisors and counselors who can offer appropriate mix of technical, political, and personal help </li></ul></ul></ul>Staying the Course
  21. 21. Developed and Presented by John Anthony Gabarro, Kotter, & Ciampa On Leadership, Transition, & Change

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