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JISC Legal National Stem Programme OER & Creative Commons Workshop Bath

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JISC Legal National Stem Programme OER & Creative Commons Workshop Bath December 2011

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JISC Legal National Stem Programme OER & Creative Commons Workshop Bath

  1. 1. OER and Creative Commons A guide to law, copyright and open licensing December 2011 79 SCORE / JISC Legal Workshop
  2. 2. Hi! <ul><li>John X Kelly JISC Legal </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>0141 548 4939 </li></ul><ul><li>www.jisclegal.ac.uk </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>10:00 – 10:15 Welcome and introduction </li></ul><ul><li>10:15 – 10:45 What You Need To Know About Copyright for OER </li></ul><ul><li>10:45 – 11:30 Getting to Know Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>11:30 – 12:00 Choosing a CC Licence – the Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>12:00 – 13:00 Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>13:00 – 15:00 Including Other People’s Stuff in Your OER </li></ul><ul><li>15:00 – 15:30 Tea/Coffee </li></ul><ul><li>15:30 – 15:45 Top Tips for Avoiding OER IPR Trouble </li></ul><ul><li>15:45 – 16:45 Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>16:45 – 17:00 Final Questions and Discussion </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Lecture <ul><li>A US academic gives a lecture on global environmental changes at your institution. You video the talk including the slides and put it on your intranet. Written materials are provided by the speaker. These were written as part of the speakers work at her institution and contain substantial quotes from works by other authors which she says are covered by fair use. Your team leader tasks you with OER ing the lecture and the speakers notes. He is particularly keen that you use a CC licence. </li></ul>
  5. 6. What time are you leaving? <ul><li>The bitter end (5pm) </li></ul><ul><li>Nipping away a few minutes early </li></ul><ul><li>The 4pm train was cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>You’ll be lucky to see me after lunch </li></ul><ul><li>I should be at the shops by now </li></ul>
  6. 7. When it comes to IPR... <ul><li>I’m confident </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve a fair idea </li></ul><ul><li>I dabble </li></ul><ul><li>I ask others </li></ul><ul><li>I hide in the shed </li></ul>10
  7. 8. Copyright in One Slide <ul><li>Copyright controls copying and other ‘restricted acts’ </li></ul><ul><li>You must own copyright, or have the permission of the copyright holder, in order to do the ‘restricted acts’ </li></ul><ul><li>A few education-relevant exceptions </li></ul>
  8. 9. Who Owns The Copyright? <ul><li>The author / creator in general </li></ul><ul><li>The employer (s.11 CDPA 1988) </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioned materials: contractor has copyright unless otherwise stated </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment and licensing </li></ul>
  9. 10. I Just Want Some Content <ul><li>Use out-of-copyright material </li></ul><ul><li>Use ‘open’ licence copyright material (though be aware of conditions!) </li></ul><ul><li>Use copyright exceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Use blanket licence </li></ul>
  10. 11. I Want THAT Content <ul><li>Check it is in copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Consider whether an exception applies </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the use of a blanket licence </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain permission directly </li></ul><ul><li>Do not ignore copyright </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>... the fact that our system of communication, teaching and entertainment does not grind to a standstill is in large part due to the fact that in most cases infringement of copyright has, historically, been ignored... </li></ul>“ ” Mr Justice Laddie
  12. 13. Top Tip 1 <ul><li>Copyright is good! </li></ul><ul><li>How to use other people’s stuff online </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence! </li></ul>Facilitation, not Compliance
  13. 14. Top Tip 2 <ul><li>Find out what you’ve got before you go shopping – you’ve got ingredients already! </li></ul><ul><li>Blanket licences </li></ul><ul><li>Open licences </li></ul>Look in the Pantry!
  14. 15. Top Tip 3 <ul><li>Where circumstances and purposes allow, let users do it for themselves </li></ul>Let Users Deal Fairly
  15. 16. Top Tip 4 <ul><li>Exception for examinations </li></ul><ul><li>Summative assessment </li></ul>The Examination Creation
  16. 17. Top Tip 5 <ul><li>Licences are key </li></ul><ul><li>Licences set bounds </li></ul><ul><li>Blanket licences </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiating licences </li></ul>Licensed to Inspire
  17. 18. Top Tip 6 <ul><li>Find out what licences you hold </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what they allow </li></ul><ul><li>Tell your staff </li></ul><ul><li>JISC Legal resource </li></ul>Spread the Licence Word
  18. 19. As to use of licences we hold... <ul><li>We’re on the ball </li></ul><ul><li>We have a passing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>We muddle on, and keep our head down </li></ul><ul><li>We hope no-one notices </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul>
  19. 20. Top Tip 7 <ul><li>Change of focus </li></ul><ul><li>Having isn’t enough </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding reuse in the digital world </li></ul>Make Holdings Into Usings
  20. 21. Top Tip 8 <ul><li>Seeking permission isn’t always tough </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for “no” and silence </li></ul><ul><li>Consider a central function </li></ul>Ask!
  21. 22. Top Tip 9 <ul><li>Efficient, effective e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Support and assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Clear ownership </li></ul>Copyright on the Agenda
  22. 23. Top Tip 10 <ul><li>Sources of information and guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Who is it at your institution? </li></ul><ul><li>JISC Legal </li></ul><ul><li>Licence providers </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of help! </li></ul>Born to Make You Happy
  23. 24. Getting to Know Creative Commons
  24. 25. Creative Commons Licences 1 <ul><li>Just a licence, like any other </li></ul><ul><li>Standard terms </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity </li></ul><ul><li>Legal status “debate” </li></ul><ul><li>Other licences are available... </li></ul>
  25. 26. Creative Commons Licences 2 <ul><li>Irrevocable / Perpetual </li></ul><ul><li>Summary / Legal Code / Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Elements / Components </li></ul><ul><li>Porting and Versions </li></ul><ul><li>When is a CC licence not a CC licence? </li></ul>
  26. 27. Creative Commons Licences 3 CC 0 CC BY CC BY-SA CC BY-ND CC BY-NC CC BY-NC-SA CC BY-NC-ND
  27. 28. CC Licences Elements <ul><li>BY – the attribution element </li></ul><ul><li>NC – the non-commercial qualification </li></ul><ul><li>ND – the non-derivative qualification </li></ul><ul><li>SA – the ShareAlike qualification </li></ul>
  28. 29. BY – the Art of Attribution <ul><li>Who needs to be attributed? </li></ul><ul><li>In what form do they have to be attributed? </li></ul><ul><li>What if it’s not practical to attribute? </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of ‘attribution stacking’ </li></ul>
  29. 30. NC – Cut the Commerce! <ul><li>What does ‘non commercial’ mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Applies to the activity, not the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Remedies for commercial ‘breach’ </li></ul><ul><li>Control, not prohibition </li></ul>
  30. 31. ND – Don’t Get Derivative <ul><li>What is a derivative? </li></ul><ul><li>How much change can I make? </li></ul><ul><li>Collections </li></ul><ul><li>Control, not prohibition </li></ul>
  31. 32. SA – ShareAlike <ul><li>Future adaptations have the same permissions as the original </li></ul>
  32. 33. Interoperability and Blending <ul><li>Tools at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.web2rights.com/creativecommons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wizard 1: given materials, which CC licence can I use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wizard 2: given a CC licence, what can I include? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Government Licence (OGL) compatible with CC BY </li></ul>
  33. 34. Some Scenarios for Discussion <ul><li>Alphaville University decides it wishes to make its courseware available more openly to raise its profile and attract interest. It chooses a CC BY-NC-ND licence. A good choice? </li></ul>
  34. 35. Some Scenarios for Discussion <ul><li>Bucks Fizz College decides it wishes to develop and promote a community of business tutors collaboratively creating materials across the education sector. It chooses a CC BY-NC-SA licence. A good choice? </li></ul>
  35. 36. Choosing a CC Licence – the Consequences
  36. 37. The Consequences of the Choice <ul><li>Irrevocable </li></ul><ul><li>But relicensing possible </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of licence limits not only use, but what can be included </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing’s barred... but people don’t ask </li></ul>
  37. 38. The Consequences of the Choice <ul><li>CC-0 </li></ul><ul><li>BY - attribution </li></ul><ul><li>NC – non-commercial restriction </li></ul><ul><li>ND – non-derivative restriction </li></ul><ul><li>SA – ShareAlike restriction </li></ul>
  38. 39. Some Scenarios for Discussion <ul><li>JISC Legal originally licensed its materials under a short, bespoke licence, allowing liberal use in the education context, but restricting commercial use and requiring permission for adaptation. It’s now moved to a CC BY licence. What were we thinking?! </li></ul>
  39. 40. Some Scenarios for Discussion <ul><li>The University of Jiscadvancia would like to share its materials more widely, but has reservations about rival institutions and commercial bodies benefitting from reuse of the materials. How would you advise them on the potential use of a CC licence? </li></ul>
  40. 41. Including Other People’s Stuff in Your OER
  41. 42. Understanding the CC Licences <ul><li>A learning curve for projects, creators and rights holders </li></ul><ul><li>The “not quite CC” syndrome </li></ul>Issue 1 Solution <ul><li>Education and changing perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding CC as permissions </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding CC compatibilities etc </li></ul>
  42. 43. Which licence for you? <ul><li>CC-0 </li></ul><ul><li>CC BY </li></ul><ul><li>CC BY-SA </li></ul><ul><li>CC BY-ND </li></ul><ul><li>CC BY-NC </li></ul><ul><li>CC BY-NC-SA </li></ul><ul><li>CC BY-NC-ND </li></ul><ul><li>Various / non-CC </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul>10
  43. 44. The Patchwork Quilt <ul><li>A world of rich content and bright lights... often means many licences </li></ul>Issue 2 Solution <ul><li>Accepting limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Changing approach to development </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging open, simple licensing </li></ul>
  44. 45. What’s the expected audience? <ul><li>UK local/regional </li></ul><ul><li>UK national </li></ul><ul><li>European </li></ul><ul><li>English-speaking global </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><li>Very varied </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul>10
  45. 46. Any Storm in a Port? <ul><li>Ported v unported licences </li></ul><ul><li>Over focus on jurisdiction </li></ul>Issue 3 Solution <ul><li>Recognising the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Improved understanding of CC </li></ul>
  46. 47. What’s Your Attitude to IPR? <ul><li>Anarchist </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries need pushed </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic, not pedantic </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative & cautious </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly risk averse </li></ul><ul><li>Not sure </li></ul>10
  47. 48. Let’s Get Risqué! <ul><li>Altruism, anarchy, openness, transparency, copyright = copywrong </li></ul>Issue 4 Solution <ul><li>Recognition of IPR risk in OER </li></ul><ul><li>A low risk threshold? </li></ul><ul><li>Champion risk-free resources </li></ul>
  48. 49. Institutional attitude to OER <ul><li>Strong buy-in at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Staff buy-in, but senior management untested </li></ul><ul><li>Project is testing the waters </li></ul><ul><li>Some institutional barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Not sure (yet!) </li></ul>10
  49. 50. Yours, Mine, and Minefields <ul><li>Ownership of IPR in academic work </li></ul><ul><li>Denial, and sensitivities </li></ul>Issue 5 Solution <ul><li>Senior management buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Staff and student buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>A diplomatic approach to OER </li></ul>
  50. 51. How much third party content? <ul><li>The vast majority </li></ul><ul><li>Lots </li></ul><ul><li>Some </li></ul><ul><li>A little </li></ul><ul><li>None </li></ul><ul><li>Large variations </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul>10
  51. 52. Asking the World... <ul><li>Getting third party permissions </li></ul><ul><li>The world isn’t changing fast enough </li></ul>Issue 6 Solution <ul><li>Getting buy-in (not just legal) </li></ul><ul><li>Accept limits / alter current approach </li></ul><ul><li>Wait </li></ul>
  52. 53. Including Other People’s Stuff <ul><li>Don’t ignore the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Get permission </li></ul><ul><li>Create an original replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Link or refer to the third party material </li></ul><ul><li>Include, with a warning as to licence limits </li></ul>
  53. 54. Use of Licences & Statutory Exceptions <ul><li>Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Blanket licences do not allow inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Few commercial licences allow inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Fair dealing for research </li></ul><ul><li>Fair dealing for criticism/review </li></ul>
  54. 55. Scenario – Using Audio <ul><li>The mathematics department at the University of Central England have recorded several ‘vodcasts’ and wish to add some music to make them more interesting, before making them available as OERs. How would you advise? </li></ul>
  55. 56. Scenario – Using Video <ul><li>A consortium of institutions wish to devise an OER dealing with preventing violence in demonstrations, using a selection of clips from television and films as material for discussion. How would you advise them? </li></ul>
  56. 57. Audit Trail <ul><li>Lack of formalities </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of permission depends on risk </li></ul><ul><li>Find the right balance – not easy </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise reasonable scepticism over the right to grant permission </li></ul>
  57. 58. Appraising the Approaches <ul><li>Getting permission </li></ul><ul><li>Including under a separate licence or exception </li></ul><ul><li>Linking or referencing </li></ul><ul><li>Recreating </li></ul>
  58. 59. Top Tips for Avoiding OER IPR Trouble
  59. 60. OER Without (Legal) Tears <ul><li>Copyright isn’t going to change much – live with that, and accept the legal reality </li></ul><ul><li>Be mindful of tensions and sensitivities – CC involves giving something away, forever </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid of complex licensing – it’s easy for things to get out of hand. “Link and split”! </li></ul>
  60. 61. OER Without (Legal) Tears <ul><li>Focus on using what’s available, rather than what you can’t have (easily) </li></ul><ul><li>Promote change in the creative world – many people do want to share, but the legal default is set otherwise </li></ul><ul><li>Get clarity as to ownership of copyright works, before they are created </li></ul>
  61. 62. OER Without (Legal) Tears <ul><li>Help out users – define your terms such as attribution and commercial use </li></ul><ul><li>Use and contribute CC licensed material to repositories, databases and collections </li></ul><ul><li>Move copyright up the agenda. The potential benefits (and savings) are huge. </li></ul>
  62. 63. OER Without (Legal) Tears <ul><li>Use the support that’s available. You don’t need to do it on your own. </li></ul>
  63. 64. Sources of Support <ul><li>www.jisclegal.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>www.web2rights.org.uk </li></ul><ul><li>www.web2rights.com/OERIPRSupport/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.creativecommons.org </li></ul>
  64. 65. Sources of Support <ul><li>www.jisc-collections.ac.uk JISC’s collective licensing organisation </li></ul><ul><li>www.ipo.gov.uk The UK Government-backed home of intellectual property on the Internet </li></ul>
  65. 66. Case Studies
  66. 67. The Lecture <ul><li>A US academic gives a lecture on global environmental changes at your institution. You video the talk including the slides and put it on your intranet. Written materials are provided by the speaker. These were written as part of the speakers work at her institution and contain substantial quotes from works by other authors which she says are covered by fair use. Your team leader tasks you with OER ing the lecture and the speakers notes. He is particularly keen that you use a CC licence. </li></ul>
  67. 68. The Blog <ul><li>You decide that a blog that has been around for some time in your department and that was originally set up and maintained by a senior colleague that has now gone off to Brazil to retire should be preserved and made more use of by the community. Several of the blogging contributors had posted materials from journals and magazines as well as Wikipedia and other internet stuff. After looking into it you realise that some of the blog posts have been reproduced in an activist newsletter with attribution but with substantial changes that alter arguments made by original contributors. </li></ul>
  68. 69. Final Questions and Discussion
  69. 70. Any Questions? ?

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