Getaneh Alemu


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Getaneh will talk about state-of-the-art metadata standards and how metadata can help ensure the integrity, identity and authenticity of digital documents. An overview of the various metadata initiatives and standards (OAIS, CEDARS, NEDLIB, LMER, PREMIS, and METS) will be provided along with information on how each one supports digital preservation.

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Getaneh Alemu

  1. 1. David Anderson Janet Delve Dan Pinchbeck Getaneh Agegn Alemu Antonio Ciuffreda Preservation Metadata Initiatives and Standards JISC Seminar on  "Digital Media +100 years“ 16th September 2009, University of Bristol
  2. 2. KEEP Team and Partner Institutions
  3. 3. KEEP <ul><li>Vision: preserving & facilitating access to digital objects </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy: developing an Emulation Access Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Work packages </li></ul>
  4. 4. KEEP Rationale <ul><li>Only emulation can preserve all characteristics of a digital object </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content, structure, context, appearance and behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (Rothenberg & Bikson, 1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital objects have become very complex </li></ul><ul><li>Certain types of objects can not be migrated </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge about obsolete data carriers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Digital Preservation <ul><li>Why digital preservation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to ensure protection of information of enduring value for access by present and future generations (Conway, 1990, p. 206). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How long digital objects need to be preserved? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several hundred years (Exon, 1995) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Media +100 years (JISC, 2009) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A century ( Janée, G., Mathena, J., &Frew, J., 2008 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F ive years and more! (Verheul, 2006) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The challenges of digital preservation <ul><li>It was ‘possible’ to preserve written material over millennia </li></ul><ul><li>But we struggle to preserve digital information even for few decades </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of technological change </li></ul><ul><li>Exponential increase in digital data(born digital) </li></ul><ul><li>Obsolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal of institutional support </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues  </li></ul>
  7. 7. Digital Preservation Strategies <ul><ul><li>Emulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refreshing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software (File Format) migration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bitstream Copying (Replication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital archeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogue backup </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Paradox of Migration <ul><li>Migration compels us to stipulate on behalf of future generations </li></ul><ul><li>Loosing look-and-feel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dynamic websites, games, databases, executable programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listing significant properties is complex </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on standards and formats </li></ul>
  9. 9. Migration vs Emulation <ul><li>Jeff Rothenberg </li></ul><ul><li>David Bearman </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Day </li></ul>Bearman, D. (1999). Reality and Chimeras in the Preservation of Electronic Records. D-Lib Magazine, 5(4). Rothenberg, J. (1999). Avoiding Technological Quicksand: Finding a Viable Technical Foundation for Digital Preservation. Council on Library and Information Resources.
  10. 10. Metadata is crucial for any preservation strategy <ul><li>Digital information is plagued by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short media life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsolete hardware & software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defunct websites (Chen, 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology mediated access with a vengeance </li></ul><ul><li>We can not control change but we can have good metadata </li></ul><ul><li>So we need metadata for digital preservation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Preservation metadata <ul><li>Metadata is a “structured information that describes , explains , locates , or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use or manage an information resource.” (NISO, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus has been on descriptive/bibliographic metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Information that supports and documents the long-term preservation of digital objects </li></ul><ul><li>(Lavoie and Gartner, 2005, p.2; OCLC/RLG, 2005). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Benefits of Preservation Metadata <ul><li>enables a digital object to become self-documenting over time </li></ul><ul><li> (Lavoie and Gartner, 2005, p.6). </li></ul><ul><li>supports to maintain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renderability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U nderstandability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Woodyard-Robinson, 2006) </li></ul></ul>Source:
  13. 13. Types of Information for Preservation Metadata <ul><li>provenance information/custodial history </li></ul><ul><li>authenticity information </li></ul><ul><li>preservation activity </li></ul><ul><li>technical environment </li></ul><ul><li>rights management </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Source: (Lavoie and Gartner, 2005; Caplan, 2009) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Metadata for Authenticity <ul><li>Authenticity refers to “the quality of being what it purports to be” (OCLC/RLG, 2005, p.4-6) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital objects that lack fixity, integrity and authenticity “are of little value to repositories” (OCLC/RLG, 2005, p.4-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Fixity can be ensured if only the object is unchanged throughout its archival life cycle </li></ul>
  15. 15. Open Archival Information System (OAIS) <ul><li>OAIS is an organization of people and systems </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation & access for a designated community </li></ul><ul><li>CCSDS Blue Book 650.0-B-1:2002; ISO 14721: 2003; Pink Book: 2009 </li></ul>
  16. 16. OAIS Information Model
  17. 17. What does it take to be OAIS Compliant? <ul><li>Use common concepts and terminologies </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfil six mandatory responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>negotiating and accepting information from producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>having enough mandate on the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determine designated community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure understandability and usability of the content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using appropriate policies and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensuring availability of the preserved information </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The RLG WG on Preservation Metadata <ul><li>An earlier effort (1997/98) </li></ul><ul><li>A set of 16 metadata elements for digital images </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at access and preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Not widely adopted </li></ul><ul><li>But contributed to the development of PREMIS </li></ul>
  19. 19. The NLA PANDORA Logical Data Model <ul><li>The PANDORA project was initiated by NLA in 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring long-term access to significant Australian on-line publications. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High level entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent identifier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection and negotiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights management and access control </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Preservation Metadata Standards Framework (National Library of New Zealand)
  21. 21. Networked European Deposit Library (NEDLIB) <ul><li>Funded by the European Commission's Telematics Applications Programme (1998-2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Led by the National Library of the Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the Deposit System for Electronic Publications (DSEP) </li></ul><ul><li>DSEP adopted the OAIS functions </li></ul><ul><li>Defined NEDLIB Metadata Elements </li></ul>
  22. 22. NEDLIB Metadata Elements
  23. 23. Networked European Deposit Library (NEDLIB) Metadata Elements
  24. 24. CURL Exemplars in Digital Archives( Cedars ) <ul><li>Cedars was a JISC funded project in the UK from 2001-2002 (Universities of Cambridge, Leeds & Oxford) </li></ul><ul><li>Cedars developed a metadata specification for long-term preservation of digital objects </li></ul><ul><li>Cedars based its metadata schema on OAIS information model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cedars was invited by OCLC/RLG PREMIS WG </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Cedars Metadata Elements CEDARS Metadata Elements (Based on: Stone & Day, 1999, p. 2)
  26. 26. PReservation Metadata Implementation Strategies <ul><li>From theory to practice </li></ul><ul><li>OCLC/RLG working group (>30 international experts) in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>PREMIS Data Dictionary(2005; 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Core & implementable </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality </li></ul><ul><li>2005 DPC award winner </li></ul>
  27. 27. Can’t Environment be an entity in its own right? Environment
  28. 28. PREMIS Data Dictionary
  29. 29. PREMIS Data Dictionary
  30. 30. LMER ( Long-term preservation Metadata for Electronic Resources) LMER metadata elements (Based on: Steinke, 2005)
  31. 31. LMER (Long-term preservation Metadata for Electronic Resources) LMER metadata elements (Based on: Steinke, 2005)
  32. 32. Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard
  33. 33. MODS in METS Source:
  34. 34. PREMIS in METS Source:
  35. 35. PREMIS in METS Source:
  36. 36. Format Registries
  37. 37. Metadata for Emulation Framework <ul><li>Analyse state-of-the-art </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid duplication </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata management </li></ul>
  38. 38. For comments email: [email_address] University of Portsmouth, UK Thank you for listening!