Overview of Health Promotion


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  • Individually based health education programs had failed to impact health of the public WHO- late 1970’s – converged social medicine, public health, and self care Ottawa– “new public health movement” – wider primary care and community development processes 1990’s- equating health education and health promotion--- are they the same? 2000’s– shift from a focus on life style to more structuralist concerns Relationship between health promotion and public health Broader approaches now- fiscal, ecological, cultural factors “ environmental engineering” New terms– population health, primary health care , community development Updates- Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalised world Globalization of health through national capacity Whitehead , 2009
  • General Health Status Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Determinants of Health Disparities 39
  • Overview of Health Promotion

    1. 1. Overview of Health Promotion January, 2012 Joan Kub
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To define the concept of health </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three levels of prevention </li></ul><ul><li>To differentiate health education from health promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate primary care from primary health care </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the historical development of health promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the spectrum of prevention </li></ul>
    3. 5. What is health?
    4. 6. Clinical Dimensio n <ul><li>Absence of signs or symptoms of disease or disability </li></ul><ul><li>Illness extreme </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Physiologic systems with interrelated functions </li></ul>
    5. 7. Role performance dimension <ul><li>Performance of social roles </li></ul><ul><li>Failure in performance of roles </li></ul><ul><li>Adds social and psychological standards </li></ul>
    6. 8. Adaptive dimension <ul><li>Flexible adaptation to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Alienation of the person from environment </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to adjust and cope </li></ul>
    7. 9. Eudaimonistic dimension <ul><li>Exuberant well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Health is condition of actualization and realization of potential </li></ul><ul><li>Goals, positive self-concept, body image, involvement, harmony </li></ul>
    8. 10. What is Health Promotion and Disease Prevention?
    9. 11. Levels of Prevention <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul>
    10. 12. Primary Prevention <ul><li>Interventions carried out before a response or disease occurs; avoidance of an illness through health promotion activities and specific protective actions( nutrition, hygiene, immunizations) </li></ul>
    11. 13. Secondary & Tertiary Prevention <ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on the detection of symptoms and support of a positive reaction to an illness </li></ul><ul><li>Early treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul><ul><li>Involved with an illness and assisting an individual to achieve some stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose is to limit disability and to rehabilitate </li></ul>
    12. 14. Health Promotion <ul><li>Process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health </li></ul><ul><li>Umbrella term that includes disease prevention, improvement of health, and enhancing well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Focus: Protection and Promotion </li></ul>
    13. 15. Historical Aspects of Health Promotion <ul><li>Term was coined in mid-1970’s in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>WHO Health for All strategy- Alma Ata Declaration, 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>1986- Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>WHO-2004– Promoting Mental Health </li></ul>
    14. 16. Principles of Health Promotion <ul><li>Focus on health not illness </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering clients </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing that health is multidimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledging that health is influenced by factors outside individual control </li></ul>
    15. 17. Consider <ul><li>Diseases and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyles (smoking, unhealthy eating, drug use) </li></ul><ul><li>Wider social issues (poverty, housing, pollution) </li></ul><ul><li>Professional practice issues (evaluation, funding, shortages) </li></ul>
    16. 18. Other aspects of Health Promotion <ul><li>Socioenvironmental Approach-interconnectedness of individual and environments </li></ul><ul><li>Societal/Policy Approach—equity, power, and scope </li></ul>
    17. 19. Primary Health care <ul><li>Is essential health care; </li></ul><ul><li>Based on practical, scientifically sound, and socially acceptable methods and technology; </li></ul><ul><li>Universally accessible to all in the community through their full participation; </li></ul><ul><li>At an affordable cost; and </li></ul><ul><li>Geared toward self reliance and self-determination (WHO, 1978) </li></ul>
    18. 20. Eight Essential Elements of PHC <ul><li>Education for the identification and prevention/control of prevailing health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Proper food supplies and nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Safe water and sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal child health including family planning </li></ul><ul><li>Immunizations against major infectious diseases; prevention and control of endemic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate treatment of common diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of essential drugs </li></ul>
    19. 21. Where does social justice fit into the equation? <ul><li>Adams and Armstrong (1996) see that the concept of health promotion needs constantly to be contrasted against a medical reductionist model towards a more appropriate model of health integral to and a result of social justice. Whitehead, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Health for All (1978) was based on the principles of equity and social justice </li></ul>
    20. 22. Spectrum of Prevention?
    21. 23. The Spectrum of Prevention <ul><li>Influencing policy and legislation </li></ul>Changing organizational practices Fostering coalitions and networks Educating providers Promoting community education Strengthening individual knowledge and skills
    22. 24. Integrative Nursing <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9vE6tAtPVI </li></ul>
    23. 25. Self Study of Healthy People 2020 <ul><li>What are the four foundation health measures that will be used to monitor progress? </li></ul><ul><li>What is new for Healthy People 2020? </li></ul><ul><li>Find your area of particular interest –look at overview and objectives. </li></ul>
    24. 26. References <ul><li>Declaration of Alma–Ata-http://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy People 2020 http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>Naidoo, J. & Wills, J. (2005) Public health and health promotion. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall </li></ul><ul><li>Whitehead, D. (2009). Reconciling the differences between health promotion in nursing and ‘general’ health promotion: A discussion paper. International Journal of Nursing Studies, doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.12.014. </li></ul>