Music of Poland Polish composers Frédéric François Chopin, in Polish FryderykFranciszek Chopin (1 March 1810– 17 October 1849) –composer, pianist Stanisław Moniuszko (born May 5, 1819 – June 4, 1872) -composer, conductor and teacher. His output includes many songs andoperas. He is generally referred to as the father of Polish national opera. Krzysztof Penderecki (born November 23, 1933 in Dębica) - composerand conductor. His works include music for string orchestra, choral St. Luke Passion,four operas, eight symphonies and other orchestral pieces, a variety of instrumentalconcertos, choral settings of mainly religious texts, as well as chamber and instrumentalworks. The origin of Polish music can be traced as far back as the 13th century, from which manuscripts have been found in Stary Sącz, containing polyphonic compositions related to the Parisian Notre Dame School. Traditional, regionalized folk musicians, create a lively and diverse music scene. Traditional Polish dances Krakowiak - a fast, syncopated Polish dance in duple time from the region of Kraków and Lesser Poland. Kujawiak - a dance from the region of Kuyavia in central Poland. The dance usually involves couples moving in a circle, although versions involving only women are also performed. The music is typically in triple meter. ‘Mazurka’/ Mazur in Polish - usually at a lively tempo, and with an accent on the second or third beat.
‘Polonaise’/ Polonez – called also a walking dance - a slow dance in 3/4 time. Oberek - consists of quick steps and constant turns. The beauty of the oberek depends on each individual dancers talent of spinning at the fast tempo of the Oberek, which shares some steps with the Mazur. By regions Kashubians are a West Slavic ethnic group of Pomeranian region in north- central Poland. They speak Kashubian, classified either as a language or a Polish dialect.[cultivate their traditions and culture, sing songs in Kashubian and play traditional home-made instruments such as diabelskie skrzypce or burczybas. Kashubian flag Kashubian coat of arms burczybas photo from: http://www.zshsopot.pl
Diabelskie skrzypce/ ‘devil’s violin’ Photo by: Jamaka, from: http://fotoforum.gazeta.plOther instuments played by Kashubian musicians are accordion and bazuna Picture from http://www.interklasa.pl/portal/dokumenty/r086/strony/SGang.htmlKashubnian dances ‘are mostly gentle, joyful and graceful.(…) they revealobvious Swedish and German influences both in music and in dance steps. Theycan be divided into dances of the rural population and of people of the sea - thesailors and the fishermen.’ Some of the Kashubian dances are: Koseder, Dżek andCenar.Kashubian songs include ‘simple tunes which accompany the Kashubiandances are written mostly in 2/4 and 5/4 meter and often in major tones.’ Citations from: http://szkola.interklasa.pl/f019/strona/ang/music.html#4 Podhale – south of Poland
Podhale has retained its traditions. Local ensembles use string instruments like violins and a cello to play a distinctive scale called the Lydian mode. The Lydian musical scale is a rising pattern of pitches comprising three whole tones, a semitone, two more whole tones, and a final semitone. This sequence of pitches roughly describes the fifth of the eight Gregorian (church) modes, known as Mode V or the authentic mode on F, theoretically using B♮ but in practice more commonly featuring B♭ (Powers 2001). Because of the importance of the major scale in modern music, the Lydian mode is often described (or learned) as the scale that begins on the fourth scale degree of the major scale. The distinctive singing style used in this scale is called lidyzowanie. The lead violin (prym) are accompanied by several second violins (sekund) and a three- stringed cello (bazy). Duple-time dances like the krzesany, zbójnicki (Brigands Dances) and ozwodna are popular in the southern regions of Poland. The ozwodna has a five bar melodic structure which is quite unusual. The krzesany is an extremely swift dance, while the zbójnicki is well-known and is perceived as being most "typical" of Podhale. Other instruments played by the musicians of Podhale are also bagpipes. Koza ("goat" or kozioł /buck/, or gajdy) is the generic term for Polish bagpies . Koza – photo from http://dudygraja.webpark.pl/podhale.htmlThey are used in folk music of Podhale, Żywiec Beskids, Cieszyn Silesia and mostly inGreater Poland, where there are known to be four basic variants of bagpipes: Dudy wielkopolskie (Greater Polish bagpipes) with two subtypes: Rawicz and Kościan-Buk Kozioł biały (or kozioł biały weselny) Kozioł czarny (or kozioł czarny ślubny) Sierszeńki photo from: http://dudygraja.webpark.pl/wielkopolska.html Source: Wikipedia and Wikimedia Commons