Czech national anthem The anthem was written by the composer František Škroup and the playwright Josef Kajetán Tyl as a part of a comedy (Fidlovačka aneb Žádný hněv a žádná rvačka) that was first performed in 1834 . <ul><ul><li>Water roars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across the meadows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinewoods rustle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Among crags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The garden is glorious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With spring blossom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradise on earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is to see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And this is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The beautiful land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Czech land, my home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Czech land, my home </li></ul></ul>Where is my home?
Geography The Bohemian Massif represents the major part of the Czech Republic and consists of a huge basin called the Bohemian Plateau. It is encircled by mountains: in the southwest there are the Šumava Mountains with the Bohemian Forest, in the west there are the Berounka River highlands and the Ore Mountains in the northwest form the frontier with Germany. The Sudeten Mountains in the northeast form most of the border with Poland and contain the country's highest peak Mount Sněžka (1 602 metres) in the Giant Mountains. In the south of the Bohemian Plateau there are the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands with the Moravian Karst . The Czech Republic is situated in a temperate zone of the northern hemisphere.
Lowest point: source of the River Labe (115 m above-sea-level, Hřensko) Biggest dam: Lipno (4,870 hectares) Biggest natural lake: Černé jezero (18.4 hectares) Longest river: Vltava (433 km) Highest point: Mount Sněžka (1 602 m above-sea level, Giant Mountains)
History <ul><li>In the 6th century the Slavs arrived to this area which had been inhabited by Germanic and Celtic tribes before. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the reign of the most important rulers of the country, emperors Charles IV (1346-78) and Rudolf II, Prague, the capital, grew into one of the largest cities in Europe. It got its famous landmarks including Charles University, Charles Bridge and St. Vitus Cathedral. </li></ul>
The Nazi Germany occupied the Sudetenland in October 1938, with the acceptance of France and Britain, after the Munich Agreement. Germany occupied Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939. Czechoslovakia was reestablished as an independent state after World War II in 1945. The Communists won the 1946 elections and ruled the country until November 1989. In the 1960s Czechoslovakia enjoyed a gradual liberalization under the reformist general secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, Alexander Dubček but this short period was crushed by a Soviet invasion in August 1968. At the beginning of the 20th century Bohemia was a part of the Austrian Empire. After World War I in 1918 Czechoslovakia declared its independence. The new republic was established from three parts: Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. Tomáš Garigue Masaryk , a popular personality, became the first president.
<ul><li>The communist government resigned in November 1989 after a week of demonstrations known as the Velvet Revolution. The popular playwright and leader Václav Havel was elected president. </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic at the end of 1992. Twelve years later, on May 1, 2004 the Czech Republic became a part of the European Union. </li></ul>Václav Havel Gustav Husák Václav Klaus
G o v e r n m e n t Country name: Česká republika Capital: Praha (Prague) Government type: Parliamentary democracy Administrative divisions : 13 regions and the capital city Executive power : A dministered by the president (currently Václav Klaus ) who is the head of state and is elected by both chambers of Parliament for five yea rs . The president appoints a prime minister (currently Mirek Topolánek) who l eads the government . Legislative branch : I. e. the Parliament which consists of the Senate ( its members are elected for six years; i. e. o ne third is elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies ( its members are elected for four years ). G o v e r n m e n t
PRAHA Prague (Praha) is the capital of the Czech Republic. Lying at the heart of Europe, it is one of the finest cities. It i s situated on the Vltava river in central Bohemia and is home to approximately 1.2 million people.
BRNO The city represents the centre of the province of Moravia, one of the historic lands of the Czech Crown. It is home to approximately 360 000 people.
<ul><li>Jan Ámos Komenský </li></ul><ul><li>“ The teacher of nations“ </li></ul>Emil Zátopek A runner Bedřich Smetana A composer
Industry <ul><li>Some sectors (eg. e lectronics ) are modern and competitive in international markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering is the largest industrial branch, other s are are food processing, chemical, rubber, and glass industries along with metallurgy, and fuel mining and processing. </li></ul><ul><li>The Czech iron and steel industries have traditionally counted among the largest in eastern Europe. The heavy manufacturing industry produces automobiles and railway locomotives. Steel production is situated to the east Moravia, near the city of Ostrava, minor factories can be found in Kladno, Plzeň, and Chomutov in the western part of the country. </li></ul>
Various i nformation Changing money The best way to change money is at one of the major banks which generally charge the lowest commissions. American Express trave l lers cheques can be paid out at the American Express office for local currency without commission. Minor exchange offices can be convenient but they sometimes charge higher commissions and there is a risk of hidden costs. Street exchanges can be very dangerous because they can sell you worthless fake papers instead of Czech crowns. Weather Cold winters and warm summers. The wettest seasons are spring and summer. Maximum temperatures in summer are usually bellow 30ºC (86ºF) and minimum in winter are about - 10ºC (14ºF). Currency Czech currency unit is the Czech crown (Česká koruna, Kč, CZK). The Czech currency is in a rate between 23 and 2 8 Kč to a US dollar. For exact exchange rates look at Czech National Bank exchange rate .
<ul><li>Time Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Time is one hour ahead of Greenwich M ai n Time. </li></ul>112 Medical information In case of emergency, you should call an ambulance. Dial 1 12 for free. If you do n o t have an acute problem , take a taxi to a hospital. If you do n o t have Czech or international health insurance, you will be charged for services. To buy drugs, even an aspirin, you need to go to a pharmacy. In bigger cities there are a lot of pharmacies and at least one should stay open 24 hours. Electricity Voltage: 220V/50Hz
C u i s i n e <ul><li>Czech cuisine is n o t really dietary however there are many interesting meals. Traditional choice is potato soup and roast pork with dumplings and boiled cabbage. Dumplings are very popular. You may find them in soup, with many sauces and of course sweet dumplings filled with fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>The main course usually consists of meat and a side dish. The most popular meat is chicken and pork, sometimes beef. Popular fish are trout and carp ( which is a traditional Christmas meal). The most common side dishes are boiled, mashed or roasted potatoes, rice, bread or potato dumplings. </li></ul><ul><li>Czech meal often starts with soup. Some popular ones are potato soup, garlic soup, beef soup with liver dumplings, chicken noodle soup and tripe soup. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Population 10,212,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Capital and Population Prague; 1,170,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Area 78,866 square kilometers (30,450 square miles) </li></ul><ul><li>Language - Czech </li></ul><ul><li>Religion Roman Catholic, </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant, atheist </li></ul><ul><li>Currency Czech crown </li></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy 75 </li></ul><ul><li>GDP Per Capita U.S. $15,300 </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy Percent 100 </li></ul>Land area: 29,836 sq mi (77,276 sq km); T otal area: 30,450 sq mi (78,866 sq km) Population (2008 est.): 10,220,911 (growth rate: 0.0%); birth rate: 8.8/1000; infant mortality rate: 3.8/1000; life expectancy: 76.6; density per sq km: 132 Ethnicity/race: Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, O ther 4% (2001) National holiday: Czech Founding Day, October 28