1<br />Undergraduate Studies  ePortfolio<br />Juliet Grimmer<br />B. A. in Psychology, 2011<br />
Personal Statement<br />		As I approach the end of my undergraduate studies and prepare for the next phase of my life I ha...
Resume<br />Juliet D. Grimmer<br /> <br /> OBJECTIVE STATEMENT<br /> To build a successful career within the field of educ...
Reflection<br />My tenure here with Argosy University has proved to be one of great importance to my academic endeavors an...
Table of Contents: Work Samples<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<...
Critical Thinking<br />Intervention Plan: Assistive Technology and Positive Behavioral Supports<br />Johnny is a student w...
Critical Thinking<br />		In such cases where his disability is very severe and too much writing becomes painful or impossi...
Critical Thinking<br /> <br />References<br />Education.com Inc. (2010). How does ADHD affect school performance? Retrieve...
Research Skills<br />The Importance of Individualized Education Programs to the Academic Success of Special Education Stud...
Research Skills<br />References for Proposed Research Paper<br />Algozzine, B., Browder, D., Karvonen, M., Test, D., and W...
Research Skills<br />Eisenman, L. and Myers, A. (2005). Student-Led IEP’s: Take the First Step. Teaching <br />	Exceptiona...
Communication Skills<br /> Prenatal Development Regulations<br /> Memo Demonstrating the Benefits and Weaknesses of the Bi...
Communication Skills<br />	The harmful effects of drug-abuse would be avoided altogether. For the pregnant mother, abstain...
Communication Skills<br />References<br />American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2010). Pregnant women wit...
Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />ACA Ethical Codes and Cultural Sensitivity<br />		Ethical codes and standards are set ...
Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Joe reacts to Jill’s disclosure by explaining that he has no knowledge base of her cul...
Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Conclusion<br />		It is the responsibility and duty of all mental health professionals...
Foundations of Psychology<br />Self-Efficacy<br />The concept of self-efficacy relates to all individuals throughout the w...
Foundations of Psychology<br />		There are four categories through which self-efficacy is acquired; experiences, vicarious...
Foundation of Psychology<br />References<br />Argosy University Online. (2010). PSY361 XD: Personality theory – Lecture no...
Applied Psychology<br />Should Marijuana Be Legalized?<br />		Marijuana is among one of the many subjects that are highly ...
Applied Psychology<br />		Many of the adverse effects of marijuana use and abuse that directly pertain to you young adults...
Applied Psychology<br />References<br />Argosy University Online. (2011). PSY480 UA – Biopsychosocial effects of substance...
My Future in Learning<br />Learning is a lifelong process. How do you envision your future as a lifelong learner? <br />		...
Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address...
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Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Grimmer J

  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio<br />Juliet Grimmer<br />B. A. in Psychology, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br /> As I approach the end of my undergraduate studies and prepare for the next phase of my life I have begun a process of reflection. Where does the road lead from here? I will have a Bachelors Degree in Psychology and the choice of whether to pursue immediate employment in my field or continue on with my education and apply for graduate school. At this stage in my life I have a plan that applies to my current circumstances as a single parent and overall career goals; my short-term goal requires that I enroll in a program to receive my teaching certification in EC-12 Special Education. I have researched many options and decided on a program called iteach TEXAS because it caters to my need for the online learning experience, is an accredited institution, allows you to work at your own pace, helps students obtain the necessary internships, and maintains a professional relationship with many schools in the state. It is with this program that I may gain my certification and embark upon the journey of enhancing the lives of Special Education students within my community. <br /> The courses I have completed during my tenure with Argosy University were an important link the development of my understanding of psychological and behavioral processes among children, adolescents, and adults. My courses that focused on behavioral and psychological analysis, required research, and experience working in a pediatric setting, with children from birth to twenty-one years of age, have given me the skills, abilities, and incentive to create a better learning experience for students with behavioral, emotional, learning, or psychological disabilities. I watch every day as the parents of new and established patients implore their physicians for help in areas such as dealing with ADHD, Dyslexia, Autism, Mental Retardation, and Bipolar Disorder, having been burnt out pleading with school personnel to harvest a safer and more effective learning environment for their children. I ache to contribute to the growth and success of these students academically, emotionally, and psychologically by implementing positive change in the area of Special Education.<br /> Special Education comes in a variety of forms. I have dealt with the area of emotional disabilities during my marriage to a man diagnosed with Bipolar disorder. Because this form of disability can be passed down through genes, my own son is at risk for carrying the same disorder, and I must watch for the early warning signs. I have a unique outlook and understanding of the needs of Special Education children because of what I have lived through personally, which triggered my passion to absorb as much information and research on the subjects as possible in hopes that I could put new ideas into action. I seek to intervene on behalf of Special Education children in a way differing from the use of medications as a first resort, and that is early intervention and education for both the children and parents. I believe that most of these children would benefit from better Individualized Education Plans catered to their specific needs. Although I have never been employed by a school district or professional office as a member of the Special Education department, I have helped my father as an assistant over the course of many years within his own classroom and developed a greater sense of compassion for Special Education children and their families. Being on the sidelines allowed me the opportunity to focus on the issues at hand within this field, develop a sense of understanding and a desire promote improvement, and plan for a future that would incorporate new ideas and programs to serve the children and their families who suffer from a variety of disabilities. It is my desire, goal, and determination to become a Special Education teacher and I look forward to being a sponsor of a brighter future for all Special needs children. <br />
  3. 3. Resume<br />Juliet D. Grimmer<br /> <br /> OBJECTIVE STATEMENT<br /> To build a successful career within the field of education as a Special Education teacher, enhance the scholarly success and advancement of my students, and contribute to the productivity and of my employer. <br /> EDUCATION, TRAINING, AND LICENSING<br /> Current Life, Accident, Health, and HMO Insurance License (General Lines Agent License). <br />Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology (Argosy University) – Expected Date of Graduation: April 2011. <br /> <br />EMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE<br /> The Children’s Clinic April 2010 - Present<br />Corpus Christi, TX.<br />361-855-7346 Personal Ext: 106<br />Suite B Receptionist<br /> <br />American Income Life October 2009 – December 2009 <br />Colorado Springs, CO.<br />719-579-5170 <br />Life, Accident, and Health Insurance Agent <br />  <br />Bintliff Appraisal Service  August 1999 - August 2004<br />Corpus Christi, TX. <br />361-939-8963 <br />Office Assistant<br /> <br />SKILLS AND ABILITIES<br />Familiar with computer software and programs including:<br />Microsoft Works <br />Word<br />Excel<br />Access<br />Power Point<br />Outlook<br />Encounter Pro (medical)<br />MARS (medical)<br />Familiar with the operation of basic office equipment such as phones, fax machines, copiers, and scanners.<br />Outgoing personality with a mindset to serve others and excellent interpersonal communication skills.<br />Adaptable, organized, detail oriented, ability to multi-task, and easily trained for required tasks.<br />
  4. 4. Reflection<br />My tenure here with Argosy University has proved to be one of great importance to my academic endeavors and my future as a soon to be Special Education teacher. I have learned more about the field of psychology in my few years here than I have throughout my entire life. It has helped me to cope and understand a multitude of aspects about life and the behaviors we harbor as humans, as well as allowed me the opportunity to seek and find my niche. With the help of my courses and professors, I now have the abilities and knowledge to fulfill my dream of teaching Special Education children and offer them a guiding hand to achieve their dreams. I have been exposed to a variety of subjects and case studies that increased my knowledge and understanding of psychology as a whole. Along this journey I was able to increase my skills in critical thinking, fundamental applications of psychological theory, communication, research methods, ethics, diversity, applied psychology, and interpersonal effectiveness. I had both significant and extensive exposure to these concepts and am a better person for having chosen an academic career with Argosy University. <br />
  5. 5. Table of Contents: Work Samples<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />Applied Psychology<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness (work sample is uploaded on slideshare as a separate power point presentation).<br />
  6. 6. Critical Thinking<br />Intervention Plan: Assistive Technology and Positive Behavioral Supports<br />Johnny is a student who suffers from a multitude of disabilities that hinder his ability to learn, as well as the students around him. Because of Johnny’s poor vision, Cerebral Palsy, and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, he finds it difficult to take notes and pay attention to Ms Jones’s lessons. In order to help Johnny with his disabilities, he needs an intervention plan. This plan must consist of ideas and techniques that are comparable to Johnny’s needs that will enhance his learning experience as well as avoid distracting his fellow students (Hardman, McDonnell, and McDonnell, 2003). With the use of assistive technology and positive behavioral supports, Johnny can get the help he needs and acquire the type of academic success both his parents and Ms. Jones look forward to. <br /> Children like Johnny who suffer from disabilities often have a difficult time in a classroom setting. Standard classroom expectations are unfair to children with special needs if they do not account for the disabilities of the child in question. Using assistive technology and positive behavioral supports for children like Johnny can make a dramatic impact in their ability to learn and their overall success as young students. Johnny’s poor vision and difficulty writing mean he has a hard time taking notes and keeping up with the other children. There are a number of assistive technology devices that may help in this case and allow Johnny a better chance of retaining the required information. Johnny would benefit greatly from a screen rather than a chalk board that magnifies the words and pictures in order for him to see them clearly (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 2010). In addition, braces to help him better control him arm and hand movements might also be helpful depending on the severity of his Cerebral Palsy (Hardman, McDonnell, and McDonnell, 2003). <br />
  7. 7. Critical Thinking<br /> In such cases where his disability is very severe and too much writing becomes painful or impossible, Johnny may need a device similar to a DiscovenKenx. This type of computer basically would allow him the ability to learn with limited arm and hand movements because it is a very special kind of computer with customized software (Hardman, et. Al). The school would need to provide the programming that needed to be uploaded with his lessons, but that would enable him to remain in the back of the classroom where he could still see the information and enjoy learning. <br /> Another form of help Johnny would benefit from is positive behavioral supports to discourage the negative effects of ADHD in the classroom. The key to success will be to understand what sets off Johnny’s inattention or misbehavior and what types of behaviors and responses Ms. Jones needs to learn and practice in order to reduce the likelihood of his problem behavior (Hardman, McDonnell, and McDonnell, 2003). Some general tips to help Johnny cope with his ADHD in the school setting would be to rid the classroom of any excess stimuli that may be distracting, set him away from doors or windows where he may be tempted to focus his attention, and give directions slowly and clearly based on what assignment the children are currently working on rather than directions for the entire day all at once (Education.com Inc, 2010). In addition, Ms. Jones should consider making changes in task lengths, the difficulty of the content, and provide Johnny with periodic breaks from his work in order to reduce a state of information overload and re-focus. He may also need “cool-down” periods if he gets upset (Hardman, et al., p. 175). There are a number of strategies that will enable Johnny to learn and avoid problematic behaviors, Ms. Jones imply needs to implement the strategies necessary to improve Johnny’s behavior and improve his learning abilities. <br />
  8. 8. Critical Thinking<br /> <br />References<br />Education.com Inc. (2010). How does ADHD affect school performance? Retrieved from<br /> http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_How_Does_ADHD_Affect/?page=2<br />Hardman, M.L., McDonnell, A, and McDonnell, J.J. (2003). Introduction to persons with<br /> Moderate to severe disabilities: Educational and social issues. (2nd edition).<br /> Boston, MA: Pearson. <br />North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. (2010). Assistive technology to meet k-12 <br /> Student needs. Retrieved from <br /> http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/technlgy/te7assist.htm<br />
  9. 9. Research Skills<br />The Importance of Individualized Education Programs to the Academic Success of Special Education Students<br /> I have chosen the topic of IEP’s as the source of my research paper because as a to-be graduate with a plan to pursue teaching in the Special Education department of school districts, it will be important for me to understand how to encourage academic success for my students. IEP’s are an imperative tool to use when planning the education strategy of each student based on their current needs and goals for the future. As the daughter of a Special Education teacher and Orientation and Mobility Specialist, I am aware of the importance of IEP’s to each student and their family, but I need to deepen my knowledge base in terms of how the programs are assessed based on the individual student, and comprehend what steps to take in order to implement such programs. <br /> The use of IEP’s are widespread throughout school districts for children of all ages, and research shows that overall they are a valuable classroom tool (Dildine, 2010). It is my hope that through this study I will become comfortable with the many facets of IEP planning, implementation, and have a general idea of how to promote success within the lives of my students through he use of IEP’s. Special Education is a paramount area catered to the progressive development of students with learning, psychological, and emotional disabilities, and it is the responsibility of the Special Ed teachers to harvest a productive learning environment for each child; therefore, IEP’s need to be well understood in terms of planning and effectiveness in order for efficient implementation in the classroom. <br />
  10. 10. Research Skills<br />References for Proposed Research Paper<br />Algozzine, B., Browder, D., Karvonen, M., Test, D., and Wood, W. (2004). Promoting<br /> Student Self-Determination Skills in IEP Planning. Teaching Exceptional<br /> Children, 36 (3), 8-16. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/<br /> docview/201152712/abstract/12DF35073A67385D55B/13?accountid=34899<br />Anonymous. (2007). Understanding, Developing, and Writing Effective IEP’S: A Step-<br /> By-Step Guide for Educators. Adolescence, 42 (167). Retrieved from <br /> http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/195937332/fulltext/<br /> 12DF33953F538F2DA4E/6?accountid=34899<br />Capizzi, A. (2008). From Assessment to Annual Goal: Engaging a Decision-Making <br /> Process in Writing Measurable IEP’s. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41(1), <br /> 18-25. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/<br /> 201186268/abstract/12DF35073A67385D55B/6?accountid=34899<br />D’Amato, R.C. and Dean, R.S. (1987). Psychological reports, individual education <br /> Programs, and daily lesson plans: Are they related? Professional School<br /> Psychology, 2(2), 93-101. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/ <br /> / docview/614301994/abstract/12DF35073A67385D55B 7?accountid=34899<br />Dildine, G. (2010). General education teachers’ perceptions of their role in developing <br /> Individual Education Programs and their use of IEP’s to develop instructional<br /> Plans for students with disabilities. Tennessee State University. Retrieved from <br /> http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/749728682/abstract/<br /> 12DF33953F538F2DA4E/1?accountid=34899<br />
  11. 11. Research Skills<br />Eisenman, L. and Myers, A. (2005). Student-Led IEP’s: Take the First Step. Teaching <br /> Exceptional Children, 37 (4), 52-58. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.<br /> edmc.edu/docview/201153685/abstract/12DF35073A67385D55B/14?accountid=34899<br />Elliot, S. and Roach, A. (2006). The Influence of Access to General Education Curriculum<br /> On Alternative Assessment Performance of Students with Significant Cognitive<br /> Disabilities. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 28 (2), 181-194. Retrieved <br /> From http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/197237852/abstract/<br /> 12DF35073A67385D55B/9?accountid=34899<br />Etscheidt, S. (2006). Least Restrictive and Natural Environments for Young Children With<br /> Disabilities: A Legal Analysis of Issues. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education,<br />26 (3), 167-178. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/<br /> docview/233600797/abstract/12DF35073A67385D55B/15?accountid=34899<br />Schmitz, T. (2008). Transition Planning, Special Education Law, and It’s Impact on Your<br /> Child. The Exceptional Parent, 38 (10), 37-39. Retrieved from <br /> http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/<br /> docview/233600797/abstract/12DF35073A67385D55B/15?accountid=34897<br />Smith-Woofer, M. (2010). The impact of alternative assessments and standards-based <br /> IEP’s on classroom instruction and student achievement. East Carolina University. <br /> Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/840553790/abstract/<br /> 12DF33953F538F2DA4E/10?accountid=34899<br />
  12. 12. Communication Skills<br /> Prenatal Development Regulations<br /> Memo Demonstrating the Benefits and Weaknesses of the Bill<br />The Affects of Drug Abuse on a Growing Fetus<br /> Drug abuse by mothers causes irreversible and often fatal damage to developing fetuses. Drugs, particularly cocaine, linger longer in the blood and tissue of a fetus than in adults, and restricts the blood flow to the uterus and placenta, which reduces a vital supply of nutrients needed (Hemmel, 1992). Some of the detrimental effects of drug abuse for an unborn child include low birth weight, decreased head size, physical deformities, brain damage, tremors, gaze aversion, and even drug withdrawal symptoms (Hemmel). Malformations of the heart, limbs, and facial features as well as intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, heart defects, impeded growth and mental retardation are among other effects that drugs have on developing fetuses (ACDE, 1999). <br />Biological, Psychological, and Sociological Benefits of Incarcerating Pregnant Drug-Abusers<br /> There are many benefits to the bill in relation to forcing pregnant women who are found to be using drugs to enter a treatment facility or face jail. Drug-abused babies stay in the hospital almost five times longer than normal infants, and their care is generally thirteen times more expensive, so incarcerating these mothers would be a financial and sociological benefit (Hemmel, 1992). In addition, both mother and child would be given proper prenatal care that would protect their health and prevent any biological damage to either party. <br />
  13. 13. Communication Skills<br /> The harmful effects of drug-abuse would be avoided altogether. For the pregnant mother, abstaining from drug-use may give her the opportunity to obtain mental clarity and break the cycle of addiction altogether, giving her the change to effectively mother her child. <br />Biological, Psychological, and Sociological Problems Associated with Incarcerating Pregnant Drug-Abusers<br /> There are also many cons associated with incarcerating pregnant women drug-abusers. If a pregnant mother is afraid of being forced to go to jail then she may not seek out prenatal care at all, which increases the risk of the fetus and adult suffering from the harmful effects of drug-abuse (ACOG, 2010). When care is avoided and the fetus harmed further, both care for the child and care for the mother will be more expensive and prolonged. Although if incarcerated the mother would not be able to use drugs and would receive prenatal care, drug addiction is a biological and behavioral problem that needs special treatment. Safe, affordable, and effective comprehensive alcohol and drug treatment services for pregnant women would be more beneficial than incarceration alone (ACOG). This path would likely encourage a permanent break from drug or alcohol addiction rather than merely suppress it for a few months. <br />Ethical Concerns Related to the New Policy<br /> Forcing healthcare professionals to report a patient who is using drugs and abusing her fetus to the police is problematic for a number of reasons, one of them being a violation of patient-physician confidentiality. There are also problems with violating the constitutional rights of pregnant women. Some may argue that eating unhealthy, not exercising, and smoking is also very unhealthy for a fetus, but women who do or do not participate in those activities are not incarcerated. Forcing the regulation of all pregnant women’s bodies violates the bodily integrity of a woman (Hemmel, 1992). On the other hand, it could also be argued that health care professional and law enforcement agencies have a responsibility to ensure the safety and life of a fetus, just as they do against abortion when the child is past a certain gestational stage. There are many benefits and weaknesses to the bill in question, but overall the reason for its consideration is a positive one. The war against drugs and for the protection of all life wages on, but this bill must have its kinks worked out before it becomes a law. <br />
  14. 14. Communication Skills<br />References<br />American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2010). Pregnant women with health<br /> Problems need care, not incarceration – OB – GYNS urged to help retract punitive<br /> State legislation. Retrieved from <br /> http://www.acog.org/from_home/publications/press_releases/nr12-20-10.cfm<br />American Council for Drug Education. (1999). Drugs and pregnancy. Retrieved from <br /> http://www.acde.org/parent/Pregnant.htm<br />Hemmel, C.A. (1992). Crack cocaine and pregnant women – balancing the rights of the <br /> Unborn child versus the rights of the mother in the war against drugs. Retrieved from<br /> http://www.familylawyerservice.com/crackhtm3.htm<br />
  15. 15. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />ACA Ethical Codes and Cultural Sensitivity<br /> Ethical codes and standards are set in place in an effort to protect the rights of clients receiving therapy. It is the duty of mental health professionals to adhere to the rules their practice is associated with and ensure that their clients receive the help they need void of any further harm. In the case study presented, Joe has violated the ethical standards in relation to multicultural competencies and respecting diversity. As a counselor, he is held accountable by the American Counseling Association’s ethical code of conduct which is imperative to the protection, progress and treatment of clients. Mental health professionals must follow ethical practices if they are to truly help the individuals they serve. <br />Ethical Code and Analysis<br /> During the therapy sessions pinpointed in the case study, Jill discloses that she grew up in a traditional Asian-American home, wherein traditions and cultural influences were very prominent. As her counselor, Joe’s response to Jill’s statements violates the principle of multicultural competencies and respecting diversity. The ACA code E.8 states that “Counselors use with caution assessment techniques that were normed on populations other than that of the client. Counselors recognize the effects of age, color, culture, disability, ethnic group, gender, race, language preference, religion, spirituality, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status on test administration and interpretation, and place test results in proper perspective with other relevant factors.” (American Counseling Association, 2005, pg. 13). Codes E.5.b and A.2.c also detail the counselors responsibility to remain culturally sensitive when diagnosing mental disorders and communicating information to clients (American Counseling Association, 2005). <br />
  16. 16. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Joe reacts to Jill’s disclosure by explaining that he has no knowledge base of her culture because of his geographical location, and then the sessions continue further regardless of his lack of regard for her cultural influences. It is imperative to the success and progress of clients that their counselors understand how their cultural influences shape their lives. Jill’s past contributed to where she is now and why she struggles so much between balancing her culture and individualism. In order to properly counsel Jill, she needs a therapist that is culturally sensitive to her particular case and can take into consideration the impact her upbringing has had on her mental status. Joe violated the ethical codes of the ACA and did not make decisions based on the best interest of his client. He should have referred her to another counselor due to his inability to help her. <br /> I have personally had to undergo therapy and I understand the benefits and necessity of seeking counseling services from an individual who is culturally sensitive to personal upbringings. It is important to take into account an individual’s religious beliefs, values, culture, traditions, socioeconomic status, and sexual orientation when entering into a counseling relationship. I have had two very different experiences, the second being the most helpful. The psychologist assigned to my ex-husband and my case before our divorce was not at all interested in anything other than stone cold facts about the present situation we were in. He did not seem to understand nor care that our pasts were a great influence on our present. That relationship added more stress to the problems and eventually ended. The last counselor we saw together and individually was very aware of our religious beliefs and cultural differences, which enabled her to break barriers that had been made by the last counselor and allow us to feel comfortable and understood. Although the marriage unraveled, it was not partly because of ineffective counseling; rather the product of one man’s psychotic behavior. I still reap many benefits of that counselor’s sensitivity as would Jill, had she had a counselor who put her needs first. <br />
  17. 17. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Conclusion<br /> It is the responsibility and duty of all mental health professionals to abstain from any type of behavior of practices that may harm or defer the progress and successful treatment of their clients. The ACA seeks to protect their clients by implementing rules and guidelines by which the mental health professionals must abide; however there are some instances where counselors or psychologists may ultimately harm their clients by violating ethical practices, such is the case of Joe and Jill. Joe was not culturally sensitive to Jill’s past and could not take into consideration the influence her family and traditions had on her present issues. He violated the ACA ethical codes of multicultural competencies and respecting diversity through his inaction of referring Jill to a counselor who could truly help her. His behavioral and choices reflected his own desires and ultimately harmed Jill’s therapeutic process. Had he followed the ACA guidelines more thoroughly, that situation could have been avoided. Personal experiences with both sensitive and incompetent counselors showed me that there are individuals worth seeking help from. Although Jill has had a bad experience and been harmed in more way than one due to Joe, hopefully she is able to recover and seek help from a counselor who will be sensitive to her needs and cultural influences. <br /> <br /> Reference<br />American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Retrieved from <br /> www.counseling.org<br />
  18. 18. Foundations of Psychology<br />Self-Efficacy<br />The concept of self-efficacy relates to all individuals throughout the world. Some people have confident and positive perceptions of their abilities while others suffer from low self-efficacy, which can result in a number of negative outcomes. Having come from a strained and terrible marriage, I suffered for years with low self-efficacy and low self-esteem. It is important to understand the aspects of self-efficacy and how it reflects in our lives in order to prompt positive change. After taking a look at my own behaviors and perceptions, I feel the need to reflect upon my understanding of this concept in my own life rather than the life of another individual.<br /> Theorist Albert Bandura “used the term self-efficacy to refer to people's belief that they can successfully perform a specific action in a situation with an unpredictable outcome. In other words, self-efficacy is a person's belief about their competence in a particular situation” (Argosy University Online, 2010, ‘Bandura’s Social-Cognitive Theory’, p. 2). This concept can be a source of great power to many individuals, but also a burden for many who suffer from low self-efficacy. Marriage is a category I relate to very well and have many memories of behaviors and symptoms that reflected my low self-efficacy. <br /> For many years I had a disbelief in my abilities to find a good job without my degree being completed, and that I would not be successful at anything anyway, so I simply avoided putting in any applications. I also had a fear that I would not do well in some of my classes during my pregnancy, especially compared to the other students so sometimes I would opt not to attend. I did not think I was smart enough to keep straight A’s and thus my own self-fulfilling prophecy came true eventually because I did not have the confidence in myself. I felt that I was no good and suffered from extremely low self-esteem. Many of the symptoms indicative of my self-efficacy were giving up too soon, forcing negative self-fulfilling prophecies, depression, avoidance, and disappointment in my person. <br />
  19. 19. Foundations of Psychology<br /> There are four categories through which self-efficacy is acquired; experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal (Argosy University Online, 2010). I have no doubt as to where my low self-efficacy originated and that is verbal persuasion and vicarious experiences. My ex-husband was so degrading and abusive that I actually ended up believing that I was what he made me feel, worthless. I was once had a vibrant confidence and belief in myself as a woman, student, singer, and worker. After marrying a man who thrived on tearing down his wife, I began my quick decent into darkness and depression. His verbal persuasion rang louder than anyone who tried to lift me up, and watching him fail at so many things made me assume I would have no better luck, since I was the one who was worthless. What was the use in trying? He is subsequently quite incompetent and by no means needs to have more power within his job, but his failures reflected my own feelings and thus I compared them to my assumed incapacities and choose not to attempt changing anything about my life. Although it was a tough time to bear, I eventually pulled out of my darkness for the sake of my child. <br /> There are several ways I have strived to better myself and increase my self-efficacy. Having overall low self-efficacy makes it difficult to accomplish much of anything, but focusing on a few simple categories, I continue to work on overcoming my negative beliefs through increasing my knowledge, challenging my negative beliefs, forcing myself to do and try more, paying close attention to others in order to learn how to be successful, good use of planning and preparation, and using my brain effectively (Vas, 2008). Knowledge is power and I gain control over what I am afraid of by understanding. I have to face myself to try more, not give up, and challenge negative assumptions, thus proving myself wrong and increasing my self-efficacy. I have learned by watching others around me and learning their successes and failures, which allows me to build my own course of action for the future. With my plan comes preparation and planning so that I do not rush into anything and wind up disappointed, or jump into something I am not capable of handling. All of these aspects encourage me to use my brain effectively and attain that which I previously thought impossible. I am a work in progress, but as the days go on, so do I. <br />
  20. 20. Foundation of Psychology<br />References<br />Argosy University Online. (2010). PSY361 XD: Personality theory – Lecture notes; Module 6.<br /> Retrieved from Argosy University Online Classroom: http://myeclassonline.com<br />Vas, L.S.R. (2008). Holistic living – build self-efficacy. Retrieved from <br /> http://www.lifepositive.com/Mind/Personal_Growth/Build_Self_Efficacy42008.asp<br />
  21. 21. Applied Psychology<br />Should Marijuana Be Legalized?<br /> Marijuana is among one of the many subjects that are highly debated within our society today. I have come to speak to you all today for educational purposes in an effort to inform you of the many aspects of marijuana use and its dangerous effects, specifically as it relates to college students. It is my hope that we all leave here today with a heightened sense of awareness and a full understanding of the biological, psychological, sociological, and educational consequences of marijuana use and abuse. Personal opinions aside, please remain open to the facts and trust that although this drug may seem fairly harmless, there are many aspects and possibilities associated with drug use that you may have yet to learn or understand. <br /> Marijuana use is the highest among people of college age; however, the potential addictive and health problems associated with repeated marijuana use is commonly underestimated (Argosy University Online, 2011). Marijuana has very powerful components, none more so that THC, or delta-9-tetrahdrocannibinal, that can be very dangerous to consume, especially in large or consistent amounts because of the effects on the mind and body. These components activate endogenous cannabinoid receptors that are “responsible for diverse changes in physiology and behavior including analgesia, sedation, euphoria, appetite, and memory as well as seizure activity, immune reactivity, and intraocular pressure” (Argosy University Online, 2011, Module 5, ‘Marijuana and LSD’, p. 1). What does this mean you may ask? Well the answer is that the powerful components and effects that this drug has on the body make its consumption highly dangerous and sometimes even fatal. These characteristics make it highly inappropriate for recreational use among college students as well as children, teens, and adults alike. Our bodies cannot function normally when drugs like marijuana are present in our system, and sometimes the aftereffects can be just as harmful.<br />
  22. 22. Applied Psychology<br /> Many of the adverse effects of marijuana use and abuse that directly pertain to you young adults can include decreased alertness, concentration, perception, coordination, and reaction time, meaning that you will no longer have the same abilities (especially when driving) that you would when you are ‘sober’, if you will. Other effects are respiratory problems like that of tobacco users, a decrease in attention, learning, and memory, and increased risk of depression, anxiety, and personality problems (The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 2011). During the withdrawal phase for marihuana users there may be periods where you suffer from restlessness, irritability, anger, depression, nausea, anxiety, cramps, aggression, and insomnia (Argosy University Online, 2011). <br /> I know many of you may be feeling as though this topic or these effects do not apply to you for whatever reason, but please let me appeal to something that should hit home for everyone in this room. You all share something in common, and that is that you are all here today because you are students attending a college or university, which mean that your education is an area you care about. Well, overall, the widespread use of marijuana adversely affects the quality your educational experience because it interferes with the biological, psychological, and sociological parts of your life. You will find it very hard to stay focused and succeed in college with a constant cloud of smoke and harmful consequences. Marijuana negatively affects the vital functions in your body such as heart rate, blood, pressure, and respiration, as well as the plethora of affects we discussed a few moments ago (Argosy University Online, 2011). Smoking marijuana can create what’s called amotivational syndrome which is basically a lack of drive to succeed and frequent giving up on activities before they have been completed (Argosy University Online). Try meeting deadlines and showing up for classes when your mind and body are saying “just forget it and go smoke some more weed, which will make you happy”. The desire to continue smoking marijuana and the desire to avoid the withdrawal symptoms can take over your life and leave you spending all of your time smoking rather than on hobbies, activities, and socializing that you once enjoyed. Don’t make the same mistake that many before you have made. Your own choices are all that will keep you from reaching your goals and fulfilling your dreams, so please take head of what we have discussed today and remember that what sometimes appears to be relaxing and harmless may very well be toxic to every aspect of your life. <br />
  23. 23. Applied Psychology<br />References<br />Argosy University Online. (2011). PSY480 UA – Biopsychosocial effects of substances;<br /> Module 5 lecture notes. Retrieved from Argosy University Online Classroom:<br /> http://myeclassonline.com<br />The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. (2011). Negative effects of marijuana.<br />Retrieved from http://www.theantidrug.com/drug-information/marijuana-facts/negative-<br /> effects-marijuana.aspx<br />
  24. 24. My Future in Learning<br />Learning is a lifelong process. How do you envision your future as a lifelong learner? <br /> I have spent many years studying various subjects and working toward completing my bachelor’s degree in psychology. Although the road has been long and tedious, the effort has been well worth it in the end. I am now able to see the light at the end of the tunnel and feel a new sense of encouragement and excitement to begin another journey after completing this chapter in my academic career. I plan to continue on down my educational path and attain a teaching certificate in Special Education as well as ESL (English as a Second Language). I envision my future as one of growth as I engage in a life full of knowledge and new experiences. I look forward to sharing my journey with my family, friends, and students throughout the coming years. There will always be new chances to increase my knowledge of varying subject-matter and engage in activities I have never participated in. I expect that as our society continues to advance technologically, so shall I advance in my areas of expertise and enjoy my future as a lifelong learner. <br />
  25. 25. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br />Juliet.grimmer@yahoo.com <br />

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