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Eld2 ppt ch02.revised

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Developmental Psychology, Chapter 2

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Eld2 ppt ch02.revised

  1. 1. Exploring Lifespan Development <ul><li>Chapter 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Biological and </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Genotypes and Phenotypes <ul><li>Genotype </li></ul><ul><li>genetic make-up of an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotype </li></ul><ul><li>observable characteristics of an individual </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Absolute Family
  4. 4. Genetic Foundations <ul><li>Chromosomes – store and transmit genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>Genes – segments of DNA located along the chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>DNA – substance of which genes and chromosomes are made </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Tiero/Dreamstime.com
  5. 5. DNA and Mitosis Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 2.1
  6. 6. Chromosomes, Cells, and Sex: Terminology Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Autosomes the 22 pairs of chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes <ul><li>23rd pair of chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>determines sex </li></ul><ul><li>XX = female, XY = male </li></ul>Gametes sex cells: sperm and ova Zygote sperm and ovum united
  7. 7. Twins <ul><li>Fraternal/Dizygotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two zygotes, or fertilized ova </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identical/Monozygotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one zygote that divides into two individuals </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Corbis Royalty Free
  8. 8. Alleles <ul><li>Two forms of the same gene </li></ul><ul><li>Appear at the same place on both chromosomes in a pair </li></ul><ul><li>One inherited from each parent </li></ul><ul><li>Homozygous – the two alleles are alike </li></ul><ul><li>Heterozygous – the alleles differ </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Dominant-Recessive Inheritance Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 2.3
  10. 10. Genomic Imprinting and Mutation <ul><li>Imprinting </li></ul><ul><li>chemical marker that activates either father’s or mother’s gene </li></ul><ul><li>often temporary </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation </li></ul><ul><li>sudden, permanent change in a DNA segment </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Chromosomal Abnormalities <ul><li>Down syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with the twenty-first chromosome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sex chromosome abnormalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with the X or Y chromosome </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Carlos Santa Maria/Dreamstime.com
  12. 12. Reproductive Choices <ul><li>Genetic counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic testing </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. RubberBall Productions
  13. 13. Reproductive Technologies <ul><li>Donor insemination </li></ul><ul><li>In vitro fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Surrogate mother </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. RubberBall Productions
  14. 14. Genetic Counseling Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. RubberBall Productions <ul><li>Helps couples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assess chances of hereditary disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>choose best course of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>family goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>couple has had difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aware of genetic problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>woman is over 35 </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Prenatal Diagnostic Methods <ul><li>Amniocentesis </li></ul><ul><li>Chorionic villus sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Fetoscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal blood analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Preimplantation genetic diagnosis </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. RubberBall Productions
  16. 16. Adoption Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Stockbyte Royalty Free <ul><li>Trends: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>international adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>older children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developmental issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exhibit some difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Most fare well </li></ul>
  17. 17. Environmental Contexts for Development <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic status and family functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Affluence </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhoods, towns, and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural context </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Corbis Royalty Free
  18. 18. Socioeconomic Status (SES) <ul><li>Social status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>years of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>job prestige and skill required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>income </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Meetings and Presentations Royalty Free
  19. 19. Socioeconomic Status and Family Functioning <ul><li>Timing and duration of family life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Values and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Education, status of women </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and discipline styles </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Family Life
  20. 20. Risks of Affluence <ul><li>Alcohol and drug use </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. <ul><li>Unavailable parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overscheduled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demanding </li></ul></ul>Modern Teen
  21. 21. Who Is Poor? <ul><li>13% in United States </li></ul><ul><li>Parents under age 25 with young children </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly living alone, especially women </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Senior Lifestyles
  22. 22. Extended Families <ul><li>Three or more generations living together </li></ul><ul><li>More common in many minority cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces stress of poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assistance for all generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional bonds, support </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Senior Lifestyles
  23. 23. Individualist and Collectivist Societies <ul><li>Individualist </li></ul><ul><li>People define themselves as separate from other people. </li></ul><ul><li>Largely concerned with personal needs and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivist </li></ul><ul><li>People define themselves as part of a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress group goals over individual goals. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. Percentage of Elderly Living in Poverty Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 2.5
  25. 25. Genetic–Environmental Correlation <ul><li>Passive correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Evocative correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Active correlation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>niche-picking </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Absolute Family
  26. 26. The Epigenetic Framework Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 2.7

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