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  1. 1. Cicero’s Five Cannons of Rhetoric Five Rules of Argumentation
  2. 2. Invention <ul><li>You must first imagine, or invent, which information will be most effective in persuading your audience. Cicero claimed that no matter what topic, there is an argument perfectly suited to your audience. He argued that discovering this unique approach to your topic will add to your credibility. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>For example, If you wanted to argue about the marriage right of homosexuals, with religious Christians, you would want to avoid the scriptures in your argument. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Arrangement <ul><li>Next, you must organize your argument. Cicero claims that, by placing your argument in the correct order you will make your message more effective. You argument should be organized to ensure that the right thing is said at the right time. Your initial statements should support later statements, which build toward a final goal. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>For example, Building your argument in chronological order or placing your strongest contention last adds to the effectiveness of your argument. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Expression <ul><li>You must choose which words will deliver your message to your audience effectively. Using words that your audience is comfortable with will make you argument easier to understand which; will make your message more effective. By using words that are familiar to your audience, you invited them to relate to your message. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>For example, If you were an economist who wanted to argue the future of the economy with a police officer, it would be wise to avoid confusing words. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Memory <ul><li>This rule stresses knowledge about your subject. It was originally intended to display the importance of memorizing your speech. However in the age of technology, understanding your subject is more important that memorizing it. Researching many aspects of your subject will give you a better understanding of it. Your audience should believe that you know what you are talking about. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>For example, If you wanted to argue about abortion, it would be wise to know about the history of abortion laws such as Roe v. Wade and other court rulings. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Delivery <ul><li>This is the most important part of verbal persuasion. This is where your preparation is set in action. Your delivery is the way you conduct yourself while speaking. It involves everything from your physical gestures to the tone of your voice. Your delivery is where you add your personality to your argument so that it positively influences your charisma and likeability. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>For example, using hand gestures and raising the tone of your voice at appropriate times will place emphasis and add to the effectiveness of the content of your speech. </li></ul>