Integrating ICT in mathematics education: Curricula challenges in
the Kenyan system of education∗
Centre for Mathematics, Science and Technology Education in Africa
I have had my results for a long time: but I do
not yet know how to arrive at them
Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)
Out-of-school application of information and communications technologies (ICT) in modelling,
design and in enhancing professional eﬃciency reveals an urgent need to align formal educational
practices with the rapid innovations in technology. Emergence of tools that increase interactivity in
learning and facilitate distributed learning and collaboration sharply contrasts conventional curricula
provisions and practices which have been relatively stable for several decades. Integrating ICT in ed-
ucation would also probably remedy the apparent lack of relevance of school mathematics for most
learners. Nevertheless, from a semiotic epistemological perspective, ICT would only mediate learn-
ing despite the potentials to provide prompt feedback, personalize instruction and express inherent
generality of mathematical concepts. Besides, given the embedded cognitive hierarchies, computers,
instructional software, calculators and multimedia are likely to imply greater instructional challenges
than the constructivist reforms. In Kenya for example, lack of curriculum coherence; poor articulation
within the system of education; inadequate teacher preparation and professional development; and the
tendency for individualistic rather than collaborative learning are critical challenges in integrating ICT
in mathematics education. A dynamic geometry software, Dr. Geo, is used to illustrate the challenges
based on Similarity of Figures. The Government policies on e-society are noted for the potential to
address the challenges of infrastructure development. However, there is need for collaboration in the
integration ICT in mathematics education; enhanced teacher professional development, and continu-
ous research on students’ learning based on ICT environments. It is only then that ICT would deﬁne
the next practices in education, and enable young Kenyans to be competitive in a globalized society.
Rapid developments in information and communications technologies continue to inﬂuence economic and
social development (Richards, 2008) and aﬀord hitherto unforeseen comfort to end-users. Advances in
technology have not been without controversy due to perception of automation as an aﬀront to labour
and anxiety over the requisite skills for its integration in most professions. Evidently, technology has
revolutionized the banking industry, for example M-pesa and has enhanced eﬃciency in architectural
designs, e.g. Archicad1 and Artlantis.2
A paper for the 1st Regional Conference on e-Learning: Increased access to education, diversity in applications and
management strategies, November 18–20, 2008: Kenyatta University
Email 1: firstname.lastname@example.org; Email 2: email@example.com
Despite the developments, formal education in most countries has been slow to adopt technological
innovations, notwithstanding decades of ineﬃciency in education. For instance, educators in Kenya, as
in other countries, have been concerned with students’ performance, low motivation and negative attitude
towards mathematics, attributed partly to curriculum that appears irrelevant to most learners. Ironically,
students’ poor performance contrasts sharply with skills they acquire out of school in ICT environments.
Envisaged reforms in mathematics education advocate for use of authentic tasks that engage students
and promote development of problem-solving skills; and linking instruction to everyday life. In addition,
there is an envisaged shift in instruction from teacher-centred to student-centred practices with enhanced
focus on collaborative and cooperative learning. The proposed reform visions may be achieved within an
ICT integrated curriculum, which would also provoke deeper mathematical reasoning. However, a number
of challenges have to be overcome before digital technologies can be eﬀectively integrated in mathematics
education. These include curriculum coherence, inappropriate pedagogical practices, inadequate teacher
preparation and professional development, and lack of appropriate infrastructure. In this paper, we outline
these challenges after an illustration based on Similarity of Figures, and argue for enhanced collaboration
in the design and implementation of ICT integrated mathematics education.
2 Integrating ICT in school curricula
Technology has been used in mathematics in Analysis (Moormann and Grob, 2006), Algebra (Abramovich,
1999; Ainley, Bills and Wilson, 2005; Dreyfus and Hillel, 1998), Statistics (Abrahamson and Wilensky,
2007), Geometry (Cobo, Fortuny, Puertas & Richard, 2007; Healy and Hoyles, 2001; Laborde, 2001).
Internet is increasingly being used to enhance collaborative and interactive learning (Cazes, Gueudet,
Hersant and Vandebrouck, 2006; Cress and Kimmerle, 2008; Resta and Raﬀerriere, 2007) also (Lavy and
ICT enhances eﬃciency of mathematical thought, enables learners to make conjectures and imme-
diately test them in non-threatening environment (Laborde, 2001). ICT also oﬀer multiple mathematical
representations that enhance generality of mathematical concepts, and provide opportunities for counter-
examples, unlike in paper and pencil environments. Technology also enhances curiosity that may drive
inventions as illustrated in computational mathematics, (see, for example Borwein and Bailey, 2003).
Abramovich (1999)’s use of spreadsheets in generalizing Pythagorean Theorem demonstrates how
computers may be used to learn concepts in geometry and algebra, just as Ainley, Bills and Wilson (2005)
give insights in the use of spreadsheets. Use of expressive media with computational and visual eﬀects
and convenient user interfaces has also advanced use of technology in instruction (Ioannidou, Repenning,
Lewis, Cherry and Rader, 2003). For example, Dynamic Geometry software enables construction of
accurate diagrams, simulation, drag eﬀects, and when coupled with after-shadows or trace facilities reveal
mathematical properties which may be diﬃcult to achieve on paper. The multiple representations in
computer applications and prompt feedback (Ainley, Bills and Wilson, 2005; Laborde, 2001) illuminate
the critical challenge for mathematics educators, as Gauss cited in Borwein (2005) observed, is how to
arrive at the solutions. That is, mathematics education has to transcend the novelty and curiosity in the use
of ICT so that these are used as learning tools.
In Kenya, besides Computer Studies in the secondary curriculum, ICT has largely focused on com-
puter literacy and eﬃciency in computations. Recent introduction of calculators in mathematics education
is a major step although its eﬃcacy on students’ learning is yet to be investigated. The focus on accurate
answers is inadequate in mathematics given that results may be obtained without understanding how to
arrive at them. Moreover, mathematics instruction must transcend novelty, fun and the awe experienced
in ICT applications if the aroused interest is to be sustained. Consequently, the challenge for mathematics
educators is how and when the various computer applications and other ICT are integrated in the school
curriculum (cf. Laborde, 2001). In the next sections, we illustrate challenges that ought to be addressed
as ICT is integrated in mathematics education. Screenshots from a dynamic geometry software, Dr. Geo3
are given and the reader is encouraged to attempt especially Tasks 3, 4 and 5 before considering our partial
3 Dynamic geometry software in mathematics education
The following illustration on Similarity and Enlargement is drawn from Form two of the secondary math-
ematics syllabus (KIE, 2002). The syllabus provides for seven content areas, viz (a) Similar ﬁgures and
their properties, (b) construction of similar ﬁgures, (c) properties of enlargement, (d) construction of ob-
jects and images under enlargement (e) enlargement in Cartesian plane (f) linear, area and volume scale
factors and (g) real life applications (p. 20). Three conjectures and three tasks are used to explore concepts
that we believe are achievable within the syllabus.
3.1 Parallelism and Similarity
Conjecture 1 Parallelism deﬁnes similar ﬁgures in mathematics
The conjecture is based on construction of concentric circles (Figure 1a) and squares and extended to
polygons (Figure 1b) such that, polygons with relatively parallel sides are similar. The hypothesis may be
tested using triangles to verify its truth. A counterexample (Figure 1c) generated by the drag facility in
Dr. Geo shows the distortion when parallelism is maintained. The drag facility allows one to investigate
embedded mathematical properties and challenge the apparently plausible conjecture. Graphic software,
a b c
Figure 1: Parallelism and Similarity
e.g., Inkscape4 that allows one to stretch photographs (Figures 2 and 3), and the involved realia further
disproves the conjecture. The approach in the ﬁgures has been used in some of the textbooks in Kenya
(e.g., Owondo, Kang’ethe and Mbiruru, 2004). However, we contend that the example may not aid in the
understanding of similarity of ﬁgures beyond deﬁnitions and formulae. One has to consider the inherent
mathematical properties beyond the visualization. Questions that may elicit deeper reasoning include: Is
Figure 2: Elephant 1 Figure 3: Elephant 2
the conjecture true for all triangles? Regular polygons? And what would be the explanation for either
answer? Similarity in ﬁgures involves ratio of corresponding sides, corresponding ratios of sides and
equality of angles, but how would these be linked to the preceding conjecture? The embedded properties
yet to be revealed are evident in the next task.
3.2 Invariant Parallelogram
Conjecture 2 Midpoints of quadrilaterals form the vertices of a parallelogram (Figure 4a)
The conjecture can be investigated in conventional mathematics classrooms, but requires accurate con-
structions and several drawings ﬁgures to warrant a generalization. On the contrary, in dynamic geometry
environments, drag facility allows for faster simulation of diﬀerent orientations of quadrilaterals, thereby
conﬁrming the generality of the conjecture. While this may arouse interest among learners, inability to
understand the embedded mathematical properties may allude to a mythical perception of mathematics
and technology. The variation of the task is presented below.
Task 3 Given a parallelogram, construct an enscribed quadrilateral
Mathematical understanding requires thinking back and forth, and Task 3 is meant to reverse the process
of producing the parallelogram in Figure 4b. While the forward process is fairly easy, the reverse process
may have some cognitive challenges. In fact, the task may be challenging both in paper & pencil and
dynamic geometry environments. In order to appreciate the complexity of the task, one has to reﬂect on
a b c
Figure 4: Parallelogram → Quadrilateral
the process of constructing the parallelogram. Questions to aid the reﬂection include: how does one obtain
a midpoint of a line segment? What are the properties of the midpoint? In school mathematics, midpoints
are obtained from perpendicular bisectors of lines. Instruction emphasizes on use of arcs, which in our
opinion may be insuﬃcient to solve Task 3. An understanding of arcs as parts of circles is necessary;
therefore the midpoint obtained by perpendicular bisection is the centre of a circle whose diameter is
the line segment. Completing the task requires use of appropriate constraints, and an understanding that
parallelogram is a generalization of all quadrilaterals. Thus, there will be no unique quadrilateral.
Our examples so and explanations are yet to signiﬁcantly link these tasks to similarity, except for the
circles. In the preceding task, it may be useful to justify the result in Figure 4a. Auxiliary lines joining the
opposite vertices of the quadrilateral are necessary in the justiﬁcation. Similar arguments are embedded
in the next task, where a unique parallelogram is desired.
Conjecture 4 The midpoints of two opposite sides and diagonals of a quadrilateral from vertices of a
Task 5 Construct a parallelogram whose acute angle has a constant value θ
The task introduces possibly the need for global thinking with diagrams. The use of such a task may also
aid in diagrammatic reasoning (Hoﬀmann, 2005), and perhaps point to the need for thinking outside the
diagram (see also Laborde, 2005). Similar reasoning may be called for when solving the other problem
(Task 6) which is given without explanation. Previous interaction with 40 secondary school mathematics
teachers reveals that the problem solving skills involved in the latter task may have not been acquired in
teacher preparation courses.
Figure 5: Conditional construction of parallelogram
Task 6 ABCD is a square of side 42 cm. E and F are points on AB and BC such that BE = 14cm and BF
= 21cm. CE and DF intersect at G. Find the area of quadrilateral AEGD
Figure 6: Area and Similarity
In the following sections, we reexamine the aﬀordances of Dr. Geo in solving the problems and
outline challenges that may not be addressed with such a dynamic software. On parallelism and simi-
lar ﬁgures, lack of equality of ratios in corresponding sides or corresponding ratio of sides explains the
counter-example. Parallelism deﬁnes angles, thus equality of angles is a necessary but insuﬃcient con-
dition for similar ﬁgures. Without measuring the sides of polygons and comparing ratios, the connection
between similarity and enlargement enables one to investigate the condition through a centre of enlarge-
ment. That is similarity in regular polygons and all triangles is because of the concurrency of lines joining
the vertices, precisely, concurrency of cevians (see Figure 7a).
a b c
Figure 7: A reﬂection on the tasks
The invariant parallelogram involves some geometrical proof. As illustrated in Figure 7b, triangles
ABC and ADE are similar. The following pair of converse propositions may be considered.
Proposition 7 In △ABC, D and E are points on AB and AC respectively. Prove that if AB:AD = AC:AE,
Proposition 8 In △ABC, D and E are points on AB and AC respectively. Prove that if DE//BC, then
AD:DB = AE:EC
The corresponding segments are AB ∼ AD; AC ∼ AE; and DE ∼ BC. An auxiliary segment DF is intro-
duced in the diagram such that DF//EC, with F on BC. The two propositions may be proved thus:
∠BFD = ∠BCE (1)
⇒ ∠BDF = ∠BAC (2)
⇒ ∠ABC = ∠ADE (3)
Case II: By the introduction parallelogram DFCE, △ADE ∼ △ABC, (AAA). Thus,
⇒ = (5)
AD + DB AE + EC
⇒ AD AE + AD EC = AD AE + AE DB (6)
⇒ ¨ = (7)
∴ EC : AE = DB : AD
Both propositions are on properties of parallelograms, equality and parallelism of opposite sides. In partic-
ular, if D and E are the midpoints, then DE = 1 BC. Similar argument holds for the invariant parallelogram
in Figure 7c.
In the preceding examples and explanations, reasoning with the geometrical properties in the dia-
grams is essential. Use of auxiliary lines, like the diagonals transforms the task from triangle to parallelo-
gram, and the auxiliary triangle in Figure 5b are necessary in demonstrating equivalence in mathematics.
The transformations do not alter the structural properties of the diagrams. Moreover, there is a reciprocal
relationship between the context of the task and mathematical concepts (Abrahamson and Wilensky, 2007;
Steinbring, 2005). Technology, like other media, does not directly communicate the inherent mathemati-
cal relationships. The symbolic relationships are interpreted, but the graphic software allows for eﬃcient
testing of conjectures and aﬀords multiple orientations and visualizations that may trigger mathematical
generalizations. Such reasoning requires supportive curricula; otherwise the embedded generality may
not be achieved even in dynamic geometry applications. In the rest of the paper, we outline curricula
challenges to be overcome before ICT can be eﬀectively integrated in mathematics instruction.
4.1 Curriculum Coherence
Secondary mathematics curriculum is apparently congested at 68 topics (KIE, 2002), which together with
perceived diﬃculty of content explains students’ poor performance. Eﬀorts to improve students’ achieve-
ment have been characterized by removal of "diﬃcult" content and inclusion of content from primary
mathematics. Although the syllabus aims at developing students’ logical and critical thinking, there is no
provision for mathematical proofs. Furthermore, our analysis (Ogwel et al, in preparation) and the pre-
ceding illustration indicate that poor performance in mathematics could be due to repeated and mutually
isolated content. The analysis of intended emphasis in Kenya Certiﬁcate of Secondary Education (KCSE)
and the syllabus objectives based on Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Objectives reveal that while the syl-
labus emphasizes lower order objectives, KCSE examination requires higher cognitive levels of analysis,
synthesis and evaluation. Moreover, diﬃculty in the syllabus has more to do with lack of connections
among the content– evidence of weak coherence, than any particular content area.
Curriculum is coherent if it is rigorous, progresses from particular to general and has inherent struc-
tures that link various content areas (Schmidt, Wang and McKnight, 2005). Schmidt, Wang and McKnight
(2005) attribute diﬀerence in students’ achievement between the US and top countries (Singapore, Korea,
Japan, Hong Kong, Belgium and Czech Republic) in Third International Mathematics and Science Study
(TIMSS) to curriculum coherence. They observe that mathematics curriculum in the high achieving coun-
tries is sequenced hierarchically based on inherent mathematical structure and logic. Besides, mathemat-
ics curriculum in these countries progresses such that senior grades have rigorous content than preceding
grades. On the other hand, mathematics curriculum in the US is characterized by endlessly repeated con-
tent arbitrarily assigned to grades. Isolated content would not promote understanding of mathematical
structures; as Otte (2005) also argues that "there is no reasoning from particulars to particulars. . . . to
know implies, in any case, to relate a particular to a general; it implies to generalize" (p. 10).
Although the previous tasks are assumed to come from Similarity and Enlargement in Form Two,
they integrate various content areas, including Geometrical constructions (Form 1); Angles and plane
ﬁgures (Form 1); Area of plane ﬁgures (Form 2) Circles, chords and tangents (Form 3); Loci (Form 4), and
Transformations (Form 2 and Form 4). That the current syllabus provision on Similarity and Enlargement
is inadequate for solving the problems indicates lack of rigour in the curriculum. It is also doubtful if
Circles, chords and tangents or Loci as presented in the KIE (2002) syllabus would help in solving the
problems, an indication of lack of progression and focus in the curriculum. In fact, the last two tasks may
even be challenging to students in tertiary education. Thus, further simpliﬁcation of the curriculum may
not address the illusive ease in secondary mathematics.
ICT environments may give generalized results, for instance shaded area in Figure 6, but the nature
of curriculum would determine whether the result could be understood and justiﬁed. As Yerushalmy
(2004) also argues, "technologically-supported curricular change can lead to change in students’ cognitive
hierarchies, though such change may have as much to do with curriculum as it have to do with technology."
Moreover, one may be proﬁcient is using technology without understanding the mathematical structures.
For instance, one may obtain the invariant parallelogram using dynamic geometry software (Figure 4a)
without understanding the inherent structure in the proof of propositions 7 and 8. As Abrahamson and
Wilensky (2007) also argue
The composite nature of mathematical representations is often covert – one can use these concepts
without appreciating which ideas they enfold or how these ideas are coordinated. The standard mathe-
matical tools may be opaque – learners who, at best develop procedural ﬂuency with these tools, may
not develop a sense of understanding, because they do not have opportunities to build on the embedded
ideas, even if each of the embedded ideas is familiar or robust. (p. 28)
Consequently, integrating ICT in mathematics education calls for a re-examination of the curriculum and
a shift from the result-oriented pedagogy. As Gauss observed, it is the ’how’ in mathematical reasoning
that would be of educative value than answers readily computed by the machines. Furthermore, a co-
herent curriculum would ensure smooth transition beyond secondary school, an aspect of articulation in
4.2 Articulation in the education system
Lack of curriculum connection aﬀects both secondary and tertiary education. Whereas secondary edu-
cation does not include proofs, tertiary mathematics education requires formal reasoning. The concept
of articulation as used by Ng’ethe, Subotzky and Afeti (2008) in formal tertiary education settings needs
to be extended to include how skills acquired in the so-called commercial colleges can be utilized. An
implication is for a shift from the low regard for education oﬀered outside conventional classrooms. Be-
sides, the exam-driven education at all levels of education remains an obstacle to meaningful education.
Nevertheless, there is an emerging trend where university students, for example architects, are pursuing
courses in graphic design– evidence that employers are beginning to value proﬁciency in relevant ICT
applications. The trend is a pointer for the need to consider competency-based curriculum in education.
More signiﬁcantly, integrating ICT in mathematics education would be challenged by assessment
frameworks which have traditionally been used to select and place students into the limited employment
and higher education opportunities. In fact, examinations have been a major obstacle to the realization of,
especially constructivist, reforms in education. Moreover, examinations would be inadequate in assessing
students’ complex problem-solving skills in technology-enabled instruction without bold, perhaps radical,
changes in assessment. Furthermore, technology in mathematics education has considerable implications
for teacher preparation and continuing professional development, some of which are outlined in the next
4.3 Teacher preparation and professional development
Innovations in education are dependent of teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and conceptions. Presently, there
is a gulf between initial teacher preparation and reform-driven roles that teachers are expected to play in
instruction. Moreover, teachers are rarely supported in the implementation of reform visions and profes-
sional development courses appear to oﬀer generic solutions that do not easily transfer to regular practice.
Generally, teachers are expected to design purposeful tasks, provide opportunities for students to develop
independent thinking, elicit and incorporate students’ diverse conceptions in instruction, and validly eval-
Requisite skills for designing tasks that potentially engage students and promote problem-solving
abilities are rarely developed in teacher education courses. Moreover, most instructional activities, includ-
ing practice exercises are derived from textbooks, and inadequate time has been seen to hinder teachers’
adaptations of such tasks. In addition, designing purposeful learning environments imply deeper under-
standing of mathematics.
Integrating ICT in mathematics would also require change of conceptions of mathematics, learning
and theoretical perspectives. We agree with Ioannidou, Repenning, Lewis, Cherry and Rader (2003)
that ICT should not only enhance eﬃciency in learning the existing curricula, but must focus on deeper
understanding of mathematical concepts. Moreover, the functions in dynamic geometry software are based
on structural properties, embedded in terms of programming "primitives" (Laborde, 2005) or kernels, thus
understanding of mathematical structure would be necessary for understanding the magical behaviour
of mathematical software. The development in computational mathematics, together with software like
Mathematica and Maple are already challenging the conception of proof in number theory (Borwein and
Bailey, 2003; Borwein, 2005).5
Computer software and technological tools require deeper understanding of operations, syntax and
familiarity with the embedded functions. Most mathematics teachers in Kenya lack proﬁciency in digital
technologies, and the urgent focus should be on improving their literacy in ICT. Furthermore, integrating
technology in education requires teachers to be conﬁdent users of technology (Taylor and Corrigan, 2007).
Following Goos (2005), integrating ICT in mathematics education would require transition in perception
of technology from being a master, servant or partner to extension of self.
When skills and knowledge are limited to a range of operations, say computer literacy, the technology
is taken to be a master. On the other hand, technology is seen as a servant when it enhances eﬃciency,
for example use of calculators in computations. Instruction in ICT environments that involve provision of
new tasks or alternative approach to existing tasks is possible when technology is taken as a partner. The
illustrations in this paper possibly reﬂect this view. Viewing technology as an extension of self implies a
greater eﬃciency in designing tasks, deeper understanding of mathematics, using variety of technologies,
and seamlessly integrating them in instruction. To reach this level, teachers would need capacity building
Although teachers may use technology in their learning, they cautiously integrate it in regular in-
struction (see Barak, 2006, for example). Reluctance to integrate ICT in education is probably due to lack
of signiﬁcant evidence on how technology supports learning in everyday classrooms (Samwelsson, 2006;
Taylor and Corrigan, 2007). Thus, if technology is to be used to engage students, enhance higher order
thinking skills and facilitate deeper understanding of mathematics, then continuous collaboration among
various stakeholders in education is necessary.
4.4 Individualistic versus collaborative learning
Formal education is characterised by stiﬀ competition – evident examination rankings and rush for limited
higher educational opportunities. Moreover, the society has eﬀectively nurtured the culture of valuing the
product over process of education. Thus, advocacy for cooperative and collaborative learning has largely
been conﬁned to reform literature as the classrooms remain invariably individualistic.
Moreover, the ICT industry has not been spared from the competitive culture, where computer pro-
ﬁciency has determined placement in prestigious careers. Given the limited "greener pastures", ICT
skills have rarely been shared to maintain competitive edge over contemporaries. Nevertheless, there
is an emerging global trend of sharing skills, enhanced collaboration and availability of shareware and
open source computer software. In addition, collaborative learning in technology enhanced environments,
like the Internet, and the conception of learning as a social activity calls for a redeﬁnition of school in-
structional practices. Consequently, e-content in mathematics education must not only be collaboratively
developed, but also provide opportunities for learners to collaborate and interact across diverse locations.
Design of e-content and general integration of ICT in mathematics education must signiﬁcantly involve
mathematicians, technicians, curriculum developers, teachers and education evaluators (see also Laborde,
2001; Ogwel, 2007).
Moreover, borrowing from design research (cf. Abrahamson and Wilensky, 2007; Cobb, 2000) also
Scherer and Steinbring (2006), development of e-content and design of tasks would only be the begin-
ning of a cyclic and iterative process of designing content, testing it in classrooms, analysing students’
interactions and modifying the content. Data generated from such studies may be analysed from mul-
tiple theoretical perspectives to provide a richer and holistic interpretation of educational process. And
given the resource constraints in Kenya, products developed in other regions may be subjected to the local
contexts, in any case, reinventing the technological-wheel would be uneconomical.
We contend that while integrating ICT in mathematics is long overdue, evidence on how they promote
students’ learning in regular school settings is necessary. Thus, collaborative dissemination of research re-
sults to inform practice and policy need to also incorporate voices of the major stakeholders, and must also
be accessible and comprehensible, especially to education practitioners. Moreover, multimedia including
videos, photos and audio data would supplement the print media in disseminating such research studies.
Web blogs also have potentials for eﬀective dissemination of research results and sharing of experiences.
Although ICT holds the key to both best practices and next practices in education (Hannon, 2008), the
conservative nature of formal education does not support such practices. Consequently, there is danger of
revolution in education inﬂuenced from outside without critical reﬂection of educators.
4.5 Government policies
Infrastructure development is necessary as the country aspires for industrial development in line with the
Vision 2030 and Millennium Development Goals. Electricity, telephone services and security are nec-
essary for technology to be integrated in rural development. So far, zero-rating of tax on computers,
encouragement of public private partnerships in provision of computer hardware and software, e.g. Com-
puter Aid International (Richards, 2008), Computer for Schools and e-governance are policy measures
that conﬁrm the government’s regard for a knowledge-based economy. In addition, laying of the ﬁbre
optic network would increase connectivity and minimize cost of accessing the Internet. Consequently,
educators have to utilize this window of opportunity to improve quality of education and align educational
provision to the global trends, if the Kenyan youth are to be competitive in a globalized society.
5 Concluding Remarks
In sum, we have considered some aﬀordances of technology in mathematics education, including eﬃ-
ciency in computation and geometrical constructions, opportunities for multiple representations, prompt
feedback during problem-solving and inherent generality of concepts in mathematics. These have been
illustrated using Dr. Geo and Inkscape to attempt problems on similarity of ﬁgures. Although full integra-
tion of ICT in mathematics education is desirable, there are inherent curricula challenges in the education
system that have to be tackled for optimal technology-enabled education. These include inadequate cur-
riculum coherence; poor articulation due to outdated assessment frameworks; teacher beliefs on use of
technology in education; proﬁciency in use of ICT; minimum levels of mathematical understanding; and
inappropriate pedagogical practices.
There are indications of beginning collaboration in this ﬁeld and supportive government policies.
Nevertheless, there is paucity of evidence on how students learn mathematics within digital technologies.
Consequently, there is need for continuous collaboration among mathematicians, technicians, educators
in the design and research on use of technology in mathematics education. In particular, educators have
to urgently pick up the challenge if they are to remain relevant within the rapid revolution in educational
graphiso f t.com/products/archicad
http : //www.artlantis.com
http : //www.o f set.org/drgeo
http : //www.inkscape.org
See Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics at http : //www.cecm.s f u.ca
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