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Jingzhou Tourism Master Plan


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Plan developed by Lighthouse Creative in 2007. Tourism development rights for projects held by Lighthouse Leisure

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Jingzhou Tourism Master Plan

  1. 1. Jingzhou: Ancient Water City Tourism DesTinaTion ProjecTs: invesTor’s Brief may 19, 2007 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 1 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Jingzhou: the investment opportunity a projected additional investment of Tourists from China and other parts 900,000,000 in support facilities such as of the world are discovering Jingzhou. hotels, restaurants and infrastructure. Jingzhou is located halfway between Wuhan, China’s fifth largest city and Yichang, the home of the Three When completed they will have an Gorges Dam--now the leading tourist annual total economic impact of attraction in all of China. 230,000,000 yuan, and 460,000,000 yuan annual indirect impact. This investor prospectus describes twelve projects that are designed to The first new project is the significantly grow the tourism industry development of the Xiong Tombs with in Jingzhou. a projected investment of 100,000,000 yuan. The projects will lead to a doubling of the number of tourists to Jingzhou by The combined annual return on 2008. These projects represent a direct investment averages 48%. investment of 485,000,000 yuan, with tourism DestinAtion ProJects 2
  4. 4. Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 3 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. Table of Contents The investment opportunity 2 The Vision 5 The Place in 2007 11 Themes--The Guiding Values 29 The Development Strategy 33 The Attractions 37 1. East Gate and Ancient Wall 43 2. Juilong Park 49 3. Xiong Tombs 59 4. Lord Guan Battle Theater 65 5. Lord Guan Temple Area 73 6. Museum and AV Experience 81 7. Three Kingdoms Dynasty Park 95 8. High Speed Rail Tourism Center 105 9. Famous People Hotel 107 10. Development of the City moat 111 11. Yangtze Culture Longevity Park 115 12. Tourist Transportation 119 Jingzhou Infrastructure Projects 121 Sustainable Tourism Policy 129 Implementation Plan 131 Financial Return 137 Jingzhou and Hubei Market Data 139 Development Team 147 tourism DestinAtion ProJects 4
  6. 6. Jingzhou: The Vision (6.4.4) If one could imagine a city unlike To best imagine Jingzhou of the future development guidelines regarding any other this is it, The combination we invite you to close your eyes and sustainability, the land clearance of of a celebration of pure water and IMAGINE!! unnecessary or decaying buildings dynamic culture that provides a inside the walls, and a major tree and memorable visitor experience. From Open them and we are in 2020 to landscape planting program that came our 2020 perspective the past thirteen discover that the city of Jingzhou to full bloom in five years and now years have seen considerable content lying along the Yangtze River, is a provides perennial color and arboreal development in all sectors that provide place where holidaymakers, tourists interest. This landscape plan was support to tourism, as well as the and families travel for fun, culture undertaken under the themes of the construction of a considerable number and relaxation. The ancient walled Chinese elements of Fire- Metal- Earth of unique entertainment spectacles- city of Jingzhou has tree-lined and water. shows and destinations that have no boulevards and colorful gardens, rival in China. Jingzhou City now sparkling contemporary buildings At the end of 2008, demonstrated by a boasts a true sustainable tourism that sit comfortably side by side with growing interest in China following the based economy. historic temples and villages. It is a successful Olympic Games, Jingzhou bustling city where tourists of many City put into place the first of its many The Beginning nationalities and locals intermingle famous festivals. Interest in Jingzhou in a celebration of entertainment and was achieved by the manipulation of The program began in 2007. In that culture. It has been transformed from foreign media and press as well as the year massive city efforts were focused a grey city to the City of Pure Water first of the now celebrated Lord Guan on the cleansing of the moat system, and Dynamic Culture. Yu Festivals. This attracted adherents the establishment of new rules and from all parts of China and from the Overseas Chinese communities.¡¡È·¶¨ÂÃÓÎÇøµÄÐÔÖʺÍ÷ÌâÏó£ To define the destination character and theme image Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 5 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. available land in the city. Developers introduced for tourists. This included The design and construction of the built a cultural mini-golf that proved themed horse drawn carriages and Historical Center that presents the enormously successful. rickshaws. A more sophisticated use of stories of the Three Kingdoms in a the surrounding moat occurred once coherent Living Scroll manner has been the bridges were designed to accept a successful cultural contribution. How Jingzhou got it’s tourist river boats. international focus In the same year Jingzhou City In the nearby Three Kingdoms Park (an opened its doors to the first influx Asian version of Tivoli in Copenhagen) of tourists- keen to partake in a two- The International focus and attention are the world renowned celebrity chefs day experience. Commencing at the took longer. First it was related to the of China, each outdoing each other city’s East gate where new bus and higher end of the cultural spectrum with exotic menus. These culinary car parking lots led to a pedestrian through programs like National bouts are often televised, and with the entry- the tourist pathway consisted Geographic, BBC and the Discovery other festival programs that include of a redesigned market street with its Channels that brought the amazing the electric light parade, kite flying, wider display of food, beverage and finds of the Chu tombs to a wider the international poetry festival, the retail as well as the conversion of the audience. This market was the older, commencement of the antique road upper spaces above shops for three semi-retired or senior professional with race from Jingzhou to Beijing, etc, new hotels. As part of the evolving a love of history. The Koreans visited brought Jingzhou to national focus. The master plan a commercial street that in search of their ancestral traditions. Dragon boat festivals reenergized the leads to the Three Kingdoms Plaza was This opening up of the cultural moat by day. the first improvement project of the opportunities were also spurred by new urban concept that now includes the construction of the Chu Cultural Families were not forgotten. A number a modern city, but constructed with of small-scale leisure investments Chinese vernacular architecture. A with Chinese themes opened on romantic transportation service was tourism DestinAtion ProJects 6
  8. 8. always temporary, were now replaced AV Theater in the Jingzhou Museum by three large white low profile air grounds that wandered back in time to domes on ring berms constructed a presentation of life at the time of the from excavated and compacted earth. Chu. The splendors of the shafts are for all Virtual Reality plays a role to see. In the adjacent museum are some of the recent finds- with exhibits that illustrate the position of the Chu The ability to present jade finds, kingdoms within the Dynastic stories. tomb discoveries, etc, with real time transmissions from the archeological Tourists can also learn about the tombs field, conducted and presented by from afar by visiting the Jingzhou national and international archeologists Museum to experience a virtual later stirred interest in visiting the presentation of the tombs. The 200 locations. Major archeological finds seat Chu AV culture Theater with a at Xiong Tombs lead to a further sophisticated twenty minute show and understanding of the importance of the six hundred an hour capacity opened Chu Culture. By 2015, the Xiong Tombs in 2008. It features banked seating, built soaring air inflated structures giant screens, wrap round audio, side to cover almost all of the 150 tombs, panels and actors. providing visitors with a unique view of one of China’s significant eras. The Xiong site’s former green tents, Sweden’s X2000 train has been the model for some of the new Chinese high-speed train technology. Jingzhou: city Pure WAter culture 7 of AnD © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. The Importance of Speed the king’s tomb that contains fabulous works of artistry was finally unearthed. and a Tourist Hub for Hubei This put the site on a comparison with the terracotta warriors of Xi’an as a The opening of the high-speed rail major Chinese cultural destination and station in 2009 provided access to worthy of consideration as a World a market beyond the radius of 80 Heritage site. kilometers. For the first time residents The appeal of Lord Guang of the mega city of Shanghai, with a Yu higher than average disposable income, could discover the splendors of the Chu As Jingzhou was once the regional culture. Ten trains a day from Shanghai capitol of past dynasties, it is now the bring 5,000 tourists per day. The Capital of the Lord Guang Yu Society high-speed rail transit hub is a tourist for International Sustainability and attraction in itself with interactive Prosperity. As a sign of the Importance theaters, souvenirs, and connections to of the Chinese Cultural to Chinese, major attractions. In its current form Korean and Japanese (and the Overseas it has evolved into a state of the art Chinese community), an annual sustainable village with residences, conferences on culture and tourism offices, shopping and cultural facilities. takes place at the Jingzhou Museum Meeting Center. Jingzhou rejuvenated Just as the walled city built in 800 AD its tourism program to coincide with was the result of strategic thinking, so 2008 Olympics in Bejing and reinforced is this urban village of the future. It it two years later at the 2010 World borrows the best of the past to create Expo in Shanghai. The event that a new future. One where open space inaugurated the Jingzhou City of is interwoven with buildings and Culture and Fun took place on August streets, organized as small villages. 28, 2008. It was so successful that it The traditional grid is replaced with has become an annual event to mark meandering paths, the roads with water the significance of Lord Guang Yu in ways,….. Jingzhou Chinese Culture. The undoubted draw of the Three In the 2008 the first program pageantry Gorges Dam, now producing over half of the electrical needs of China, and of of the Lord Guang Yu period was the scenic splendors of the other gorges fabulously presented in the grounds continued to pull people to the western of the first major city re-urbanisation part of Hubei province. Jingzhou City, program. This ‘battle theater’, with its wide range of motels, rental involving mounted knights, archers, apartments, and quality hotels provides drummers, acrobats, flags and music the Hub(ei) base for regional tourism takes place daily on part of the old out to Yichang and Wusan, east to the prison grounds throughout the tourist East Lake area of Wuchang, and north season. Designed with spectacle in to the splendors of the Chu sites that mind the backdrop is the city wall. have now been fully excavated. In 2012 tourism DestinAtion ProJects 8
  10. 10. A new city to cater for creativity In 2012, a whole new exposition and learning center is created around the Lord Guang The redevelopment of the inner city plan was philosophy. Like the ultimate academy for a major achievement. It offered a new home to business and culture it is housed in a cluster future creativity- the third age of development of custom buildings and environments. It uses and soon became, after the installment of video, light, sound, water, stone and metal to wireless connectivity, a sought after place create a remarkable temple of the future. The for artists, technologists, computer graphic names of the visitors are preserved in a digital designers, architects and craftsmen. New schools information wall where people can connect to of calligraphy were established in a perfect people all around the world. blend of old and new. Other projects in the city Telling stories with light and sound featured the lost art of bronze making, of paper manufacture and the principles and evolution of pyrotechnics. This is the living expression of the Across the moat water to the east the spectacular branding concept of Jingzhou as the crossroads of water festival of Jiulong Park presents the Three culture and entertainment. Kingdoms Son et Lumiere Show. At night from the thousand-seat theater the waters become The center for all this is the walled city of illuminated with the scene of abstract floating Jingzhou, which with the city of Xi’an, shares one junks, their sails forming the screens for huge of two places in China completely surrounded projections. A water mist curtain farther out in by an extant archaic wall system. The ancient belt the water acts as another projected screen. The contains a vibrant nucleus. walls and ramparts of the old city are lit up with exciting synchronized projections from huge In 2012 the new circulation system changed projectors. This nighttime show has been hugely the movement pattern for both tourist and successful and is now a ‘must’ on all tourist inhabitants. Certain roads were blocked off itineraries. as the new landscaping plan created different ways of threading through the primary and The open-air stadium that was re-clad is also secondary pathways. New paths were developed the review stand of the famous Jingzhou City to provide pedestrian wandering, roller blading, Dragon Boat races that were re-inaugurated in biking, running and other exercises. New parks the autumn of 2007. were created that interpreted the stories of The romance of the Three Kingdoms. With the completion of the first short term projects that elevated tourism by 200%, the second phase projects began. These included The Establishment of City the commencement of more land clearing in the Districts center of the city, the adoption of the new plan The Entertainment District was fully developed as Comprehensive Master Plan, the completion by 2014. This included fitness centers, digital of new development districts, each to reflect movie houses, dance palaces, discotheques, character and use. Some of the earlier buildings taverns and international fine dining. Other that were once used by the government have components of this district included a Family now become five star hotels, their grounds finely Entertainment Center where state of the landscaped. Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 9 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. similar ‘meet and greet’ and orientation art interactive machines allowed facilities. penetration of the virtual world. The only thing remaining was to By 2014, the River Walk developments reactivate the airport, to provide the that provide a mixture of modern fourth of the portals- road-rail- river offices, lodging, water side restaurants and air. With this decision Jingzhou and other private or public buildings was at last able to offer rapid access had come to change the entire its own and other destinations, projection and positioning ofJingzhou lengthening ‘dwell time’ and increasing City. The ‘Walk’ was developed as a the visitor spend. belt around the perimeter of the moat, and came to be inhabited by many Today Jingzhou represents one on new start up firms, as well as offering the most dynamic examples of a specific employment for a new set of city establishing a new economic workers capable of providing twenty base. Many people in both primary first century skills. The University of and secondary support and services the Future moved back to JZ in 2016 industries derive their income from because this was the most exciting this industry. As Chinese domestic place of the region. disposable income rose, and as the country became by this year of 2020 the The affect of this dynamism had a side most visited from international tourism effect on Shashi, in that the avenues the future looked bright. The name that led to the gates became more, not of Jingzhou has circulated around the less important. The ultimate goal was world. It features on the tourist routes, to provide a green corridor that with and as a part of the greater tourism parks and gardens led all the way to offer of Hubei Province. the Yangtze. The walled city becomes the open space, the lung, the garden for the city. A mixture of formal, informal, In 2006 Jingzhou had 250,000 visitors a year. In 2027, Jingzhou became agricultural, passive, active… the fourth most visited city (tourists, business travelers, and students) in Completion of the Four Mainland China (after Bejing, Shanghai and Xi’an) with an annual tourist Portals turnover of 3,000,000! Here, by the river bank, development of the Yangtze River Portal became a major arrival and departure structure that was tied to an inter-modal transit station and the side tower hotels around the south end of Shashi’s main plaza. This complex now compliments the northern railroad station that has tourism DestinAtion ProJects 10
  12. 12. Jingzhou: The Place, 2007 Introduction to the Region Jingzhou is a historically significant city in the central part of Hubei Province. Hubei is one of the larger provinces of China containing more than seventy million people. The capital, Wuhan, contains in the district of Wuchang outstanding cultural and leisure attractions, of which the most famous are the Yellow Crane Tower, one of the Chu Kingdom sites around the splendors of East Lake and the Mao Summer Home. At the western end of Hubei Province is the city of Yichang. It is home to the scenery of the Yangtze Gorges, and the new Three Gorges Dam. These, with the splendors of the Yangtze River are currently the main tourist destinations of Hubei Province. Between these major visitor destinations is the walled Ancient City JINGZHOU * of Jingzhou. In addition to the Walled City the region has many splendid examples of history and culture featuring principally three great historic periods of China: the Chu, the Three Kingdoms, and the River Yangtze cultures.¡¡¹æ»®ÂÃÓÎÇøÆäËûù´ÉèÊ©¡¢·þÎñ ÉèÊ©ºÍ¸½ÊôÉ詵Ä×ÜÌå²¼¾Ö¡£ Overall layout of the other infrastructure and supporting facility and affiliate facility. Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 11 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Location Jingzhou City is in the mid part of Hubei Province, and further to the south, with the longitude 112016’ and latitude 30026’, connecting Wuhan, Xianning on the east, Yichang on the west, Jingmen on the north and Hunan Province on the south. It has two districts: Shashi and Jingzhou Districts, three counties: Jiangling, Gong’an and Jianli. It is also in charge of three county-rank cities: Shishou, Honghu and Songzi. The characteristic of Jingzhou City is “national historical and cultural well- known city, important port of mid reaches of Yangtze River and the core city of mid and south area”. Climate Jingzhou has a subtropical, humid and monsoon climate, with annual average temperature of 160C and annual rainfall 1158 mm. The city’s river network is dense; lakes and marshes are intertwined: the Yangtze River, Juzhang River, Tiger Cross River, Weishui Lake, Honghu Lake, Taihu Lake Estuary, Long Lake and Haizi Lake. In the urban area, there is the Moat, West Lake, North Lake, West Canal, Horse Pool, Jingsha River, Jiangjin Lake and Bianhe Lake. History and Culture Jingzhou’s geographic position is unique. The city has a favorable climate and fertile land. Its historical culture is remotely originated. Since five or six tourism DestinAtion ProJects 12
  14. 14. thousand years ago, humans have been living and inhabiting here in groups. It is one of the birth places of China’s ancient cultures in the Yangtze River area, and it has also been the key place in every dynasty for the feudal lords and their official residences. The Chu Kingdom which was one of the “Spring and Autumn Period Five Lords” and “Warring Period Seven Powers” had set its capital here for more than 400 years. Cultural heritage is abundant here: cultural sites and scenic places are distributed all over the city. There were the Jiangling Eight Sceneries of Qing Dynasty: Mount Ji Mist, Baling Pine Trees and Cloud, Dragon Mount Autumn Scenery, Tiger Cross River Sail Boat in the Sun, Shajin Port Berthing at Dusk, Zhang Hua Terrace Spring Scenery, Jade Pot Lotus Fragrance and Three Lakes Snowy Fishing, etc. Although, most of these sceneries are gone, those surviving are worth developing. In Spring and Autumn Period, Warring Period, Chu capital’s Zhu Palace (royal entertaining palace) and court vessel wharfs were in Jingzhou the Ancient City, which is famous for the story of “Liubei Borrow Jingzhou”. In Three-Kingdom Period, Jingzhou had been the central place that Wei, Shu and Wu the three kingdoms all strived for. In the Romance of Three Kingdoms (historical novel of Three Kingdom), there are 72 chapters that mention Jingzhou within the total 120 chapters, and 17 chapters directly describe Jingzhou. Three-Kingdom sites are distributed widely in the city, such as the site of Guanyu ( Lord Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 13 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. Guan) scraping the infected arm bone for treating poisonous arrow-shot, Guanyu’s Horse Pool, General Officers Appointment Terrace, Horse-Driving Mount, Reedy Patches, the site of Zhang Fei’s Shouldering a basket of earth, etc. These are all vivid and well- known Three-Kingdom legends. Center of Chu Culture Jingzhou is also the center of Chu Culture. The ancient literature and poems are prolific here. In remote times, Jingzhou had been a place of developed music, and “South Style”, “Chu Sound” originated here. The famous patriotic poet Qu Yuan had taken the court position of “Zuo Tu” and “San Lu Da Fu”, and had written the masterpiece Chu Ci. He has become one of the four great patriotic poets of the world. One of Li Bai’s poems mentions Jiangling, “Morning leaves Bai Di Cheng (Cheng Du) in fine weather, while thousand miles away Jiangling is reached in one day.” This poem is still famous. Jingzhou is known for many brilliant people, such as Song Dynasty Zhu Ran (a scholar); Tang Dynasty Prime Minister Liu Bo; Yin Wenchang, and the three generations of Cen family who all had once been Prime Ministers; Song vice Prime Minister Tang Jie; and Ming brilliant Prime Minister Zhang Juzheng. Jingzhou’s tourist attractions are a “diamond in the rough”: gems waiting to be discovered by a larger audience: the historically well-known walled city, Songi Weishui Scenic Area, Honghu tourism DestinAtion ProJects 14
  16. 16. Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 15 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
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  18. 18. Tourism Development Land constructed area 50 square km. In 1998, 13. Long Lake Resort Scenic Area, Shishou Swan Island, the whole city has a population of 14. New Fairy Cave Visit White Dolphin and Wapiti National Because the use of tourism land is Plan 6,363,700, in which the central urban compatible with other land uses, tourism 15. Forest Park Conservation Area. There are also population is 530,400. 16. Aquatic Park many cultural sites, such as New and According to Jingzhou Planning activities are attractive to the city . For 17. Vacation Village Old Stone Age sites, ancient city sites, Department the following types example, the forest environment land In 20 years since the Reform and 18. Zoo Chu Cultural sites and Three Kingdom of land are identifed for tourism will promote tourism. The responsible Opening, the city’s GNP has grown 19. Golf Villa Garden sites. development. These includes places use of reservoirs will not only be fast, comprehensive capacity and 20. Wapiti Garden where the cultural and historic sites good for fishing and recreation, but Socio-Economic Conditions comprehensive and capacity has been 21. White Dolphin Visit are comparatively concentrated, land also can promote tourism and water enhanced. GDP has grown from the where the scenery and environment conservation. Jingzhou is the economic link between 1.766 billion Yuan in 1978 to 33 billion Swan Island Marsh Tourist Area conditions are outstanding and the Hunan and Hubei Provinces, as well Yuan in 1998, with the GDP per capita 22. Zou Ma Ling Site Museum land with good ecotype environment. Entertainment Activities as an important port city of the mid 5,222 Yuan. The annual increase rate 23. Nanyue Mount Forest Park 6.4.5 reaches of Yangtze River. It is also is the is 9.6%. The object of quadrupling 24. Reedy Patch Fishing Garden The tourism development land as centers for light and textile industries, GDPs has been realized four years in 25. Reedy Patch Fish Catch Garden follows: The land around Jingzhou is covered rice, cotton and oil production. advance. Urban residents’ income per 26. Fishing Family Experience Garden with reliquary, statues, temples Jingzhou is the economic and cultural capita is 4,743 Yuan, while peasants’ 27. Fishing Family Resort Village and tombs. The following matrix Historical Culture Area: 606.4km2 center of Jianghan Plain. The length income per capita is 2,002 Yuan, which represents some of the existing tourism Scenic Place of interest: 191.1 km2 between east and west is about 274.8 Honghu Fishing Family Resort Area is increased by 12.6 times and 16.5 destinations. Some, if not many have Lakes and Marshes: 719.2km2 km, and about 130.2 km from south to times respectively. The total savings per 28. Water Villa limited dwell time and do not really Tourist and Sightseeing Area: 231.8km2 north. capita of urban and rural residents is 29. Yangtze River Distinctive Fish count within the basket of attractions. Resort and Recreation Area: 586.8km2 1,900 Yuan. Species Aquatic Park Jingzhou has a long history. It was the 30. Patriotic Education Base These are the current tourist attractions largest state of the nine great states 31. Old Hua Rong Path Rest Hut in Jingzhou. The five types of tourism development Land Use: Current Status in ancient times. Since the Spring, 32. Fishing Family Meeting Center land mentioned above represent a Autumn and Warring Period, it has 33. Forest Park The Jingzhou Tourism Study of 2000 is Jingzhou Ancient City Tourist Zone total area of 2,335.3 km2 (including been the official residences for the 34. Lotus Garden one of the studies used as a reference 1. Chu Culture Exhibition Garden water). The total land area of Jingzhou feudal lords in every dynasty. for this plan. The current land use in 2. Lord Guan Temple City is 14,067 km2 , of which tourism the Jingzhou City area is traditional. 3. Three-Kingdom Culture Garden development areas currently represent After the foundation of PRC, The categories of land use are: farm 4. Xuanmiao Temple 16.6% of the total. Jingzhou’s administrative system and agricultural land, forest, lakes 5. Watery Culture Garden underwent several important changes. and rivers, and some industrial land 6. Taoist Temple In itself tourism requires no more new In October 1994, and approved by reserved for factory, mining and and 7. Ming & Qing Pedestrianized land, but a redistribution of land put the State Council, Jing-Sha City was mnufacturing enterprises, traffic Shopping Street to different end uses. It can contribute entitled, while the titles of the Jingzhou and transportation . There are also 8. Jingzhou Ancient City Wall (through Eco Tourism projects) to Area, Shashi City were abolished. In habitations such as cities, towns and substantial land enhancement and by December 1996, the name was changed villages. There is no definition of Weishui Scenic Area its definition require superior land into Jingzhou City. The whole city has Tourism Development Land which 9. Balingshan Forest Park management that reflects well in an area of 14,067 square km, in which is not good for Jingzhou tourism 10. Taihu Lake Port, Bird Garden landscape and water improvements. urban area 1,576 square km, urban development. 11. Rare Fish Garden 12. Rooster Mount Museum Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 17 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
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  30. 30. Jingzhou Themes: The Guiding Values (6.4.3) mistranslation, since each state was Three very important historic eventually headed by an Emperor cultures have shaped the who claimed legitimate succession from the Han Dynasty, not by kings. Jingzhou region and continue Nevertheless the term has become to influence the city: The standard among sinologists and will be Three Kingdoms, the Chu used in this article. Culture, and the Yangtze River. The earlier, “unofficial” part of the period, from 190 to 220, was marked by chaotic infighting between warlords in various parts of China. The middle Three Kingdoms part of the period, from 220 and 263, was marked by a more militarily stable The Three Kingdoms period is a period arrangement between three rival in the history of China, part of an era states, Kingdom of Wei , Kingdom of of disunity called the Six Dynasties. In Shu , and Kingdom of Wu . The later a strict academic sense it refers to the part of this period was marked by the period between the foundation of the collapse of the tripartite situation: first Wei in 220 and the conquest of the Wu the destruction of Shu by Wei (263), by the Jin Dynasty in 280. However, then the overthrow of Wei by the Jin many Chinese historians and laymen Dynasty (265), and the destruction of extend the starting point of this period Wu by Jin (280). back to the uprising of the Yellow Turbans in 184. Although relatively short, this historical period has been greatly The three kingdoms were the Kingdom romanticised in the cultures of China, of Wei , the Kingdom of Shu , and the Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. It has been Kingdom of Wu . To distinguish these celebrated and popularised in operas, states from other historical Chinese folk stories, novels and in more recent states of the same name, historians times, films, television serials, and prepended a character: Wei is also video games. The best known of these known as Cao Wei , Shu is also known is undoubtedly the Romance of the as Shu Han , and Wu is also known Three Kingdoms, a fictional account as Eastern Wu . The term “Three of the period which draws heavily on Kingdoms” itself is somewhat of a history. The authoritative historical record of the era is Chen Shou’s Sanguo Zhi, along with Pei Songzhi’s later¡¡È·¶¨ÂÃÓÎÇøµÄÐÔÖʺÍ÷ÌâÏó£ annotations of the text. To define the destination character and theme image Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 29 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  31. 31. conquered Yingdu. Following the fall In its early years, Chu was a successful The Three Kingdoms period is one of Yingdu, Shouchun (in today’s Anhui expansionist and militaristic state. Chu of the bloodiest in Chinese history. province) became the state’s capital-in- developed a reputation for coercing A population census in late Eastern exile. and absorbing its allies. Chu grew Han Dynasty reported a population from a small, dependent state into a of approximately 56 million, while a large empire worthy of contention, population census in early Western Chu Culture even attaining the traditional title of Jin dynasty (after Jin re-unified China) Based on archaeological finds, Chu’s one of “The Five Overlord States of the reported a population of approximately culture was initially quite similar to Spring and Autumn Period” . Chu first 16 million. Even taking into account that of other Zhou states. Later on, Chu consolidated its power by absorbing the inaccuracies of these census culture absorbed indigenous elements the lesser states within its immediate reports, it is safe to assume that a large as the state expanded to the south and vicinity in Hubei; then, it expanded percentage of the population was east, developing a distinct culture from into the north towards the North China wiped out during the constant wars the traditional Northern Zhou states. Plain. The threat from Chu resulted waged during this period. in multiple northern alliances against Early Chu burial offerings consisted Chu and its allies; these alliances Chu (state) primarily of bronze vessels in the Zhou successfully kept Chu in check, with From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia style. Later Chu burials, especially its first major victory at the Battle of Chu was a kingdom in what is now during the Warring States Period, Chengpu. southern China during the Spring and featured distinct Chu burial objects, Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and such as colorful lacquerware, iron and The kingdom’s power continued even Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). silk, accompanied by a reduction in after the end of the Spring and Autumn bronze vessel offerings. period in 481. Chu overran Cai to the It was originally known as Jing and north in 447 BCE. During the Warring then as Jingchu . At the height of its A common Chu motif was the States Period, Chu was increasingly power, the Chu empire occupied vast depiction of snakes, dragons pressured by Qin to its west. Chu’s areas of land, including the present- and serpent-like beings. Some size and power made it the key state in day provinces of Hunan, Hubei, archaeologists speculate that Chu may alliances against Qin. As Qin expanded Chongqing, Henan, Shanghai, and have had cultural connections to the into Chu territory, Chu was forced to parts of Jiangsu. The Chu capital was vanished Shang dynasty, since many expand southwards and eastwards, at Ying , which was located in what is motifs used by Chu appeared earlier absorbing local cultural influences today Hubei province. at Shang sites, such as motifs depicting along the way. In 333 BCE, Chu and serpent-tailed gods. Qi partitioned and annexed the coastal The land of Jing was inhabited by the state of Yue. native Chu people. The early Chu Later Chu culture was known for its state was ruled by an aristocracy affinity for employing shamanistic By the late Warring States period with close affinity to the Zhou kings, rituals. Chu was also known for its (ca. late 300s BCE), however, Chu’s with its capital at Danyang. Prior to distinct music; archaeological evidence prominent status had fallen into decay. the dissolution of Zhou’s power, the shows that Chu music was annotated As a result of several invasions headed territory was transferred by authority differently from Zhou music; Chu by Zhao and Qin, Chu was eventually of the Zhoucheng Wang of Eastern music also showed an inclination for subjugated by Qin. Zhou to Xiong Yi. using different performance ensembles, In 278 BCE, Qin general Bai Qi tourism DestinAtion ProJects 30
  32. 32. as well as unique instruments; In Chu, the se was preferred over the qin, while both instruments were equally preferred in the northern Zhou states. Chu came into frequent contact with other people in the south, most notably the Ba, Yue and the Hundred Yue. Numerous burials and burial objects in the Ba and Yue styles were discovered throughout the territory of Chu, co- existing with Chu-style burials and burial objects. The early rulers of the Han Dynasty romanticized the culture of Chu, sparking a renewed interest in Chu cultural elements such as the Chu Ci. After the Han dynasty, Chu developed an undeserved reputation for being a barbarian state; Confucian scholars considered Chu culture with distaste, criticizing the “lewd” music and shamanistic rituals associated with Chu culture. Yangtze Culture The Yangtze river is important to the cultural origins of southern China. Human activity was found in the Three Gorges area as far back as 2 million years ago, initiating debate over the origin of the Chinese people.[3] In the Spring and Autumn Period, Ba and Shu were located in the western part of the river, covering modern Sichuan, Chongqing, and western Hubei; Chu was located in the central part of river, corresponding to Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, and southern Anhui. Wu and Yue were located in the eastern part of Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 31 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  33. 33. the river, now Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and from their capital at Nanjing, though Shanghai. Although the Yellow River it later moved capital to Beijing. The ROC capital was located in Nanjing in region was richer and more developed the periods 1911-1912, 1927-1937, 1945- at that time, the milder climate and 1949. more peaceful environment made the Yangtze river area more suitable for Famous people agriculture. Famed poet Qu Yuan hailed from From the Han Dynasty, the region of Chu. A government minister and a the Yangtze river became more and patriot, he had advocated uniting more important in China’s economy. with the other states to combat the The establishment of irrigation systems rising hegemon Qin, yet to no avail; (the most famous one is Dujiangyan, he was banished by the king of Chu. northwest of Chengdu, built during According to tradition, such was his the Warring States period) made grief upon learning of the Qin invasion, agriculture very stable and productive. reportedly committed suicide in the Early in the Qing dynasty, the region Miluo River. The Duanwu Festival called “Jiangnan” (that includes the honors his death for his country. southern part of Jiangsu, the northern part of Zhejiang, and the southeastern Warrior King Xiang Yu also known part of Anhui) provided 1/3-1/2 of the as “Overlord of Western Chu”, he nation’s revenues. destroyed every single Qin army and also was rival to Han Dynasty founder Historically, the Yangtze became the Liu Bang. He was fearsome in the political boundary between north battlefield but arrogance lead to his China and south China several times downfall. (see History of China) because of the difficulty of crossing the river. Many battles took place along the river, the most famous being the Battle of Red Cliffs in 208 AD during the Three Kingdoms period. Politically, Nanjing was the capital of China several times, although most of the time its territory only covered the southeastern part of China, such as the Wu kingdom in the Three Kingdoms period, the Eastern Jin Dynasty, and smaller countries in the Northern and Southern Dynasties and Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms periods. Only the Ming occupied most parts of China tourism DestinAtion ProJects 32
  34. 34. Jingzhou Tourism: the Development Strategy Identity In the world of tourism, location and message are important, and both require a concerted effort across the world of media, television, press and tourist operators. This challenge is translated as branding- putting a strong differential marker on the city so that it stands out from surrounding competition. Branding In branding (the creation of one image or multi images and graphics that convey the essence of the city) Jingzhou promotes itself as the Enjoyable City of Pure Water and Dynamic Culture. These two elements are not mutually exclusive, but form a ‘ying-yang’ that will appeal to the broadest spectrum of tourist market. The celebration of water and its importance to all aspects of life will appeal primarily to families, and it need not be too sophisticated, certainly in the first phases. At Xi’an, the outdoor show before the tour of the mausoleum is a relatively low budget presentation that is not historically accurate, but conveys a good sense of the costumes and customs of the past. Culture draws a more sophisticated and wealthier crowd, but fewer in numbers. Marketing and Promotion Hubei’s Jingzhou area offers the greatest short-term opportunity for creating increased tourism. Beyond Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 33 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  35. 35. Hubei province other inhabitants of China or foreign visitors may visit Jingzhou, either as a stop along a defined tourist path, or because the ‘critical mass’ of Jingzhou’s content, allied to marketing programs is successful enough to encourage a two- day visit. Jingzhou City: Master Plan Proposal City Opportunities As the city of Jingzhou metamorphoses it looks back in history to times when it was at the heart of politics and strategy, and ahead to the dynamic future represented by a vibrant China. As the inefficient or tired buildings are swept away there is the opportunity to create a living environment that is entirely unique. The master plan can either revert to a standard city layout, or it can represent something new and in keeping with the interconnectivity of modern life. As the requirements for large offices goes away, work can become pleasurable so the new city core reflects change in the urban manifestation. The probable replacement of large formal squares by more interesting neighborhood landscape pockets that better serve the local population should be couple to an adherence to green principles- the elements of the Eco City that are emerging in places like Dongtan and Chongming. tourism DestinAtion ProJects 34
  36. 36. Short Term- Mid Term -Long Evolving Master Plan primary tourist route. A thematic Term Developments transportation system will be provided The traditional Chinese grid has to the visitors at the gated entry where dictated the evolution of Jingzhou This emphasis on content is a strategy tickets are purchased. This could City, as with thousands of traditional so that the developer and Jingzhou can be in the form of human or bicycle Chinese layouts. While the grid works take advantage of the 2008 Olympic rickshaws, or horse drawn vehicles. well for vehicles, it is boring and of year. To achieve notable projects by Ideally the operators of the future less interest to pedestrians, giving 2008, our goal is to have a significant attractions will control traffic and away the potential in long views. The number of projects conceived, designed usage on portions of the perimeter long term planning concept is to break and produced by no later than the end roads. In certain points, such as the with the grid by introducing a new of this year. The larger capital projects double gates areas, or in the south east water canal system--comparable to that affect the Mid-Term (5 year Plan) (former prison) this perimeter road the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy-- over and Long Term (10 Year Plan) have a requires to move around the exterior the re-developed areas and districts. major component of architecture and of the destination leaving the Battle This would determine the location degree of difficulty. Some of these Theater with unhindered views to the of community and destination needs projects may take up to three years to wall. and would follow a hierarchy of bring to reality. The short-term projects piazzas, lanes, passages, courtyards start this process. The main road from Shaashi, and to the and ultimately larger gathering spaces city through the South, West and Large that include town square/ and public North Gates will continue to carry the Incentives park(s). traffic of the residents. This is until Jingzhou is considering the creation the impact of the master plan can be of Tourism Tax free economic zones, examined and calculated. District Concept similar to tax free industry zones Explanation located at Shenzen, and other places. By Content Development this concept all of Jingzhou City within Each district to be developed would versus Architecture the defined districts would become tax- rely on an interpretative density of free. This would encourage investors use. Thus the Entertainment District, Development of content, not with leisure project investment in mind the Technology District, the Historic architecture, is the initial ‘driver’ to to come into a synchronized plan that District, of the inner city focuses on the establish a tourism base at Jingzhou. would place their investment where key attributes of the citizen’s lifestyle. Entertainment is the recommended it was best thought it could thrive. Is it possible to incorporate new device by which culture is interpreted Waiving import duties for specialty ideas into a city that is very ancient. through the stories of the Chu, Three entertainment hardware is also under Lighthouse believes so, but change is Kingdoms and Yangtze River is consideration. required with considerable sensitivity. brought to the public. By content we mean storylines- that illustrate by Project income will be both pay at the New public/visitor many methods; theatrical, graphic, gate, and through group ticket sales. circulation system light, and sound the notion of dynasties Key to this is the transportation system as they refer to this region of Hubei. that moves paying visitors from one The perimeter road that circulates destination to the next. inside the walls will become the Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 35 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  37. 37. tourism DestinAtion ProJects 36
  38. 38. Jingzhou Tourism: New Attractions to Support the Vision 1 East Gate and Ancient Wall (A1) 2. Juilong Park (A2. A26) 3. Xiong Tombs (A12) 4. Lord Guan Battle Theater (A5) 5. Lord Guan Shrine Area (A11) 6. Museum including AV Theater (A6) 7. Three Kingdoms Dynasty Park (A3, A19, A28, A29) 8. High Speed Rail Tourism Center (A33, A34) 9. Famous People Hotel at city hall (A15) 10. Development of the banks of the City moat (A4, A21) 11. Yangtze Culture Longevity Park (A25) 12. Sanyi Historic District (A8) 13. Old North Gate (A41) (numbers in parentheses refer to Master Developer agreement)¡¡È·¶¨¹æ»®ÂÃÓÎÇøµÄ¦ÜÖºÍÁØÀû£¬Ìá³öÆÚ ÈÝÁ¿¡£ Define each functional district and the land usage in the planned destination, and propose a tourism capacity in the plan period Jingzhou: Ancient WAter city 37 © Lighthouse Creative Inc. 2007 All Rights Reserved
  39. 39. Attraction Locations: Ancient Walled City tourism DestinAtion ProJects 38