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  • Figure 32.3 Generalized structure of a simple epithelium.
  • Figure 32.4 Micrographs and drawings of three types of simple epithelia in vertebrates, with examples of their functions and locations.
  • Figure 32.4 Micrographs and drawings of three types of simple epithelia in vertebrates, with examples of their functions and locations.
  • Figure 32.4 Micrographs and drawings of three types of simple epithelia in vertebrates, with examples of their functions and locations.
  • Figure 32.4 Micrographs and drawings of three types of simple epithelia in vertebrates, with examples of their functions and locations.
  • Figure 32.4 Micrographs and drawings of three types of simple epithelia in vertebrates, with examples of their functions and locations.
  • Figure 32.5 Micrographs and drawings of connective tissues.
  • Figure 32.5 Micrographs and drawings of connective tissues.
  • Figure 32.5 Micrographs and drawings of connective tissues.
  • Figure 32.5 Micrographs and drawings of connective tissues.
  • Figure 32.5 Micrographs and drawings of connective tissues.
  • Figure 32.5 Micrographs and drawings of connective tissues.
  • Figure 32.6 Locations of cartilage and bone tissue. Spongy bone tissue has hard parts with spaces between. Compact bone tissue is more dense. The bone shown here is the femur, the largest and strongest bone in the human body.
  • Figure 32.7 Cellular components of human blood. Cells and cell fragments (platelets) drift along in plasma, the fluid portion of the blood. Plasma consists of water with dissolved proteins, salts, and nutrients.
  • Figure 32.11 ( a ) Main body cavities in humans. ( b , c ) Directional terms and planes of symmetry for the body. For vertebrates that keep their main body axis parallel with Earth’s surface, dorsal refers to the upper surface (back) and ventral to the lower surface. For upright walkers, anterior (the front) corresponds to ventral and posterior (the back) to dorsal.
  • Figure 32.11 ( a ) Main body cavities in humans. ( b , c ) Directional terms and planes of symmetry for the body. For vertebrates that keep their main body axis parallel with Earth’s surface, dorsal refers to the upper surface (back) and ventral to the lower surface. For upright walkers, anterior (the front) corresponds to ventral and posterior (the back) to dorsal.
  • Figure 32.11 ( a ) Main body cavities in humans. ( b , c ) Directional terms and planes of symmetry for the body. For vertebrates that keep their main body axis parallel with Earth’s surface, dorsal refers to the upper surface (back) and ventral to the lower surface. For upright walkers, anterior (the front) corresponds to ventral and posterior (the back) to dorsal.
  • Figure 32.12 H uman organ systems and their functions.
  • Figure 32.12 H uman organ systems and their functions.
  • Figure 32.13 ( a ) Skin structure. ( b ) Section through human skin. ( c ) Structure of a hair. It arises from a hair follicle derived from epidermal cells that have sunk into the dermis. Figure It Out: How many polypeptide chains are in a keratin macrofibril? Answer: Three
  • Figure 32.13 ( a ) Skin structure. ( b ) Section through human skin. ( c ) Structure of a hair. It arises from a hair follicle derived from epidermal cells that have sunk into the dermis. Figure It Out: How many polypeptide chains are in a keratin macrofibril? Answer: Three
  • Figure 32.13 ( a ) Skin structure. ( b ) Section through human skin. ( c ) Structure of a hair. It arises from a hair follicle derived from epidermal cells that have sunk into the dermis. Figure It Out: How many polypeptide chains are in a keratin macrofibril? Answer: Three
  • Figure 32.14 Skin of a frog ( Dendrobates azureus ). The dermis contains epidermally derived glands that secrete mucus and poison. Pigment cells in the dermis give the frog its distinctive color and warn predators that it is poisonous.
  • Figure 32.14 Skin of a frog ( Dendrobates azureus ). The dermis contains epidermally derived glands that secrete mucus and poison. Pigment cells in the dermis give the frog its distinctive color and warn predators that it is poisonous.
  • animal tissues

    1. 1. Animal Tissuesand Organ Systems Chapter 32
    2. 2. Impacts, IssuesOpen or Close the Stem Cell Factories? Only embryonic stem cells can differentiate into any specialized cell in the body; engineered stem cells are not yet safe for humans
    3. 3. Homeostasis in Animals Body parts must interact to perform many tasks • Coordinate and control individual parts • Acquire and distribute raw materials to cells and dispose of wastes • Protect tissues against injury or attack • Reproduce, nourish and protect offspring through early growth and development • Maintain the internal environment (homeostasis)
    4. 4. 32.1 Organization of Animal Bodies Tissue • Interacting cells and extracellular substances that carry out one or more specialized tasks Organ • Structural unit of two or more tissues organized in a specific way to carry out specific tasks Organ systems • Two or more organs and other components interacting in a common task
    5. 5. Animal Cells are United by Cell Junctions Tight junctions • Prevent fluid from seeping between epithelial cells; fluid must pass through cells Adhering junctions • Hold cells together at distinct spots Gap junctions • Permit ions and small molecules to pass from cytoplasm of one cell to another
    6. 6. 32.1 Key ConceptsAnimal Organization All animals are multicelled, with cells joined by cell junctions Typically, cells are organized in four tissue types: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue Organs, which consist of a combination of tissues, interact in organ systems
    7. 7. 32.2 Epithelial Tissue Epithelium (epithelial tissue) • A sheet of cells that covers the body’s outer surface and lines its internal ducts and cavities Basement membrane • A secreted extracellular matrix that attaches the epithelium to the underlying tissue Microvilli • Fingerlike projections of absorptive epithelia
    8. 8. General Structure of Simple Epithelium
    9. 9. free surface of asimple epitheliumbasement membrane(material secreted byepithelial cells) underlying connective tissue Fig. 32-3, p. 541
    10. 10. Describing Epithelial Tissues Thickness • Simple epithelium: One cell thick • Stratified epithelium: More than one cell thick Cell shape • Squamous: Flattened • Cuboidal: Cube-shaped • Columnar: Tall
    11. 11. Types of Epithelial Tissues
    12. 12. Simple squamous epithelium• Lines blood vessels, the heart, and air sacs of lungs• Allows substances to cross by diffusion Fig. 32-4a, p. 541
    13. 13. Fig. 32-4b, p. 541
    14. 14. Simple cuboidal epithelium• Lines kidney tubules, ducts of some glands, oviducts• Functions in absorption an secretion, movement of materials Fig. 32-4b, p. 541
    15. 15. Fig. 32-4c, p. 541
    16. 16. Simple columnar epithelium mucus-secreting gland cell• Lines some airways, parts of the gut• Functions in absorption and secretion, protection Fig. 32-4c, p. 541
    17. 17. Glandular Epithelium Glands • Organs that release substances onto the skin, or into a body cavity or interstitial fluid Exocrine glands (glands with ducts) • Deliver secretions to an external or internal surface (saliva, milk, earwax, digestive enzymes) Endocrine glands (no ducts) • Secrete hormones which are carried in blood
    18. 18. 32.3 Connective Tissues Connective tissues consist of cells and the extracellular matrix they secrete Connective tissues connect body parts and provide structural and functional support to other body tissues
    19. 19. Soft Connective Tissues Loose connective tissue • Fibroblasts secrete a matrix of complex carbohydrates with fibers dispersed widely through the matrix Dense connective tissue (dense collagen fibers) • Dense irregular: Supports skin, internal organs • Dense regular: Ligaments and tendons
    20. 20. Specialized Connective Tissues Cartilage: Rubbery extracellular matrix, supports and cushions bones Adipose tissue: Fat filled cells, stores energy, cushions and protect organs Bone: Rigid support, muscle attachment, protection, mineral storage, blood production
    21. 21. Connective Tissues
    22. 22. Connective Tissues
    23. 23. Fig. 32-5a, p. 542
    24. 24. Fig. 32-5b, p. 542
    25. 25. Fig. 32-5c, p. 542
    26. 26. Fig. 32-5d, p. 542
    27. 27. Fig. 32-5e, p. 543
    28. 28. Fig. 32-5f, p. 543
    29. 29. Cartilage and Bone Tissue
    30. 30. cartilage at theend of long bone compact bone tissue spongy bone tissue Fig. 32-6, p. 543
    31. 31. A Fluid Connective Tissue Blood: Plasma, blood cells and platelets
    32. 32. whitebloodcellredbloodcellplatelet Fig. 32-7, p. 543
    33. 33. 32.4 Muscle Tissues Muscle tissue is made up of cells that contract when stimulated, requires ATP energy
    34. 34. Three Types of Muscle Tissues Skeletal muscle tissue • Moves the skeleton (voluntary) • Long, striated cells with many nuclei Cardiac muscle tissue • Heart muscle (involuntary) • Striated cells with single nuclei Smooth muscle tissue • In walls of hollow organs (involuntary) • No striations, single nuclei
    35. 35. 32.5 Nervous Tissue Nervous tissue • Consists of specialized signaling cells (neurons) and cells that support them (neuroglial cells) Nervous tissue detects internal and external stimuli, and coordinates responses to stimuli
    36. 36. Neurons Neurons • Excitable cells with long cytoplasmic extensions • Send and receive electrochemical signals Three types of neurons • Sensory neurons are excited by specific stimuli • Interneurons integrate sensory information • Motor neurons relay commands from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands
    37. 37. A Motor Neuron
    38. 38. Coordination of Nervous Tissueand Skeletal Muscle
    39. 39. 32.2-32.5 Key ConceptsTypes of Animal Tissues Epithelial tissue covers the body’s surface and lines its internal tubes Connective tissue provides support and connects body parts Muscle tissue moves the body and its parts Nervous tissue detects internal and external stimuli and coordinates responses
    40. 40. 32.6 Overview of Major Organ Systems In vertebrates, organs arise from three embryonic germ layers • Ectoderm (outermost layer) forms nervous tissue and epithelium of skin • Mesoderm (middle layer) forms muscle, connective tissue, and lining of body cavities • Endoderm (innermost layer) forms epithelium of gut and lungs
    41. 41. Body Cavities and Directional Terms
    42. 42. Body Cavities and Directional Terms
    43. 43. Body Cavities and Directional Terms
    44. 44. cranial cavityspinal cavitythoracic cavitydiaphragmabdominal cavitypelvic cavity Fig. 32-11a, p. 546
    45. 45. Dorsal Surface transverse midsagittalANTERIOR POSTERIOR frontal Ventral Surface Fig. 32-11b, p. 546
    46. 46. SUPERIOR (of two body parts, distal (farthest from the one closer to head) trunk or from origin of a body part)frontalplane midsagittal proximal (closest plane to trunk or to(aqua) (green) point of origin of a body part)ANTERIOR(at or nearfront of POSTERIORbody) (at or near back of body) transverse plane INFERIOR (yellow) (of two body parts, the one farthest from head) Fig. 32-11c, p. 546
    47. 47. Animation: Human body cavities
    48. 48. Animation: Directional terms and planesof symmetry
    49. 49. Eleven Vertebrate Organ Systems
    50. 50. Eleven Vertebrate Organ Systems
    51. 51. Integumentary Nervous Muscular Skeletal Circulatory Endocrine System System System System System SystemProtects body Detects external Moves body Supports and Rapidly Hormonallyfrom injury, and internal and its internal protects body transports controls bodydehydration, and stimuli; controls parts; parts; provides many materials functioning;some pathogens; and coordinates maintains muscle to and from with nervouscontrols its responses to posture; attachment interstitial fluid systemtemperature; stimuli; generates heat sites; produces and cells; helps integrates short-excretes certain integrates all by increases red blood cells; stabilize and long-termwastes; receives organ system in metabolic stores calcium, internal pH and activities. (Malesome external activities. activity. phosphorus. temperature. testes added.)stimuli. Fig. 32-12a, p. 547
    52. 52. Lymphatic System Respiratory System Digestive System Urinary System Reproductive SystemCollects and Rapidly delivers Ingests food and Maintains the Female: Produces eggs;returns some oxygen to the water; volume and after fertilization, affordstissue fluid to tissue fluid that mechanically, composition a protected, nutritivethe bloodstream; bathes all living chemically breaks of internal environment for thedefends the body cells; removes down food and environment; development of newagainst infection carbon dioxide absorbs small excretes excess individuals. Male:and tissue wastes of cells; molecules into fluid and Produces and transfersdamage. helps regulate internal bloodborne sperm to the female. pH. environment; wastes. Hormones of both eliminates food systems also influence residues. other organ systems. Fig. 32-12b, p. 547
    53. 53. Animation: Human organ systems
    54. 54. 32.6 Key ConceptsOrgan Systems Vertebrate organ systems compartmentalize the tasks of survival and reproduction for the body as a whole Different systems arise from ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, the primary tissue layers that form in the early embryo
    55. 55. 32.7 Vertebrate Skin—Example of an Organ System Skin is the body’s interface with the environment • Sensory receptors, barrier against pathogens, internal temperature control, water conservation Vertebrate skin is made up of all four tissue types arranged in two layers: • Outer epidermis contain keratinocytes • Deeper dermis contains nerves, blood and lymph vessels, hair follicles and glands
    56. 56. Skin Structure
    57. 57. Skin Structure
    58. 58. Skin Structure
    59. 59. hair epidermis dermishypodermis sensory oil gland neuron hair follicle sweat gland blood vessels smooth muscle Fig. 32-13a, p. 548
    60. 60. outerflattenedepidermalcellscellsbeingflatteneddividingcellsdermis Fig. 32-13b, p. 548
    61. 61. hair’s cuticle one hair cell keratin polypeptidekeratin chainmacrofibril Fig. 32-13c, p. 548
    62. 62. Animation: Structure of human skin
    63. 63. Animation: Hair fine structure
    64. 64. Frog Skin Amphibians may have glands that secrete mucus, distasteful chemicals, or poisons • Pigmented cells in dermis warn predators
    65. 65. Fig. 32-14b, p. 549
    66. 66. mucous gland poison gland pigmented cell Fig. 32-14b, p. 549
    67. 67. Sunlight and Human Skin Melanocytes in skin make a brown pigment (melanin) which affects skin color and tanning Melanin protects against UV radiation • A little UV promotes vitamin D production • A lot of UV damages DNA and promotes cancer
    68. 68. 32.8 Farming Skin Commercially grown skin substitutes are already in use for treatment of chronic wounds Skin may be a source of stem cells that could be used to grow other organs
    69. 69. 32.7-32.8 Key ConceptsA Closer Look at Skin Skin is an example of an organ system It includes epithelial layers, connective tissue, adipose tissue, glands, blood vessels, and sensory receptors It helps protect the body, conserve water, control temperature, excrete wastes, and detect external stimuli
    70. 70. Animation: Altering hair structure
    71. 71. Animation: Cell junctions
    72. 72. Animation: Functional zones of a motorneuron
    73. 73. Animation: Muscle tissues
    74. 74. Animation: Organization of animal cells
    75. 75. Animation: Soft connective tissues
    76. 76. Animation: Specialized connectivetissues
    77. 77. Animation: Structure of an epithelium
    78. 78. Animation: Types of simple epithelium
    79. 79. ABC video: A Saving Graft
    80. 80. ABC video: New Hands
    81. 81. Video: Stem Cells

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