Classification of Port & Harbour
13011A0111 - 13011A0120
➢Types of ports and habours
➢Differences between Harbour and Port
Definition of port :
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing
one or more harbours where ships can dock and
transfer people or cargo to or from land.
A port is a place on the coast that facilitates
loading and unloading cargo. A port is usually located
inside a harbour.
Definition of harbour:
A sheltered area of the sea in which vessels
could be launched, built or taken for repair; or could
seek refuge in time of storm; or provide for loading
and unloading of cargo and passengers.
A harbour is a place that is situated on the coast
where ships, boats, barges, etc. can be moored
safely. The word harbour is derived from the Old
English word “herebeorg” meaning shelter or refuge.
In American English, this is spelt as ‘harbor.’
Types of ports
• Cruise home port
• Port of call
• Cargo port
• An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river
or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which
therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean
inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.
St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel
from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand
kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Duluth-
Superior and Chicago.
• It is a port for landing and distributing fish. It
may be a recreational facility, but it is usually
• It is the only port that depends on an ocean
product, and depletion of fish may cause a
fishing port to be uneconomical.
• In recent decades, regulations to save fishing
stock may limit the use of a fishing port,
perhaps effectively closing it.
• A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal
directly connected by road or rail to a seaport
and operating as a centre for
the transshipment of sea cargo to inland
• A warm-water port is one where the water
does not freeze in wintertime as they are
• warm-water ports can be of great geopolitical
or economic interest.
Dalian in China, Vostochny Port,
Murmansk and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in
Russia, Odessa in Ukraine,Kushiro in Japan.
• A seaport is further categorized as a "cruise
port" or a "cargo port". Additionally, "cruise
ports" are also known as a "home port" or a
"port of call". The "cargo port" is also further
categorized into a "bulk" or "break bulk port"
or as a "container port".
Cruise home port
• A cruise home port is the port where cruise-ship passengers
board to start their cruise and disembark the cruise ship at
the end of their cruise.
• It is also where the cruise ship's supplies are loaded for the
cruise, which includes everything from fresh water and fuel
to fruits, vegetables and any other supplies needed for the
• "Cruise home ports" are a very busy place during the day the
cruise ship is in port, because off-going passengers debark
their baggage and on-coming passengers board the ship in
addition to all the supplies being loaded.
• Currently, the Cruise Capital of the World is the Port of
Miami, Florida, closely followed behind by Port Everglades,
Florida and the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Port of call
• A port of call is an intermediate stop for a ship
on its sailing itinerary. At these ports, cargo
ships may take on supplies or fuel, as well as
unloading and loading cargo while cruise
liners have passengers get on or off ship.
• Cargo ports handles very different cargo, which has to be
loaded and unloaded by very different mechanical
• The port may handle one particular type of cargo or it
may handle numerous cargoes, such as grains, liquid
fuels, liquid chemicals, wood, automobiles, etc. Such
ports are known as the "bulk" or "break bulk ports".
• Those ports that handle containerized cargo are known
as container ports. Most cargo ports handle all sorts of
cargo, but some ports are very specific as to what cargo
• Additionally, the individual cargo ports are divided into
different operating terminals which handle the different
cargoes, and are operated by different companies, also
known as terminal operators or stevedores.
• Natural formations affording safe discharge facilities for
ships on sea coasts, in the form of creeks and basins, are
called natural harbours.
• With the rapid development of navies engaged either in
commerce or war, improved accommodation and facilities
for repairs, storage of cargo and connected amenities had
to be provided in natural harbours.
• The size and draft of present day vessels have necessitated
the works improvement for natural harbours.
• The factors such as local geographical features, growth of
population, development of the area, etc. have made the
natural harbours big and attractive. Bombay and Kandla
are, examples of natural harbours
• This type of harbour is protected on sides by
headlands protection and it requires man-
made protection only at the entrance.
• Vishakhapatnam is a semi-natural harbour.
• Where such natural facilities are not available,
countries having a seaboard had to create or
construct such shelters making use of
engineering skill and methods, and such
harbours are called artificial or man-made
• Madras is an artificial harbour
Difference Between Harbour and Port
Definition of Harbour and Port
Harbour: Harbour is a place on the coast where ships,
boats and barges can seek shelter from a stormy
Port: Port is a location on the coast that can be used to
load and unload cargo.
Port: A port is located inside a harbour.
Harbour: A harbour cannot be located inside a port.
Harbour: The purpose of a harbour is to provide
shelter from the weather conditions.
Port: The purpose of a port is to load and unload
Harbour: A harbour is usually a natural structure.
Port: Ports are generally artificially created.
Port: Ports are commercial entities and often have
many facilities like warehouses to store cargo and
well-built transportation systems.
Harbour: Harbours do not provide as many facilities
• Visakhapatnam port is one of the leading major
ports of India it is situated in Visakhapatnam city
of Andhra Pradesh. The Port is located on the
east coast of India.
• The Port has three harbours viz., outer harbour,
inner harbour and the fishing harbour. The outer
harbour with a water spread of 200 hectares has
6 berths and the inner harbour with a water
spread of 100 hectares has 8 berths.
• Visakhapatnam was an ancient Port city which
had trade relations with the Middle East and
Rome. Ships were anchored at open roads and
were loaded with cargo transported from
Visakhapatnam shore by means of small Masula
• It has become a settlement of a branch of East
India Company in 1682. Rs. 83 lakh worth of
goods were moved through Vizagapatam /
Bhimunipatnam in 1882-83.
• Principal commodities traded at anchorage Port
included Muslin cloth - manufactured at Uppada
(East Godavari District), Manganese ore - exports
to UK and USA, Oilseeds, jaggery, jute and indigo,
hides and skins. Extensive trade relations existed
Construction Features of Port
• The unique feature of the harbour has been the
Island Break-water, constructed by scuttling two
old ships JANUS and WELLESDON which form the
skeleton around which a rubble mound is formed.
• The location of the port is very ideal in the sense
that it affords protection from cyclones which
strike the east coast regularly, by a high
promontory into the sea, known as Dolphin’s
Nose Hill which is to the north of the entrance
• The low tidal range of a maximum of 1.82
meters is also advantageous for the location of
• The harbour was constructed by dredging
281.8million cubic ft of land and soft material.
• The Port was constructed at a cost of Rs.378
1) Coking Coal facilities
• A deep draft berth in outer harbour with a quay
Length of 356 meters to handle vessels of draft
upto 14.5 meters is available for handling
imported coking coal. The berth is capable of
handling 10000 DWT vessels. 2 floating cranes
viz., Bulk Express.
2) Iron Ore & Pellets
• Functioning of the Mechanical ore handling
plant known as ore handling complex comprises
of the receiving system and the shipping system.
• The ore received through wagons is tippled and
conveyed to the stacker for stacking in the
3) Shipping system
• The shipping system reclaims the cargo from the
stacks and conveys through the conveyors to the
shiploader for loading into the ships’ hatches.
The system consists of 3 bucket wheel reclaimers
4000 tonnes per hour capacity, a long overhead
conveyor system (4.8 kms – one way).
• Railway network at Port of Visakhapatnam is the
largestamongst Indian Ports with over 200km rail
• A Road running within the Port land was
commonly being used historically over a long
period by the Port Cargo Traffic and the City
public between Port area up to NH-5.
• Major drains originating from the upper reaches
of the city are discharging the drainage water at
different locations into the Port area before they
finally discharge into sea. These reaches of drains
in Port area are being maintained regularly by
Visakhapatnam Port to ensure free flow of water
and to keep clean environment of harbour
• An annual expenditure of about 70.00 Lakhs is
being incurred for maintenance of drains, and
Awards & Achievements
• The only Indian port to have three international
– ISO 900-Quality Management System.
– ISO 14001-Environmental Management System.
– OHSAS 18001-Occupational Health and Safety
• GREENTECH SAFETY AWARD in service sector for
outstanding achievement in Safety management
Silver - 2008,2010