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# Barcode presentation 2013

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A basic idiots guide to Barcodes provided by a company who have been supplying barcode labels for 25+ years and as a way to help others when they have to order bar code labels and do not know the jargon being used.

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### Barcode presentation 2013

1. 1. Barcode Presentation
2. 2. Mr Woodland and Silver, who were teaching at Drexel University in Philadelphia, b work that led to the bar code after the head of a supermarket chain asked for help a better way to keep track of inventory. A former Boy Scout, Woodland wondered Code could be used to track inventory, and began drawing lines of different thickn sand during a visit to Miami in 1948. The code that eventually emerged is now kno Universal Product Code, and Woodland won the National Medal of Technology in LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY Joseph Norman Woodland
4. 4. What is a Barcode? A barcode is an optical machine readable representation of data, which shows data about the object to which it attaches. Originally barcodes represented data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines, and therefore were referred to as linear or one-dimensional (1D). Later they evolved into rectangles, dots,hexagons and other geometric patterns in two dimensions (2D).
5. 5. So how does it work ? A barcode reader uses a photo sensor to convert the barcode into an electrical signal as it moves across a barcode. The scanner then measures the relative widths of the bars and spaces, translates the different patterns back into regular characters, and sends them on to a computer or portable terminal. Every barcode begins with a special start character and ends with a special stop character. These codes help the reader detect the barcode and figure out whether it is being scanned forward or backward. Some barcodes may include a checksum character just before the stop character. A checksum is calculated when the barcode is printed using the characters in the barcode. The reader performs the same calculation and compares its answer to the checksum it reads at the end of the barcode. If the two don't match, the reader assumes that something is wrong, throws out the data, and tries again. A Barcode is simply machine readable language. The barcode is a set of lines and spaces that represents a set of characters. These characters can be alphabetic or numeric depending on the type of barcode used. Below are some individual letters and characters.
6. 6. Elements of the Barcode X dimension: The width of the narrowest bar or space is referred to as the X dimension, usually given in mils (thousandths of an inch). The X dimension dictates the width of all other bars and spaces, and ultimately the length of the bar code. Left & Right Light Margins (Quiet Zones): These are the areas before and after a code that must be left clear to enable the scanner to correctly read the barcode, it has a direct relationship to the “X dimension”, the wider the X dimension the wider the left/right light margin requirement. Barcode Symbology Density: This is the rate of information that can be stored in the barcodes, a Code 128 barcode has a higher symbology density than a Code39 or Codabar barcode. Human Readable: The data represented by the bars and spaces printed as text for people to read. ALWAYS - Remember that the data contained in the eye readable may not reflect the data contained with the barcode itself – ALWAYS SCAN TO CHECK – NEVER ASSUME!!!!!! Barcode Ratio: This is the ratio of wide to narrow elements and helps to configure the width of the final code, the bigger the ratio the wider the final barcode. – NEVER AMEND THE RATIO WITHIN SOFTWARE – THIS CAUSES ERROR READS.
7. 7. A barcode that encodes data only in one dimension. Data is encoded in the widths of the bars and spaces and no data is encoded in the lengths of the bars. The EAN or UPC barcode symbology found on many retail products is a common linear barcode that you may be familiar with. 2Dimensional Barcode The need for ever increasing amounts of information in smaller spaces has lead to more compact and higher data density symbologies found in two-dimensional or stacked barcodes. A two-dimensional symbology is either: ”matrixed “ as in the data matrix code "stacked” as in the PDF417 code. Each type allows more information to be stored in a smaller amount of space. Linear Barcode Barcode Styles
8. 8. EAN 13 & EAN 8 European Article Numbering international retail product code EAN-13 or EAN-8 are two different versions of EAN bar codes, which can encode 13 and 8 digit numbers. The EAN-8 code was introduced for use on small packages where an EAN-13 barcode would be too large. All other countries aside from the United States utilize the EAN bar code for identification on retail goods. USA use the UPC code for the same purposes, but this is only 12 digits long. Linear Barcode EAN-13 EAN-8
9. 9. Code 39 A General purpose code in very wide use world-wide. The Code39 character set includes the digits 0-9, the letters A-Z (upper case only), and the following symbols: space, minus (-), plus (+), period (.), dollar sign (\$), slash (/), and percent (%). A special start/stop character is placed at the beginning and end of each barcode. (also known as "USS Code 39", "Code 3/9", "Code 3 of 9", "USD-3", "Alpha39", "Type 39", "Code 93”) The code itself does not carry a check digit like the the Code 128 barcode and can often be identified by an asterix at the start and end of the eye readable. The barcode may be of any length, although more than 25 characters really begins to push the bounds. It has a lower character density than the Code128 making it rather a wide code in comparison. This code is steadily being replaced in many of it uses by the Code 128 barcode which has better capabilities and a higher character density. Linear Barcode
10. 10. Code 128 Very capable code, excellent density, high reliability; in very wide use world-wide The Code128 provides excellent density for all-numeric data and good density for alphanumeric data. It is often selected over Code 39 in new applications because of its symbology density and because it offers a much larger selection of characters. The Code 128 character set includes the digits 0-9, the letters A-Z (upper and lower case), and all standard ASCII symbols and control codes. The codes are divided into three subsets A, B, and C. There are three separate start codes to indicate which subset will be used; in addition, each subset includes control characters to switch to another subset in the middle of a barcode. Subset A includes the standard ASCII symbols, digits, upper case letters, and control codes. Subset B includes standard ASCII symbols, digits, upper and lower case letters. Subset C compresses two numeric digits into each character, providing excellent density. A Code 128 barcode will have six sections: Quiet Zone - Start Character - Encoded Data - Check Character - Stop Character - Quiet Zone It has a medium to high character density making it widely used within the NHS, Records Management, and Asset tracking markets. This code is the most commonly used by AC Labels and is used by many of our customers that once used Code39 barcodes. Linear Barcode
11. 11. Interleaved 2 of 5 Compact numeric code, widely used in industry, air cargo The Interleaved 2 of 5 is a code that ONLY encodes the ten digits 0 through 9. The name Interleaved 2 of 5 is derived from the method used to encode two characters. The "Interleaved" part of the name comes from the fact that a digit is encoded in the bars and the next digit is encoded in the spaces. The encoded digits are merged together or "Interleaved”. The Interleaved 2 of 5 code can only carry numbers and due to its construction on interleaving it can only carry an even number of digits. Linear Barcode
12. 12. Codabar Older code often used in library systems, sometimes in blood banks The Codabar can encode the digits 0 through 9, six symbols (-:.\$/+), and the start/stop characters A, B, C, D. The start/stop characters must be used in pairs and may not appear elsewhere in the barcode. Codabar is used in libraries, blood banks, the overnight package delivery industry, and a variety of other information processing applications. There is no checksum defined as part of the Codabar standard, but some industries (libraries, for example) have adopted their own checksum standards. This Code can only be used to carry Numeric data and a few special characters, and can only be used in conjunction with smaller Modulus algorithms where the check digits can only be a numeric value of 0-9. This code is slowly being used less and less but is still prevalent within the NHS blood bank and haematology department labelling. Linear Barcode
13. 13. PDF 417 Excellent for encoding large amounts of data The PDF417 is a two-dimensional barcode which can store up to about 1,800 printable ASCII characters or 1,100 binary characters per symbol. Every codeword contains four bars and four spaces (where the 4 in the name comes from). The total width of a codeword is 17 times the width of the narrowest allowed vertical bar (the X dimension). This is where the 17 in the name comes from The symbol is rectangular; the shape of the symbol can be adjusted to some extent by setting the width and allowing the height to grow with the data. The capacity of PDF-417 can be helpful in applications where the data must travel with the labelled item, where a host database is not always available for quick look-up. Uses: Hazardous materials labeling, storing technical specifications and calibration data on electronic instruments; encoding fingerprints and photographs on the backs of US drivers' licenses. Please Note: PDF-417 symbols require a 2-D scanner; or a standard CCD (Charge Coupled Device) or laser scanner and will also require special decoding software, a normal wand scanner will not work. 2Dimensional Barcode “Stacked”
14. 14. 2D Barcode / Data Matrix Dot-Matrix / Data Matrix Can hold large amounts of data, especially suited for making very small codes 2Dimensional Barcode The 2D Barcode / Data Matrix is a two-dimensional barcode which can store from 1 to about 2,000 characters. The symbol is square and can range from 0.001 inch per side up to 14 inches per side. Uses: Data Matrix is being used to encode product and serial number information on electrical rating plates; to mark surgical instruments in Japan; to identify lenses, circuit boards, and other items during manufacturing. The main sectors for use are for track and trace, anti-counterfeit, and banking solutions Dot Matrix symbols require a 2-D scanner; they cannot be read using an ordinary linear barcode scanner. A number of scanners are on the market using both laser and CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera technologies.
15. 15. QR Barcode (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode first designed for the automotive industry in Japan. Can hold large amounts of data, especially suited for making very small codes 2Dimensional Barcode Recently, the QR Code system has become popular outside the automotive industry due to its fast readability and greater storage capacity compared to standard linear codes. The code consists of black modules (square dots) arranged in a square grid on a white background. Uses: Particularly used in promotional marketing and website linkages. In June 2011, the Royal Dutch Mint issued the world's first official coin with a QR code to celebrate the centennial of its current building and premises. The coin was able to be scanned by a smartphone and link to a special website with contents about the historical event and design of the coin. This was the first time a QR code was used on currency.
16. 16. Check Digits A check digit is simply the result of a calculation made from the data within in a barcode. Examples: ADSR7 / Mod 10 / Mod11 / Mod16 / Mod23 / Mod26 Standard Modulus Check Digits 1. The checksum is a Modulo 10 calculation: 2. Add the values of the digits in the odd-numbered positions: 1, 3, 5, 7 etc. 3. Multiply this result by 3. 4. Add the values of the digits in the even-numbered positions: 1, 4, 6, etc. Sum the results 5. The check character is the smallest number which, when added to the result in step 4, produces a multiple of 10. Example: Assume the barcode data = 5463789 (odd positions) = 5 + 6 + 7 + 9 = 27 27 * 3 = 81 (even positions) = 4 + 3 + 8 = 15 81 + 15 = 96 96 + 4 = 100 (nearest equal or higher multiple of 10) therefore X = 4 (checksum)
17. 17. ACCEPTABLE NON ACCEPTABLE Always Ensure that coloured barcodes and backgrounds meet requirement for scanning acceptability.
18. 18. Benefits of Barcoding • Represent unique identity of a product. • Accuracy of data input. (Error free) • Aid effective management of resources • Saves labour By avoiding manual inputting system. • Real time data collection. • More accurate despatch.
19. 19. Applications of Barcode • HOSPITALS: Barcodes can allow for the organization of large amounts of data. They are widely used in the healthcare and hospital settings, ranging from patient identification (to access patient data, including medical history, drug allergies, etc.) to medication management. • RETAIL: Speeding up checkouts and ordering. • OFFICE: Recording transactions. • HEALTH: Ensuring correct dosage and treatment. • TRAVEL: Making ticketing more efficient, ensuring safety and speedier check in. • LIBRARIES: Logging borrowers and books
20. 20. Thank you for viewing this presentation and please feel free to call us if you need any further advice or information AC Labels Ltd Unit 14 Parker Center, Mansfiled Road, Derby, DE21 4SZ Tel: +44 (0) 1332 890602 email: enquiries@aclabels.co.uk