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JADCO Nutrition Guide

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A Nutrition Guide for Jamaican athletes.

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JADCO Nutrition Guide

  1. 1. Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes A diet and hydration intake guide for Jamaican athletes with a focus on Jamaican food “Supported by the CHASE Fund”
  2. 2. I Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Acknowledgements “The Jamaica Anti-Doping Commission wishes to express its gratitude to Dr. Christine Fray-Aiken for her work in authoring this guide. Mention must also be made of the contribution of the Scientific Research Council who provided technical and literary support.”
  3. 3. II Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Table of Contents Introduction....................................................................................................................................1 Benefits of Eating Well...................................................................................................................2 Part 1: Nutrition Goals and Eating Strategies..............................................................................4 General Principles........................................................................................................................................................ 4 Energy Availability, Energy Balance, Body Mass and Body Composition...................................................................................................................................................... 5 Energy Availability.................................................................................................................................................. 5 Energy Balance........................................................................................................................................................ 5 Body Mass................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Body Composition.................................................................................................................................................. 7 Carbohydrates for Training......................................................................................................................................8 Protein Needs for Training........................................................................................................................................ 9 Fat....................................................................................................................................................................................11 Hydration......................................................................................................................................................................12 Vitamins, Minerals and Antioxidants for Training and Staying Healthy..........................................................................................................................................................13 Iron.............................................................................................................................................................................14 Vitamin D.................................................................................................................................................................14 Calcium.....................................................................................................................................................................14 Vitamins A, C and E: Antioxidants...................................................................................................................14 Part 2: The Role of Dietary Supplements in Health and Sports Performance.................................................................................................................................16 Protein Supplementation.......................................................................................................................................17 Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAA)................................................................................................................18 Glucosamine and/or Chondroitin Sulphate.....................................................................................................18 Caffeine.........................................................................................................................................................................18 Supplements That Show Some Potential.........................................................................................................19
  4. 4. III Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Creatine.........................................................................................................................................................................19 Beta-alanine and Sodium bicarbonate.........................................................................................................20 Beetroot juice.........................................................................................................................................................21 Final Word on Supplements..................................................................................................................................21 Part 3: Nutrition Guidelines for Special Populations.............................................................22 Young Athletes...........................................................................................................................................................22 Female Athletes.........................................................................................................................................................23 Male Athletes..............................................................................................................................................................23 Vegetarian Athlete....................................................................................................................................................23 Part 4: Recommendations for Consumption Before, During, and After Training and Competition...........................................................................................26 Pre-event Eating........................................................................................................................................................27 During-exercise Eating............................................................................................................................................27 Post-exercise Eating..................................................................................................................................................28 Guidelines for Hydration.........................................................................................................................................29 Pre-event Hydration............................................................................................................................................29 During-exercise Hydration................................................................................................................................29 Post-exercise Hydration.....................................................................................................................................29 Part 5: Event Specific Nutrition...................................................................................................30 Track and Field............................................................................................................................................................30 Football.........................................................................................................................................................................31 Netball...........................................................................................................................................................................31 Cricket............................................................................................................................................................................31 Swimming....................................................................................................................................................................33 Boxing............................................................................................................................................................................34 Sample Training Menu.............................................................................................................................................34
  5. 5. IV Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Breakfast..................................................................................................................................................................34 Morning Snack.......................................................................................................................................................34 Lunch........................................................................................................................................................................34 Afternoon Snack...................................................................................................................................................35 Dinner.......................................................................................................................................................................35 Bedtime Snack.......................................................................................................................................................35 Best Choices for Breakfast Meal...........................................................................................................................35 Best Choices for Lunch or Dinner Meals............................................................................................................35 Foods to Avoid............................................................................................................................................................36 Part 6: Recommended Eating Strategies................................................................................37 Practical Solutions to Achieving Nutrition Goals...........................................................................................37 Eating Strategies for the Travelling Athlete.....................................................................................................37 Environmental Challenges.....................................................................................................................................37 Altitude.....................................................................................................................................................................37 Hot Environments................................................................................................................................................38 Cold Environments...............................................................................................................................................38 Cultural and Regional Issues.................................................................................................................................39 Impact of Jamaican Food on the Athlete..........................................................................................................39 Weight Management Issues..................................................................................................................................40 Obesity and Overweight....................................................................................................................................40 Eating Disorders....................................................................................................................................................41 The Female Athlete Triad...................................................................................................................................42 References....................................................................................................................................44 Bibliography................................................................................................................................46
  6. 6. 1 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Introduction It cannot be disputed that nutrition is important in athletic performance and recovery from exercise. Despite this, sports nutrition only emerged as a field in the 1980s and this was described as a relatively late development considering the role that nutrition plays in enhancing talent and training for optimal performance at any sport. The question could be asked do most Jamaican athletes along with their coaches work with a sports nutritionist or sports dietitian. This emphasises the need for this nutrition guide for Jamaican athletes. Athletes have always gotten some guidance for eating but the specialized nutrition care which should be a crucial part of the training strategy of all athletes needs improvement. Athletes today, train for several hours daily utilizing various combinations of endurance, strength and aerobic activities in their training programmes. There is no one-size-fits-all nutrition prescription for all athletes. Each athlete is unique. Also, each sport is unique in regards to nutritional demand. Thus, depending on the type of sport, some athletes require more energy, or nutrients than other athletes. In addition, nutrient timing is also of importance. Despite this, it is possible to find broad scientific agreement as to what makes up a healthy diet for sports in general. The information provided in this booklet is a synopsis of the latest sports nutrition guidelines from: •• Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) •• Dietitians of Canada (DC) •• American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) •• 2003 International Olympic Committee (IOC) Consensus Conference on Nutrition and Sport •• 2007 consensus statement of the International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) The information provided in this booklet is solely for the purpose of education and is not intended to be a substitute for individualized consultation, counselling, education, or treatment by a Registered Nutritionist or Registered Dietitian. This guide was prepared for the Jamaica Anti-Doping Commission (JADCO) by Dr Christine Fray-Aiken Registered Nutritionist, Master Sports Nutritionist and Biochemist Ava Simpson Registered Dietitian Nutritionist March 2017
  7. 7. 2 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Benefits of Eating Well Proper nutrition is important to enhance athletic performance, and a well-planned eating strategy should be practiced throughout training. That way, by the time the athlete is ready to perform at his/ her official event, the best diet that allows that athlete to train well, promote efficient recovery between training sessions, and optimize his/her genetic endowment would have been tried and tested several times over. It is the rehearsal for the best performance. Jamaican proverb: Laan fi daans a yaad bifuo yu go habraad. Translation: Learn to dance at home before you go abroad.  Key point: Have an eating and hydration strategy Figure 1: Water is important for hydration In order to meet the physical demands of sports, it is important to have the proper fuel from food which supplies carbohydrate, protein and proper hydration. Good nutrition is a sound investment and is a less expensive strategy than taking supplements to get needed nutrients. In addition, the risk of contamina- tion by banned substances is non-existent if the energy and nutrient sources are food and drink. Jamaica has developed eight (8) Food Based Dietary Guidelines aimed at promoting healthy behaviours and practices that will help the population aged 2 years and older to make to healthy food choices. The
  8. 8. 3 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Food-based Dietary guidelines (Figure 2) for Jamaicans recommend: Figure 2: Food based dietary guidelines for Jamaica •• Eat a variety of foods from all the food groups daily. •• Eat a variety of fruits daily. •• Eat a variety of vegetables daily. •• Include peas, beans and nuts in your daily meals. •• Reduce intake of salty and processed foods. •• Reduce intake of fats and oils. •• Reduce intake of sugary foods and drinks. •• Make physical activity a part of your daily routine.
  9. 9. 4 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Part 1: Nutrition Goals and Eating Strategies This section discusses the importance of the nutrients for athletic performance. General Principles In the previous section (Benefits of Eating Well), energy from food and drink was mentioned. Energy is supplied by food and is measured in kilocalories. There are 3 energy nutrients: •• carbohydrate •• protein •• fat The amount of energy that can be metabolized from the diet is dependent on the amount of carbohydrate, protein, and fat that are present in the food and drink that make up the diet. During training or competition, there is an increase in the metabolic rate. This means that the rate of energy use is increased and the body uses the energy nutrients at a faster rate. In addition, the sweat rate also increases during training and competition which means that the rate of water loss is also increased. As a result, it is important for the diet to supply adequate energy and fluid. In general, the athlete’s diet should be high in complex carbohydrates, mod- erate in protein, and provide adequate fat. Key Point Food refers to what we eat and drink. Figure 3: Food is what we eat and drink ☞ Quick point 1 Food and drink contain nutrients. ☞ Quick point 2 Energy is obtained from the nutrients in food as a result of metabolism. ☞ Quick point 3 Energy from food is measured in kilocalories. ☞ Quick point 4 Kilocalories are commonly called Calories. ☞ Quick point 5 The speed at which the body uses energy is called the metabolic rate.
  10. 10. 5 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Energy Availability, Energy Balance, Body Mass and Body Composition The amount of energy an athlete needs is dependent on (but not limited to) the following factors: •• age •• body mass •• body composition •• gender •• physical activity Energy Availability •• Energy availability considers energy intake in relation to the energy cost of exercise. •• Energy availability is the amount of energy that remains for use by the body after the energy needed for exercise (e.g. training or competition) has been subtracted. Please see sections: Female Athletes (pg. 23), and The Female Athlete Triad (pg. 42). •• Energy use and availability are affected by body mass and composition. Energy Balance Energy balance refers to the relationship between the energy content of the food and drink consumed, and the energy expended by the individual. The energy expended or used up by the individual in- cludes the energy the body uses for its metabolic processes (to stay alive) and the energy used for physical activity (sitting, walking, running, and jumping). When someone consumes the same amount of food energy as he/she uses up, then there will be no change in his/her weight (body mass). This is called energy balance. In this case, energy intake matches energy need (Figure 4). Figure 4: Energy Balance: Output is equal to intake
  11. 11. 6 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes When someone consumes more food energy than he/she uses up, i.e., energy intake is more than en- ergy needed this is called positive energy balance. In this case, he/she will gain weight (Figure 5). Figure 5: Energy Balance: Output is less than the input When someone consumes less food energy than he/she uses up, then he/she will lose weight. This is called negative energy balance. In this case, energy intake is lesser than energy need (Figure 6). Figure 6: Output is greater than input Athletes will require different states of energy balance based on their body composition and training needs (see  Reminder 1). Reminder 1 Other factors that affect energy balance include age, body mass and gender.
  12. 12. 7 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Body Mass •• Body mass refers to body weight and is usually measured in pounds or kilograms. •• In very simple terms, body mass can be divided into lean body mass and fat mass. •• Body mass is an important physical attribute for athletes because of its contribution to athletic success. Body Composition •• Body composition is another important physical attribute considered to contribute to athletic success. •• Body composition is the proportion of fat mass and fat-free mass. Fat-free mass includes the muscles, organs, bones and blood. •• Factors affecting the body composition of an athlete include: o Genetics o Training o Age o Nutrition o Sex •• Body composition is more important than total body weight/mass and contributes to athletic performance by affecting the athlete’s: o Endurance o Power o Strength o Agility o Appearance •• When significant manipulation of body composition is needed, it should occur long before the competitive season. That way, the impact on event performance or reliance on rapid weight loss techniques would be minimized. •• Having a high fat mass or high body fat percentage is associated with lower performance among most athletes; however, accurate prediction of athletic performance cannot be based on body mass and body composition alone.
  13. 13. 8 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Carbohydrates for Training Figure 7: Green bananas are good sources of complex carbohydrates Carbohydrate is the main fuel source for en- ergy production during exercise. •• Carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver. •• The storage of carbohydrate in the body is important because it is the source of fuel for the brain and muscle during exercise. •• Carbohydrate is versatile because it can support exercise over a large range of in- tensities due to its use in the presence of oxygen (oxidative or aerobic) or in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic) to obtain energy. •• The amount of glycogen that can be stored is relatively small and the body uses it quickly during exercise. In fact, the greater the exercise intensity, the faster carbohydrate is used up by the body, and the quicker the glycogen store is depleted. •• When the glycogen store is depleted, the athlete experiences fatigue (Figure 8).  Key Point Fatigue occurs when glycogen is depleted Figure 8: Tired athlete The overall nutrition goal is to maximize the body’s storage of glycogen. Having good glycogen re- serves results in a longer time to reach fatigue and aids in endurance performance. ☞ Quick point 6 Carbohydrates are generally classified as simple and complex. It is preferable that athletes consume complex carbohydrates. ☞ Quick point 7 Fatty acids are also used for energy production during exercise (see Fat on pg. 14 for more information).
  14. 14. 9 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes General carbohydrate recommendations for different exercise loads: •• General recommendation: 3 – 10 g/kg/d •• Light: 3 – 5 g/kg/d •• Moderate: 5 – 7 g/kg/d •• High: 6 – 10 g/kg/d •• Very high: 8 – 12 g/kg/d Note that these are suggested intake values. For individualized guidance, athletes should be referred to a sports nutritionist or sports dietitian. Examples of sources of complex carbohydrates include: •• Yams •• Potatoes (Irish or sweet) •• Green bananas •• Pasta •• Oats  Key Point Carbohydrates are the main energy fuel for the body Figure 9 Yams are good sources of complex carbohydrates For information on the timing of carbohydrate consumption, please see Part 4: Recommendations for Consumption Before, During, and After Training and Competition (page 26). Protein Needs for Training Protein serves several functions: •• maintenance of existing muscle and other tissue •• growth of new tissue •• repair of injury ☞ Quick point 8 g/kg/d stands for gram/ kilogram body weight/ day ☞ Quick point 9 Proteins are made up of amino acids.
  15. 15. 10 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Protein is needed for the body to make: •• enzymes •• antibodies •• hormones The way in which the athlete’s body uses protein during and after exer- cise is influenced by a number of factors which include: •• sex •• age •• intensity, duration, and type of exercise •• the amount of kilocalories eaten •• availability of carbohydrates The overall nutrition goal is to consume enough dietary protein to sup- port muscle adaptation to training, muscle repair, and muscle remod- elling. This should be done by the consumption of moderate amounts of high-quality protein throughout the day and after strenuous training sessions. It is important that enough energy is consumed, particularly from car- bohydrates, to match the energy being used up during training. This way, the protein is spared to do its various functions instead of being used for energy. It is recommended that protein should be consumed at 0.3 g/kg BW after key exercise sessions and every 3 to 5 hours over multiple meals. This eating strategy is to maximize muscle adaptation to training. These targets can be met from the consumption of food. Protein recommendations: •• General recommendation: 1.2 to 2.0 g/kg/d •• Strength athletes: 1.2 to 1.7 g/kg/d •• Endurance athletes: 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg/d •• Ultra-endurance athlete: 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg/d •• Vegetarian athletes: 1.3 to 1.8 g/kg/d Note that these are suggested intake values. An athlete’s protein requirement can fluctuate based on: •• “trained”status (e.g., experienced athletes require less) •• training (e.g., sessions involving higher frequency and intensity) •• carbohydrate availability •• energy availability Examples of low-fat high-quality dietary proteins: •• Eggs, egg whites, and egg substitutes •• Low-fat cheese and cottage cheese •• Low-fat yogurt (regular and Greek) ☞ Quick point 10 There are two general types of amino acids: essential and nonessential. Essential amino acids have to be supplied by the diet. Nonessential amino acids can be made by the body. ☞ Quick point 12 The body uses protein/ amino acids as energy sources when carbohydrate stores are limited or depleted (e.g. as occurs during endurance exercise). It is important to consume sufficient amounts of carbohydrate to allow amino acids to be spared to do their various functions instead of being used for energy. ☞ Quick point 11 High-quality proteins have all of the essential amino acids.
  16. 16. 11 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes •• Low-fat milk •• Low-fat soy milk •• Lean meats (beef, pork, chicken, turkey, mutton) •• Fish (fresh and canned) •• Soy foods (tofu, soy nuts, soy vegetable protein) For individualized guidance, athletes should be referred to a sports nutritionist or sports dietitian. For information on the timing of protein intake, please see Part 4: Recommendations for Consumption Before, During, and After Training and Competition (page 26). Fat Fat is also an energy nutrient and therefore also fuels active muscles especially in endurance events. As exercise duration increases, the use of fatty acid for energy predominates. Figure 10: Jamaican ackee is a good source of fat Fat is also important for the: •• transport of fat-soluble vitamins •• provision of essential fatty acids Despite fat’s importance in events of long duration, ath- letes need diets that supply only an adequate amount of fat. High-fat diets are not rec- ommended. Research has shown that the use of high-fat diets among endurance athletes does not enhance endurance performance. Even the leanest of athletes have ample supply of energy from stored fat. Please bear in mind: •• Fat is an efficient energy source because it provides more than twice the amount of energy per gram when compared with carbohydrate and protein. •• When carbohydrate, protein and fat are eaten in excess, this excess is stored as fat. Therefore fat intake by athletes should be in accordance with public health guidelines. Current guide- lines for fats are an intake of 20%-35% of total energy and limited in saturated and trans fats.  For individualized guidance, athletes should be referred to a sports nutritionist or sports dietitian. ☞ Quick point 13 During the time that muscles are being used for exercise, they are referred to as‘active’. When muscles are not being used for exercise, they are referred to as‘resting’.
  17. 17. 12 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Hydration The major component of blood is water. Blood transports the oxygen and nutrients needed for physical activity. During exercise, the body’s metabolic activity increases. High metabolic activity produces heat, which results in the sweat rate increasing, thereby cooling the body. Figure 11: Water is excellent for hydration Maintaining fluid balance by having ad- equate fluid intake before, during and after exercise, is important for high lev- el athletic performance and recovery. The goal of drinking appropriate fluids during exercise is to replace as much of the sweat loss as is practical. The hy- dration goal is to drink enough fluid to prevent dehydration during exercise without overdrinking. With the increased sweat rate, there is a substantial loss of water and electrolyte. Sweat rate can also be intensified by environmental conditions e.g. hot temperatures. It is important to start exercise adequately hydrated with a normal body electrolyte status. This is called prehydration. In prehydration, the meals and fluid intake even several hours before the activity should be such to enable fluid absorption and allow urine output to be normal. Drinking water or sports drink (depending on type of sport or duration of exercise) during training or competition is necessary. Dehydration impacts physical performance negatively (see  Reminder 2). Hyperhydration is also problematic. In this case, the athlete drinks in ex- cess of his/her sweat rate. Since the sweat rates of individual athletes differ, fluid replacement during exercise has to be customized. In order to do this, sweat rates should be estimated by measuring body weight before and after exercise. After exercise, fluid balance should be restored. The overall aim is to replace fluid and electrolyte deficits and restore the body to optimal status. To determine fluid loss, the athlete should weigh in before and after training. Body weight loss is a measure of fluid loss. This fluid loss should be restored by drinking a volume of fluid that is equivalent to ~125–150% of fluid loss (body weight loss). For example, if the fluid deficit is 1 lb (0.45 kg), then 20 – 24 oz (0.6 – 0.7 L) fluid should be consumed. This is 1.25 –1.5 L fluid for every 1 kg bodyweight lost. For individualized hydration plans, athletes should be referred to a sports nutritionist or sports dietitian. ☞ Quick point 14 The electrolytes sodium, chloride, and potassium are needed to maintain normal metabolism and function and are lost during sweating. Reminder 2 Your hydration programme should be fine-tuned during training. Remember the Jamaican proverb:“Learn to dance at home before you go abroad”.
  18. 18. 13 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes  Key Point The athlete can opt for drinking sports drink during training or competition at moderate to high intensity that lasts more than 60 minutes. Vitamins, Minerals and Antioxidants for Training and Staying Healthy •• Vitamins and minerals (collectively known as micronutrients) serve several functions: • energy production • fluid balance • building and maintenance of healthy bones • haemoglobin synthesis • immune function • protection against oxidative damage (antioxidant micronutrients do this function) • synthesis and repair of muscle tissue during recovery from exer- cise and injury •• Some micronutrients serve as antioxidants as indicated above. •• The overall nutrition goal is to consume enough micronutrients in a balanced diet. Athletes who do so typically do not need to take vitamin and mineral supplements. •• The diet of athletes should provide at least the Recommended Di- etary Allowance (RDA)/Adequate Intake (AI) for all micronutrients (☞ Quick point 19). •• Medical and/or life cycle situations where multivitamin/ mineral supplementation is recommended: • folic acid requirements for women of childbearing years • athletes who are dieting in order to lose weight • athletes who are limiting specific food groups The micronutrients of key interest for athletes are: •• Iron •• Vitamin D •• Calcium •• Vitamins A, C and E (these have antioxidant functions) ☞ Quick point 15 Vitamins and minerals take part in the production of energy from the energy nutrients but do not themselves provide energy. ☞ Quick point 16 Haemoglobin is a protein needed to carry oxygen in red blood cells. That way the body cells can be supplied with oxygen by blood. ☞ Quick point 17 Life cycle situations are situations that arise during an individual’s lifespan e.g. pregnancy, or maturity. ☞ Quick point 18 The immune system protects the body against disease. The function of the immune system can be affected by a number of factors.
  19. 19. 14 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Iron •• Having an iron deficiency can result in impaired muscle function and limited work capacity. As a result, athletes may experience fa- tigue and decreased performance. •• Athletes at greater risk for iron depletion and deficiency include: • Endurance athletes (for example long-distance runners and cy- clists) • Female athletes • Vegetarian athletes These athletes should be screened regularly for iron deficiency. •• Athletes who have iron deficiency anaemia should be followed up a by sports physician and a sports dietitian or sports nutritionist. •• Routine, unmonitored iron supplementation by athletes is not rec- ommended. Athletes should never take iron supplements without a recommendation from a health care provider. Taking too much iron can result in negative health consequences. Good food sources of iron include: •• Organ meats e.g. liver, heart, kidney •• Red meat •• Dried peas and beans •• Dark green leafy vegetables e.g. callaloo, Chinese cabbage (pak choi), spinach, broccoli Vitamin D Vitamin D is important in the maintenance of bone because it regulates the absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. One of the means of obtaining vitamin D is via exposure to sunshine. For the most part, Jamaica has year-round sunny climate. With athletes training outdoors and a balanced diet, no vitamin D supplementation ought to be required. However this exposure must be monitored as many times it is affected by dark skins, use of sunscreens, protective clothing and avoidance of the high temperatures in the mid-day. Calcium Athletes who have a tendency for low calcium intakes include those who: •• restrict their energy intake in order to lose weight •• have an eating disorder •• avoid dairy products or other calcium-rich foods There are Jamaican athletes who may avoid dairy products due to lactose intolerance/preference; how- ever, there are other sources of calcium that can be substituted for milk/ dairy products. ☞ Quick point 19 The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the average daily dietary intake of nutrients that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy individuals in a given population. Adequate Intake (AI) is similar to RDA but is for nutrients that do not have enough scientific evidence to determine an RDA.
  20. 20. 15 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Calcium rich sources include: •• Cheese •• Yogurt •• Bones of canned sardines and mackerel •• Dark green leafy vegetables (calaloo, Chinese cabbage (pak choi), broccoli) Common foods that may be fortified with calcium: •• Soy milk, tofu •• Orange juice •• Breakfast cereals Vitamins A, C and E: Antioxidants Antioxidants are important for the protection of the body from oxidative damage caused by free radicals produced during exercise. Anantioxidantrichdietisrecommendedratherthansupplements.Research does not fully support that antioxidant supplements enhance athletic per- formance, but instead may negatively influence training adaptations. Examples of antioxidant-rich sources: •• Fruits •• Vegetables •• Nuts Overall Once the athlete is consuming a diet that provides an adequate amount of energy from a variety of nutrient-dense foods e.g. fruits, vegetables and lean protein foods, vitamin and mineral supplement use becomes less nec- essary. Figure 12: Jamaican fruits ☞ Quick point 20 During exercise the body produces damaging oxidative by-products in muscle fibres. ☞ Quick point 21 Nutrient-dense foods provide other nutrients, not just sugar or fat e.g. an orange would be more nutrient-dense in comparison to an orange soda.
  21. 21. 16 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Part 2: The Role of Dietary Supplements in Health and Sports Performance The first option that an athlete should consider when he/she wants to improve athletic performance is to incorporate a carefully designed, nutritionally balanced diet. Unfortunately, many athletes do not seek guidance from suitably qualified sports nutritionists or sports dietitians and practice ad-hoc sup- plementation which may not yield the desired results. Figure 13: Supplements It must be understood that the manufacture and marketing of supplements are not strictly regulated. Therefore, it is quite possible for an athlete to take a dietary supplement without realizing that there is a possibility that they may also be unintentionally consuming a banned or illegal substance. Regardless of the rationale or intent of taking the supplement, ultimately, the responsibility for everything con- sumed lies with the athlete.
  22. 22. 17 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Dietary supplements include: •• vitamins •• minerals •• amino acids/protein •• botanicals •• herbal products •• other chemical or biological substances Athletes are motivated to use supplements for many reasons which include: •• performance or recovery enhancement •• health improvement or maintenance •• increase in endurance •• compensation for poor nutrition •• immunity support •• gaining muscle mass Protein Supplementation It is not necessary to take protein supplements to gain muscle mass. Athletes can get all the protein they need that will supply all of the essential amino acids (see ☞ Quick point 11) for muscle building from the diet. Some protein supplements however can be convenient to use for example the use of protein powder in protein shakes after resistance exercise or in between meals. Supplements that have both protein and carbohydrate stimulate greater strength increase when com- pared to supplements that contain carbohydrate alone. If the athlete is not lactose intolerant, fat-free milk can be used instead as a recovery drink after a bout of resistance exercise, and is a cheaper alternative than protein supplements and shakes. For athletes who are lactose intolerant, they can opt for lactose-free milk which is available on the Ja- maican market. Vegetarians/persons who do not drink milk can opt for soy protein instead which has been shown to increase lean muscle mass gains, just not as rapidly as milk or whey protein. Please note that there is always the possibility of the protein supplement being contaminated with banned substances.
  23. 23. 18 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) can be used as fuel by skeletal muscle during ultra-endurance events when glycogen stores are low.The athlete can get all of the branched-chain amino acids he/she needs from the diet. Although supplementation with BCAA is generally considered safe, it does not improve athletic per- formance. Glucosamine and/or Chondroitin Sulphate Glucosamine is made by the body and is important in the maintenance of joint cartilage. Chondroitin is also made by the body and is important for cartilage elasticity. They are sold as supplements to help reduce joint pain and improve joint function. However, the ev- idence that glucosamine and/or chondroitin supplements can protect joints from wear and tear and prevent osteoarthritis is lacking. Caffeine Caffeine has been used in the past to reduce fatigue but it is not recommended in large doses whether in or out of competition. Small amounts may be tolerated. Caffeine reduces the feeling of fatigue thereby enabling the athlete to exercise for a longer duration or at a sustained optimal intensity. Caffeine may be helpful in endurance events for example distance running and cycling. Caffeine may be helpful in high-intensity events that last more than 20 min- utes. Only a small amount of caffeine is needed. The recommended dose of caf- feine is 2 to 3 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, for an athlete who weighs 110 pounds (50kg), the recommended dose range for caffeine is 100 – 150 mg. This can easily be obtained from a cup of brewed coffee or some sports drinks. Caffeine is safe at recommended doses. Caffeine is not recommended for athletes under the age of 18. ☞ Quick point 22 Serving: This is the amount of food recommended in consumer education materials such as Dietary Guidelines for Jamaicans or Nutrition Labels on foods Portion: This is the amount of a food eaten at any one time. A portion may be more or less than a serving.
  24. 24. 19 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Not all athletes respond to caffeine in the same way. Too much caffeine can result in nervousness and anxiety which can be harmful to athletic performance. Table 1: Caffeine content of common foods1 Food Serving Size Caffeine (mg) Coffee or coffee based beverages Coffee, brewed 250mL (1 cup or 8 oz) 100 – 170 Coffee, instant 250mL (1 cup or 8 oz) 76 – 106 Coffee,iced 250mL (1 cup or 8 oz) 59 – 80 Espresso, brewed 30 mL (1 oz) 64 – 90 Cappuccino or Latte 250mL (1 cup or 8 oz) 45 – 75 Decaffeinated coffee 250mL (1 cup or 8 oz) 3 – 15 Coffee liqueur 45 mL (1½ oz) 4 – 14 Tea Iced Tea, sweetened 1 can (341-355 mL) 15 – 67 Tea, leaf or bag (black, flavoured black) 250mL (1 cup) 43 – 80 Tea (green, oolong, white) 250mL (1 cup) 25 – 45 Decaffeinated tea 250mL (1 cup) 0 – 5 Herbal tea, all varieties 250mL (1 cup) 0 Soft Drinks and Energy Drinks Energy drink, various types 250mL (1cup) 80 – 100 Diet cola 355 mL (1 can) 25 – 43 Cola 355 mL (1 can) 30 Source:“Canadian Nutrient File 2016” Supplements That Show Some Potential Creatine Creatine is a compound found in the muscle that is used as an energy source in the form of creatine phosphate. Based on current available research creatine supplementation is safe at recommended doses. Creatine is not recommended for athletes under the age of 18. 1 The caffeine content in foods can vary a lot
  25. 25. 20 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Creatine supplementation is popular among strength and power athletes who take it to help increase creatine and phosphocreatine storage in their muscles as extra fuel. However, not everyone respond to creatine supplementation and maybe related to creatine stores of the individual athlete. Athletes who are creatine responders experience improved ability to train harder and recover faster. Creatine supplements are not necessary for muscle building. Resistance exercise is effective for muscle building. Taking creatine alone without a steady resistance training regimen will not result in muscle building. Adequate creatine can be obtained from the diet. The major food sources of creatine are beef and fish. In addition, vegetarian athletes are able to make creatine from the protein-rich foods that they con- sume. Creatine supplementation is associated with weight gain which may be problematic in weight-sensi- tive sports. Also, creatine may cause gastrointestinal discomfort. Recommended doses: 20 to 25 g of creatine a day for 5 to 6 days followed by 5 g a day thereafter. Athletes who might benefit from creatine supplementation include: •• Power lifters •• Sprinters •• Body builders Beta-alanine and Sodium Bicarbonate High-intensity events (sprints) use the anaerobic energy system thereby producing lactic acid in the muscle. The athlete may experience this build- up of lactic acid in the muscle as fatigue. Beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate are supplements that work by help- ing to lower the amount of lactic acid thereby reducing fatigue. Beta-alanine is converted to carnosine in the muscle which reduces the effect of lactic acid. In addition, beta-alanine may enhance the capacity for training. Sodium bicarbonate also reduces the effect of lactic acid thereby improv- ing performance. Sodium bicarbonate however, may cause gastrointestinal problems. More research is needed on the safety and efficacy of beta-alanine supple- mentation. ☞ Quick point 23 Beetroot is also known as beet. ☞ Quick point 24 Nitrate is a compound that can improve tolerance for exercise. ☞ Quick point 25 Having a lower oxygen demand means that the athlete can exercise more efficiently with lower amounts of available oxygen than they normally would.
  26. 26. 21 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Beetroot Juice Beetroot juice seems to have the potential to increase the efficiency of skeletal muscle in endurance athletes due to a lower oxygen demand. This is due to beetroot juice being naturally high in nitrate. There are safety concerns however. Further research is needed. However the normal consumption as is done by Jamaicans is healthy and acceptable. Final Word on Supplements It is better to get your nutrition from food. Do not assume that a supplement is safe simply because you can purchase it over the counter. Dietary supplements are not well regulated and may contain banned substances. Please note that the supplements spoken about in this booklet does not imply endorsement. It howev- er summarizes the current research and recommendations for each supplement. The athlete is responsible for the presence of the banned supplement in his/her system, regardless of how it got there.
  27. 27. 22 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Part 3: Nutrition Guidelines for Special Populations Young Athletes Young athletes are still undergoing growth and development while taking part in intense physical training. These athletes should therefore have diets that are sufficient to allow for peak performance and normal growth and development. In addition, the diets of young athletes should allow for growth spurts which begin around the age of 10 or 11 in girls and around age 12 or 13 in boys. Not consuming enough energy can result in: •• muscle and fat loss •• menstrual dysfunction •• loss of or failure to gain adequate bone density •• increased risk for injury, fatigue, and illness Sports of particular concern are those that favour restricted intake of energy in combination with a high energy output. Such sports can impact growth in young athletes. Sports falling in this category include: •• gymnastics •• swimming •• track and field •• tennis It is important that support systems are put in place to ensure that young athletes are properly hydrat- ed especially since they have a tendency to ignore thirst. Fluids should be available at their disposal before, during, and after exercise. Water is adequate for most young athletes. Young athletes are not to be given supplements for performance enhancement. Of special note: •• Athletes under 18 years are not to be given caffeine drinks or supplements. Neither should they be given energy drinks. The consumption of caffeine by teens is associated with: o agitation o anxiety o poor sleep o rapid heart rate o altered mental states •• Athletes under 18 years are not to be given creatine supplements. Creatine supplementation among young adults may be a potential risk for: o dehydration o kidney problems o increased risk for injuries Young athletes should be encouraged to eat a variety of foods including adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables in their daily diets.
  28. 28. 23 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Female Athletes Females are physiologically different from males. As a result, the nutrient requirements of female ath- letes differ from the nutrient requirements for male athletes. The micronutrients of particular impor- tance for female athletes are calcium (page 14) and iron (page 14). Female athletes lose iron via a number of routes which include: •• menstruation •• gastrointestinal bleeding •• foot-strike hemolysis (bursting of red blood cells as the foot hit the pavement during running) •• sweat loss •• iron malabsorption •• also, females tend to have inadequate intake of iron from the diet Male Athletes The main differences that exist between the genders are the quantitative differences due to body size, body composition, and the presence or ab- sence of testosterone. Males in general have greater muscularity compared to females due to the secretion of testosterone by the male testes.Testosterone has a powerful anabolic effect which enables the male body to be more muscular. Male endurance athletes are also at risk of low iron status but not to the same extent as female athletes. The main routes of iron loss include: •• gastrointestinal bleeding •• foot-strike hemolysis •• sweat loss Vegetarian Athlete Vegetarian diets have been generally promoted as healthier than meat-containing diets. However, re- search regarding the influence of long-term vegetari- anism on athletic performance is lacking. Figure 14: The vegetarian diet is based mainly on foods from plant sources There are different types of vegetarian athletes. Those who consume vegetarian diets that include foods from animals for example milk, eggs, cheese and/or ☞ Quick point 26 Testosterone is the male sex hormone.
  29. 29. 24 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes fish are at a lower risk for the development of nutrient deficiencies than athletes who follow a plant- based only vegan diets. Vegans or strict vegetarians do not consume anything that is of animal origin. Nutrient concerns for vegetarian athletes is dependent on the level of lim- itation of the diet and their understanding of food complementation to maximize their nutrient intake. These concerns may include the following, especially if the athlete is a vegan: •• Energy •• Protein •• Carbohydrate •• Fat •• Iron •• Zinc •• Iodine •• Vitamin B12 •• Calcium •• Riboflavin •• Vitamin D Athletes can perform well on vegetarian diets however, these diets must be carefully planned so as to decrease the risk of low bone mineral density and stress fractures, and to allow for the demands of training and competition. Good sources of protein for vegetarian athletes include: •• Beans •• Peas •• Nuts •• Seeds •• Cow’s milk •• Soy milk •• Tofu Except for cow’s milk, all of the above protein sources can be consumed by vegans. The following can be substituted for milk for vegans. They are good sources of calcium if fortified: •• Soy milk •• Rice milk •• Almond milk Complementation to ensure complete proteins include: ☞ Quick point 27 Complementation is important because it pairs plant based foods in order to provide the full complement of essential amino acids (see Table 2).
  30. 30. 25 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Table 2: Complementation of food groups Food Complement Complement examples Beans Grains 1 cup stewed peas with 2 whole wheat dumplings or rice and peas Nuts/seeds Legumes 1 ounce sunflower seeds with 1 ounce peanuts Vegetables Grains, nuts, seeds Leafy green vegetable with whole wheat bread. (can be en- riched with some sesame seeds) Corn Legumes Cornmeal dumpling with three bean stew Figure 15: Traditional Jamaican dish of rice and gungo peas shows protein complementary
  31. 31. 26 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Part 4: Recommendations for Consumption Before, During, and After Training and Competition Nutrient timing is a method of meal planning aimed at: •• the optimization of performance during training and competition •• enhanced recovery and tissue repair following training and competition •• improved muscle protein synthesis •• better mood states Figure 16: Curried Chicken served with Yellow Yam and an Otaheite Salad In order to fulfil these aims, the eating strategies implemented in the pre-, during-, and post-training should: •• address the nutrition factors related to fatigue and deterioration in performance output throughout the sporting event •• achieve gut/gastrointestinal comfort, avoid feelings of hunger or discomfort and gastrointesti- nal upsets throughout the sporting event •• provide continued nutritional support during competitive events that span days and weeks
  32. 32. 27 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Pre-event Eating Figure 17: Sandwiches can be a pre-event meal option •• Pre-event eating is the diet before training and competition and is an integral part of the ath- lete’s training plan. •• The pre-event diet should be part of the training routine and thus well tested as this was inte- grated into the training and preparation schedule. That way, the type, timing and amount of foods and fluids have been individualized according to the preferences, tolerance, and experi- ence of each athlete. •• The pre-event diet should be high in carbohydrate and should also provide necessary protein and fat. The general guidelines recommend ingestion of 1 – 2 grams of carbohydrate/kg BW and 0.15 – 0.25 grams protein/kg BW taken 3 – 4 hours before competition. This will ensure optimal glycogen stores during the competition. As the glycogen levels diminish, the athlete’s ability to maintain exercise intensity, pace and work output decreases. During-exercise Eating Endurance during exercise/training is maintained by the availability of carbohy- drate and muscle glycogen levels. If the exercise duration goes beyond 60 min, then it is important to consume a source of carbohydrate to maintain blood glucose and muscle glycogen stores. This can be done by drinking 1 – 2 cups (8 – 16 fluid ounces) of a 6 – 8% carbohydrate solu- tion every 10 – 15 minutes.
  33. 33. 28 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Figure 18: Sports drinks can be useful during exercise Adding protein to create a carbohydrate: protein ratio of 3 – 4:1 may increase endurance performance. In addition, this mixture of carbohydrate and protein stimulates the body to make more glycogen. Post-exercise Eating •• Eating carbohydrate within 30 minutes of completing exercise stimulates the muscle to make glycogen. The amount of carbohydrate consump- tion should be between 8 – 10 g CHO/kg/day. •• Adding protein to carbohydrate consumption at a ratio of approximately 3:1 (carbohydrate: protein) has been shown to stimulate glycogen re-synthesis more than having carbohydrate alone. Figure 19: The choice of post-event meals is based on a number of factors
  34. 34. 29 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Guidelines for Hydration Pre-event Hydration •• It is essential to be adequately hydrated before exercise. •• Hydration should be planned just as food intake is planned and initiated several hours before exercise. •• Urine output should be at normal levels prior to the exercise event. During-exercise Hydration •• All athletes should have a customized hydration regimen to replace fluid lost as a result of sweating during exercise. •• This can be done by consuming beverages that contain electrolytes and carbohydrates. Post-exercise Hydration •• Rapid and complete recovery from excessive dehydration can be obtained by drinking ~1.5 L of fluid for each kilogram of body weight lost when weighed at the end of exercise.
  35. 35. 30 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Part 5: Event Specific Nutrition Track and Field Track and field events can be: •• high intensity, short duration o 100-meter sprint o 200-meter sprint o hurdles o high jump o long jump o triple jump o pole vault o shot put o javelin o discus o hammer throw •• high intensity, short duration requiring several minutes of all-out maximum effort: o 400-meter run o 600-meter run o 800-meter run •• endurance events: o distance running o marathon Figure 20 Track and field The diet of a track and field athlete should be high in carbohydrate. On intense training days, the athlete should eat 2.3 to 3.2 grams of carbohydrate per pound of body weight per day (5 to 7 grams per kilogram). Protein the athlete needs 0.6 to 0.8 grams per pound (1.3 to 1.8 grams per kilogram). On less intense training days or when side-lined by injury, the athlete should eat 1.4 to 2.3 grams of carbohydrate per pound (3 to 5 grams per kilogram). Track and field athletes sometimes train and compete in hot environments. They lose a lot of fluid as a result. It is important that a hydration schedule be established for each athlete. In order to do so, they should be weighed before and after practice to determine how much fluid they lose.
  36. 36. 31 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Football Football is a team sport. The average football player covers 5½ miles during a match with midfielders averaging 6½ miles. In addition, football players display great agility during the match as they change speed or direction every 4 to 5 seconds. On average per game: •• elite female players burn 1,000 kilocalories •• elite male players burn 1,500 kilocalories Figure 21: Football player The diet of a footballer should consist mostly of carbohydrate. On intense training days, the athlete should eat 2.3 to 3.2 grams of carbohydrate per pound of body weight per day (5 to 7 grams per kilogram). Protein the athlete needs 0.6 to 0.8 grams per pound (1.3 to 1.8 grams per kilogram). All choices for fats should be healthy fats On less intense training days or when side-lined by injury, the athlete should eat 1.4 to 2.3 grams of carbohydrate per pound (3 to 5 grams per kilogram). Netball Netball is a team sport. Netball athletes demonstrate endurance, strength, speed, agility, and coordina- tion. This sport involves a stop-and-go style of play.
  37. 37. 32 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes The netballer’s diet should supply adequate amounts of carbohydrate.This is important for maintaining muscle glycogen storage. As with all sports, the diet for netballers should be balanced, moderate in fat and with good choices of foods rich in vitamins and minerals. Vitamins and minerals are best supplied from fresh fruit, vegetables and staples supplying complex carbohydrates. Hydration is important. These athletes should consume fluids before, during and after training and matches as outlined on page 15. Netball is both an indoor and outdoor game. In an indoor air-condi- tioned environment, the athletes may not realize that they are becoming dehydrated due to the slower sweat rate when compared with playing outdoors in a sunny environment. Hydration should never be ignored.To be sure of hydration needs in the cooler environment, be sure to weigh before and after the match or training session. Athletes should drink 1.5L of fluid (water or sports drink) for every kilogram of weight loss. Drinking adequate water alone should be fine for this sport during training. Cricket Cricket is a team sport. Cricketers need speed, agility, stamina, and heat tolerance. The team consists of specialist batsmen, specialist bowlers, a wicket keeper and a few all-rounders. Cricket is an outdoor sport normally played in hot conditions. Cricket is a sport of skill: theoretically, all members of the team get to bat and field, while only the specialists are required to bowl. Cricket matches have various durations: •• limited-over (one-day) match •• two-day match •• four-day match •• test series (five- day match) Meals for cricketers should be based on principles of healthy eating with adequate intakes of complex carbohydrates, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and moderate in fat: •• eat 2-4 hours before the game begins •• include snacks every 1-3 hours while waiting to bat Cricket matches usually have lunch and tea breaks. The meals consumed during these breaks should be easy to digest and provide: •• carbohydrate to maintain glycogen storage •• moderate amount of protein •• vitamins and minerals •• moderate amount of fat Cricket matches generally have hourly drink breaks. In general, cricketers should drink at least half to one 8 ounce cup of fluid to keep hydrated. Active players for example batsmen, bowlers and the wick- etkeeper can opt for sports drinks containing carbohydrate.
  38. 38. 33 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes For multiple day matches, it is important for cricketers to have a recovery plan in place to replenish fluid and carbohydrate at the end of each day so that they can perform optimally the next day. Swimming Swimming is a low impact sport due to the support of the watery environment. This sport works all major muscle groups. Training sessions for swimmers can last for hours at a time. Also the competitive season usually lasts up to 8 months. The diet of a swimmer should consist mostly of carbohydrate-rich sources. On intense training days, the athlete should eat 2.3 to 3.2 grams of carbohydrate per pound of body weight per day (5 to 7 grams per kilogram). All choices for fats should be healthy fats On less intense training days or when side-lined by injury, the athlete should eat 1.4 to 2.3 grams of carbohydrate per pound (3 to 5 grams per kilogram). These are recommended eating strategies for swimmers depending on available time before heavy training or competition: 3 to 4 hours •• consume a low-fat meal with about 200 to 300 grams of carbohydrate and 30 grams of lean protein. This should allow for the stomach to be empty before swimming. 1 to 2 hours •• eat a snack Less than 1 hour •• Consume liquids for example a sports drink or a low-fat liquid meal replacement These are recommended eating strategies for swimmers during heavy training or competition: Event lasting longer than 1 hour or for all-day swim meets •• pack poolside snacks •• eat 30 to 60 grams of carbohydrate every hour These are recommended eating strategies for swimmers after heavy training or competition: •• Consume a carbohydrate- and protein-rich snack Hydration Strategies: Swimmers can experience dehydration after 30 minutes of swimming. Water is best for most athletes: •• Drink about 2 cups (16 ounces) of water 2 to 3 hours before a workout or swim meet. •• Then drink 1 cup (8 ounces) of water 10 to 20 minutes before diving into the pool. •• Most workouts are long and strenuous, so drink about 1 cup of fluid every 10 to 20 minutes during your workout. •• Keep a sports bottle filled with water at poolside so it is easy to reach.
  39. 39. 34 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Sports drinks Swimmers can opt for sports drinks if they have: •• Long, hard workouts •• to race many times during a meet Follow the same drinking schedule as for water. Boxing Boxing involves the use of strength and speed. As strength athletes, boxers have high calorie require- ments. They need a supply of calories for daily activity and intense training and competition and to build and repair muscle mass. It is important that boxers maintain their body weight close to their weight category.This way, they will not feel the need to employ dehydration strategies to make weight. During rigorous training days, boxers should eat 6 to 10 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight per day. Protein needs are around 1.4 to 1.7 grams per kilogram. All choices for fats should be heart-healthy fats. Boxers in lower weight categories should eat at the lower end of the ranges of car- bohydrate and protein. Boxers should maintain adequate hydration. This can be done with water throughout the day. Water or sports drinks can be used during training and competition. Sample Training Menu Eating three meals a day plus two to three snacks is crucial to providing the body with enough energy. Here is a sample menu providing approximately 2,600 kilocalories and 112 grams protein for a typical training day: Breakfast 1 c. oats + ½ cup low fat milk or porridge 1 hard-boiled egg 2 slice whole grain toast/bread 1 ripe banana Morning Snack 5 large whole grain crackers with 1 Tbsp. peanut butter 1 orange Lunch 2 cups peas/chicken soup + 1 fruit Or 2 chicken sandwich with vegetables + 1 cup fruit juice
  40. 40. 35 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Afternoon Snack 1 cup low fat yogurt + 1 fruit Or 2 fruits + nuts (small pack of peanuts) Dinner 1½ cups rice and peas 1 slice yam/3 ozs baked potatoes 1 chicken breast/4 oz fish ½ cup steamed vegetables Green salad with 1 tsp. low fat dressing 1 cup fruit juice Bedtime Snack 1 fruit + 1 small pack nuts Best Choices for Breakfast Meal •• Porridge/Cereal –with low-fat milk •• Yogurt –low-fat, plain or fruit •• Fruit •• Whole grain bread/ Toast –with limited amounts of butter or margarine •• Egg (not fried) •• Sardines, mackerel, tuna •• Potato, green bananas, plantains –not fried •• Muffins –try jam or jelly, not butter •• Beverages –Athletes should drink plenty of fluid! •• Water •• Fruit juice –fresh, canned, cartons •• Skim milk Best Choices for Lunch or Dinner Meals •• Fruit and vegetables, fruit and vegetable juices •• Soups •• Meat, Fish, Poultry –broiled, roasted, baked, barbecued, poached (reasonable portions; trimmed fat; skin from chicken removed) •• Cold cuts –turkey, chicken, lean beef, lean ham •• Meat alternatives –beans, peas, and lentil dishes if these are familiar foods; gas produced when these foods are not part of the usual diet can cause discomfort. •• Vegetables –steamed, stir fried, baked
  41. 41. 36 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes •• Potatoes –baked, boiled, mashed (with limited butter/margarine) •• Rice –steamed, plain •• Noodles/ Pasta –plain or tomato or vegetable sauce •• Bread –rolls, crackers, all breads •• Salads –bean, peeled fresh vegetables, fruit salad, •• Desserts –fruit, yogurt (low fat), custards, puddings •• Cheese –in moderation Foods to Avoid •• Fatty foods, because they are slow to digest •• Protein-rich food, because they are slow to digest and are not needed as fuel during exercise •• Alcoholic beverages such as wine, and beer, because they can have a dehydrating effect. •• Spicy foods may be difficult to digest prior to exertion. •• Immediately prior to exercise, fibre-rich foods like whole-grain bread, cookies, and whole-wheat cereals, dried fruits (prunes, etc.) stimulate digestion and induce elimi- nation. •• Gas-producing foods like cabbage, broc- coli, onions, and carbonated drinks, make some athletes feel bloated. •• Coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate may cause diarrhoea, which can have a dehydrating effect.
  42. 42. 37 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Part 6: Recommended Eating Strategies Practical Solutions to Achieving Nutrition Goals Having optimal nutrition is imperative for athletes to perform well by delaying fatigue during activity, improving recovery from illness or injury, and enhancing the ability to train effectively. Optimal nutri- tion involves: •• Appropriate food combinations and ratios •• Proper nutrient timing •• Adequate amount of food and fluid consumed . Eating Strategies for the Travelling Athlete •• Plan ahead. The menu should be known ahead of time •• Traveling by bus? Pack non-perishable foods and fluids •• Research your destination. What are the meal options at the venue? •• When traveling in other countries, athletes can bring a few favourite spices if they are already used to them •• Eat food you are familiar with •• Drink bottled water •• If you have to eat at a restaurant, ask for healthier versions of food for example: o Baked or grilled meats as opposed to fried o Whole grain bread and rolls instead of white o Sauces, gravies, and dressings on the side Environmental Challenges Athletes sometimes have to face different challenges with respect to their physical environment. Re- gardless, optimal performance is still expected. Below, a number of these environments are discussed below. Altitude Higher altitudes tend to be environments that are cold and have low oxygen concentration. In fact, the higher the altitude, the lower the oxygen concentration. Exercising and competing optimally require some level of adaptation for Jamaican athletes who live and train at sea level. Otherwise, they may experience altitude illness. Among the effects that may be experienced at higher altitudes by athletes who live at sea level are headaches and nausea.
  43. 43. 38 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Due to the lower concentration of oxygen, the athlete’s body will compensate by increasing the num- ber of red blood cells (erythropoiesis) so as to carry more oxygen thereby supporting athletic perfor- mance. This adaptation may take days or weeks. Therefore, the athlete’s nutrition has to support this transformation. This may require the consumption of iron-rich foods with or without iron supplemen- tation before and during altitude exposure. Hot Environments On average, the normal core temperature measured orally is between 98.0° and 98.6°F (36.7°C – 37.0°C). A healthy human body maintains a constant core temperature, within ±1°F (±0.6°C), day in and day out. The temperature of the skin however, rises and falls with the temperature of the surroundings. The skin has the ability to lose heat to the surroundings. Heat is produced in the body during exercise. This heat is then transferred from the deeper organs and tissues to the skin. Two of the ways in which heat is then dissipated to the air and other surroundings from the skin are by radiation, and evaporation of sweat. When the temperature of the surroundings is higher than body temperature, heat cannot be dissipated by radiation. If the humidity is high, the ability to dissipate heat by sweat evaporation is reduced. Such situations can lead to an increase in core temperature thereby resulting in serious health implications. Specific strategies to reduce high skin temperatures and excessive sweat losses should include: •• regular monitoring of hydration status •• beginning exercise sessions well hydrated •• consuming cold fluids during exercise Cold Environments Jamaican athletes live in a warm climate and may find exercising in a cold environment challenging. The main concerns in cold environments are the maintenance of: •• adequate hydration •• body temperature Exercising in a cold environment can result in the athlete experiencing hypohydration due to several factors including: •• having an impaired thirst sensation •• having a reduced desire to drink •• imposing self-restrictions on intake of fluid so as to lessen the need to urinate One of the responses to a cold environment is for the body to produce heat by shivering thereby main- taining core temperature. Shivering increases energy requirements from carbohydrates. This means that competing or training in cold environments places greater demands on an athlete’s carbohydrate stores. Glycogen would be depleted at a faster rate which can impair exercise performance. Thus, appropriate fluid and carbohydrate intake are needed.
  44. 44. 39 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Cultural and Regional Issues Jamaica has earned medals at the Olympics over the years: Table 3: Medals won over the last 5 Olympic games GAMES MEDALS Gold Silver Bronze Rio de Janeiro 2016 6 3 2 London 2012 4 4 4 Beijing 2008 6 3 2 Athens 2004 2 1 2 Sydney 2000 0 6 3 Quite a feat, considering Jamaica’s small size. However, it does not appear that nutrition was given its rightful importance. For the Rio 2016 Olympics, an 88 member strong delegation of athletes and offi- cials went to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I am not aware that there was either a Sports Nutritionist or a Sports Dietitian in the delegation. Jamaicans are talented, yet, no matter the genetic endowment, or expert training, nutrition can give that athlete the edge. Perhaps we have several athletes or potential athletes who have never seen their best performance simply because they have never had the opportunity to recover well from injury with the help of nutrition, or have never had the opportunity to work with a sports nutritionist or sports dietitian. Impact of Jamaican Food on the Athlete Professor Errol Morrison, Director General, National Commission on Science & Technology and former President of the University of Technology, Jamaica (UTech, Jamaica) has hypothesised that Jamaica’s success in sprinting may be attributed to yam and green banana in the diet. He has dismissed the speed gene as a myth but believes that Jamaican athletes do have a biomechanical advantage. According to Prof Morrison, yam has diosgenin as one of its active components. Diosgenin is a precur- sor of anabolic steroids. Green banana contains phytate which is capable of replenishing the energy supply in the phosphagen system. Yams and green bananas are part of the normal Jamaican diet. They belong to the staple food group which is important for providing carbohydrate in the diet. Carbohydrates are important in fuelling both anaerobic and aerobic energy systems.
  45. 45. 40 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Figure 22: Ground provisions found in Jamaica Weight Management Issues Obesity and Overweight For most sports, athletes with low body fat have the advantage. However, there are sports where ath- letes tend to have higher body fat percentages for example shot-put and golf. There are also sports where athletes have great muscle mass and low amount of body fat for example weight lifting, wres- tling, and boxing. The body composition of an athlete is influenced by several factors which include the type of sport the athlete does, and genetics. Athletes who are overweight or obese should not use starvation or other unsafe methods of weight loss. They should instead aim to lose body fat mass while preserving their muscle mass. Athletes can reach their body composition goals with the help of a Sports Nutritionist or Dietitian.
  46. 46. 41 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Obesity puts athletes at risk of: •• developing various chronic diseases for example o heart disease o High blood pressure o Stroke o Type 2 diabetes o Certain cancers o Osteoarthritis o Gall stones o Renal disease •• musculoskeletal conditions for example: o osteoarthritis o rheumatoid arthritis o fibromyalgia o soft tissue injury o joint replacement surgery In addition, overweight and obesity compromise the cardiorespiratory system, eventually impairing athletic performance and overall health. Eating Disorders Eating disorders are more common in women, adolescents, young adults, and athletes. Athletes with eating disorders have a tendency to deny having a problem and are often resistant to seeking care. In a large study of top athletes it was found that eating disorders existed in 13.5% of them with an inci- dence rate of 20.1% in female athletes and 7.7% in male athletes. Although eating disorders can occur in any sport, it is more common in weight-focused or lean-build sports e.g. track, gymnastics, and wrestling. Inadequate nutrition has a negative effect on the muscles, bones, performance, recovery, and overall health of athletes. The treatment of eating disorders requires a team approach of mental health specialists, the registered dietitian, and medical special- ists. There are 3 main eating disorders: •• Anorexia Nervosa •• Bulimia Nervosa •• Binge Eating Disorder Reminder 3 Please note that athletes with chronic conditions must be managed by a Registered Dietitian or Registered Nutritionist. Figure 23: Individuals with anorexia see themselves as heavier than their actual weight
  47. 47. 42 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Anorexia Nervosa In anorexia nervosa, there is an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat.The athlete restricts food consumption thereby restricting energy intake relative to requirements, leading to significant weight loss. Even after attainment of a significantly low body weight, this individual will continue to prevent weight gain due to fear of gaining weight. Bulimia Nervosa In bulimia nervosa there are recurrent episodes of binge eating during which there is a sense of lack of control over eating. These episodes are followed by compensatory behaviours to prevent weight gain. During binge eating, a massive amount of food is eaten in a discrete period of time. Behaviours to prevent weight gain include: •• self-induced vomiting •• misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications •• fasting •• excessive exercise Binge Eating Disorder In binge eating disorder there are recurrent episodes of binge eating with a sense of a lack of control as seen in bulimia nervosa. Unlike bulimia nervosa however, the binge eating is not followed with com- pensatory behaviour to prevent weight gain. The Female Athlete Triad The female athlete triad refers to the interrelationships among: •• energy availability •• menstrual function •• bone health Energy availability = dietary energy intake - exercise energy expenditure Having low energy availability may result from: •• A severe diet restriction. •• Exercising for long durations without increasing dietary energy intake. A diet restriction may not necessarily be due to an eating disorder. Low energy availability may result in amenorrhoea (absent menstrual cycle) thereby indirectly leading to impaired bone health (Figure 24). Low energy availability can also directly impair bone health (Figure 24).
  48. 48. 43 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Figure 24: The female athlete triad The body of the female athlete undergoes certain physiological changes when energy availability is too low, which impair health in a number of ways including reproductive health and reduced Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Having menstrual irregularities and low BMD increase the risk of developing stress fractures. The prevention and treatment of the female athlete triad require a team approach which should in- clude a physician and a registered dietitian. If the athlete also has an eating disorder, a mental-health practitioner should also be on the team.
  49. 49. 44 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes References Australian Institute of Sport. (n.d.). Cricket Nutrition. Bean, A. (2009). The complete guide to sports nutrition (6th ed). London: A. & C. Black. Benardot, D. (2006). Advanced sports nutrition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Buell, J. L., Franks, R., Ransone, J., Powers, M. E., Laquale, K. M., & Carlson-Phillips, A. (2013). National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Per- formance Nutrition. Journal of Athletic Training, 48(1), 124–136. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062- 6050-48.1.16 Burke, L. M. (2007). The IAAF consensus on nutrition for athletics: Updated guidelines. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17(4), 411–415. De Souza, M. J., Nattiv, A., Joy, E., Misra, M., Williams, N. I., Mallinson, R. J., … Expert Panel. (2014). 2014 Female AthleteTriad Coalition Consensus Statement onTreatment and Return to Play of the Fe- male Athlete Triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 2013. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(4), 289–289. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093218 DeMarco, H. (2014). Pre-Event Meals. American College of Sports Medicine. Retrieved from http://schol- arcommons.usf.edu/etd/5219/ Duyff, R. L. (2012). American Dietetic Association complete food and nutrition guide (4th ed.). Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons. Hall, K. D., Heymsfield, S. B., Kemnitz, J. W., Klein, S., Schoeller, D. A., & Speakman, J. R. (2012). Energy bal- ance and its components: implications for body weight regulation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95(4), 989–994. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.036350 Health Canada. (2016). Canadian Nutrient File: compilation of Canadian food composition data : users’ guide. Place of publication not identified: Health Canada. Retrieved from http://publications. gc.ca/collections/collection_2016/sc-hc/H164-189-2-2016-eng.pdf Kerksick, C., Harvey, T., Stout, J., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., Kreider, R., … others. (2008). Journal of the In- ternational Society of Sports Nutrition. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5, 17. Lukaski, H. C., Haymes, E., & Kanter, M. (2007). Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Exercise. American College of Sports Medicine. Retrieved from http://acsm.org/docs/current-comments/vitam- inandmineralsupplementsandexercise.pdf?sfvrsn=5 Maughan, R. J., & Shirreffs, S. M. (2013). Food, Nutrition and Sports Performance III. Routledge. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=lIKtSOPLlX8C&oi=f- nd&pg=PP2&dq=%22who+can+advise+on+their+individual+energy,+nutrient+and+- fluid+needs+and+help+develop%22+%22high-intensity+training,+particularly+of+long+du- ration,+athletes+should+aim+to+achieve+carbohydrate+intakes%22+&ots=oIkq6Yh- 3fu&sig=9l45MqoPe4vAu9nWYnPTC_gu1Mk Ministry of Health. (2016). Food Based Dietary Guidelines for Jamaica. PAHO, WHO. Nattiv, A., Loucks, A. B., Manore, M. M., Sanborn, C. F., Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Warren, M. P. (2007). The Female Athlete Triad: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(10), 1867–1882. https://doi. org/10.1249/mss.0b013e318149f111
  50. 50. 45 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Ozier, A. D., & Henry, B. W. (2011). Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Intervention in the Treatment of Eating Disorders. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111(8), 1236– 1241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2011.06.016 Phillips, S. M., Sproule, J., & Turner, A. P. (2011). Carbohydrate ingestion during team games exercise. Sports Medicine, 41(7), 559–585. Rosenbloom, C., & Coleman, E. (2012). Sports Nutrition. A practice manual for professionals (5th Ed.). Diana Faulhaber. Sawka, M. N., Burke, L. M., Eichner, E. R., Maughan, R. J., Montain, S. J., & Stachenfeld, N. S. (2007). Exercise and Fluid Replacement: Position Stand of the American College of Sports Medicine. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(2), 377–390. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31802ca597 Simpson, M. R., & Howard, T. (2011). Selecting and Effectively Using Hydration for Fitness. American College of Sports Medicine. Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A., & Burke, L. M. (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietet- ics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(3), 501–528. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.006
  51. 51. 46 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Bibliography Photo courtesy of Chef Christopher Sinclair-McCalla of Chris’s Kitchen
  52. 52. 47 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Notes
  53. 53. 48 Nutrition Guide for Jamaican Athletes Notes

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