Strategies And Metacognitive Skills 2


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Strategies And Metacognitive Skills 2

  1. 1. TSL 591 : MTR Hudson, Chapter 5
  2. 2. <ul><li>Paris’s et al. (1996) definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions selected deliberately to achieve particular goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Olshavsky’s, (1977) definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A purposeful means of comprehending the author’s message </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pritchard’s (1990) definiton: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A deliberate action that readers take voluntarily to develop an understanding of what they read </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keyword: deliberate </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>There is a fair amount of confusion in the literature as to what distinguishes a skill from a strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Paris et al. (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills refer to information-processing techniques that are automatic at the level of recognizing phoneme-grapheme correspondence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills are applied to text unconsciously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An emerging skill can become a strategy when it is used intentionally </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Urquhart & Weir (1998): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies are reader oriented, skills are text-oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies represent conscious decisions taken by the reader, skills are deployed unconsciously (in other words automatic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies , unlike skills , represent a response to a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. a reader will consciously used a strategy to understand a word </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Williams & Moran (1989): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A skill is an ability which has been automatized and operates largely subconsciously, whereas a strategy is a conscious procedure carried out in order to solve a problem (e.g. a reading problem) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>KNOWING HOW TO LEARN, </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition, or awareness of the process of learning, is a critical ingredient to successful learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition is an important concept in cognitive theory. It consists of two basic processes occurring simultaneously: monitoring your progress as you learn, and making changes and adapting your strategies if you perceive you are not doing so well. (Winn, W. & Snyder, D., 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>It's about self-reflection, self-responsibility and initiative, as well as goal setting and time management. </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive skills include taking conscious control of learning, planning and selecting strategies, monitoring the progress of learning, correcting errors, analyzing the effectiveness of learning strategies, and changing learning behaviors and strategies when necessary.&quot; (Ridley, D.S., Schutz, P.A., Glanz, R.S. & Weinstein, C.E., 1992) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Include also an ability to manage and regulate consciously the use of appropriate learning strategies for different situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve an awareness of one’s own mental processes and an ability to reflect on how one learns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is knowing about knowing </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Metacognitive strategies in reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is concerned with thinking about the reading experience itself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive strategies in reading involve (Williams and Burden, 1997) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners stepping outside their learning, as it were, and looking at it from outside. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include an awareness of what one is doing and the strategies one is employing, as well as the actual process of learning </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>A reading strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any interactive process that has the goal of obtaining meaning from connected text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Such strategies include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They operate to lessen demands on working memory by facilitating comprehension processing </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Reading strategies are applied prior to (pre-reading), during (while reading) and after reading (post-reading) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-reading strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to academic study skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Setting purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skimming and scanning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Previewing the text </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying text structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>While-reading strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reader uses many recursive on-line strategies in constructing meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are iterative (repetitious) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Checking comprehension throughout the reading activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying the main idea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making inferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing paragraph structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for discourse markers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting main idea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Post-reading strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be task, purpose and affect determined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciation of text and writer (pleasure reading) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revisit the reading expectation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review notes, glosses, text markings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect on text understanding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidate and integrate information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review of information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborate and evaluate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critique the text </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Metacognition in the reading process represents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying a purpose for reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting particular actions to achieve the reader’s goal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulating and redirecting the reader’s efforts during the course of reading to accomplish that goal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The reader appraising his or her cognitive ability to carry out the task </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Metacognition acts as a type of executive control over the application of the particular reading strategies that will be employed </li></ul><ul><li>Involves what is known about cognition and how that cognition is managed </li></ul><ul><li>Research indicates that good/experienced readers tend to use the most effective strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Lowett & Flavell (1990) showed that awareness of strategies is in part a function of age and experience </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Research has also indicated that poor/younger readers demonstrate deficits in: </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the purpose in reading </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility of strategy applications </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with failures of comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying important information </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing textual information </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying and fixing syntactic or semantic anomalies encountered </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively monitoring comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Application of their repertoire of strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Relating new information to known information </li></ul><ul><li>Level of metacognitive awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Number and effectiveness of strategies used </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Urquhart & Weir (1998) list some potentially useful metacognitive strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-reading Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about the title </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading table of content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading appendices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading the abstract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previewing help students recognize the difficulty level of a text and comparative difficulty with other text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge the relevancy and irrelevancy of a text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It prevents prolonged reading of something of no value </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Prediction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A strategy used to anticipate the content of the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make hypotheses about the macropropositions it might contain </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>While-reading Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Self-questioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A characteristic of good reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes cognitive processes such as inferencing, monitoring understanding and attending to structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction in self-questioning improves student processing of text </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring one’s own comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking that comprehension is taking place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopting repair strategies when it isn’t </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Post-reading Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions of evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Done orally or in writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research suggest that in learning to make the text their own the readers will better comprehend it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readers can be encouraged to relate content to their existing schemata and evaluate it in the light of their own knowledge and experience </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Various second language studies on reading strategies provide evidence that reading-strategy training shows significant positive results. </li></ul><ul><li>Such training varies in effectiveness depending upon 2 nd language ability and the depth of the training. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Various second language studies on reading strategies provide evidence that reading-strategy training shows significant positive results. </li></ul><ul><li>Such training varies in effectiveness depending upon 2 nd language ability and the depth of the training. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Jones et al. (1987) developed a model for strategic teaching model with the following guidelines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess strategy use (through think aloud, interview, questionnaire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain strategy by naming or telling how to use it, step by step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model strategy by demonstration or verbalization of won thought process while doing it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffold instruction by providing support while students practice: Adjusting support to suit student’s needs; phasing out support to encourage autonomous strategy use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop motivation by providing successful experiences; relating strategy use to improved performance </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Williams & Burden (1997) suggest that most of the procedures they surveyed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generally involved a sequence of first helping students identify or become aware of strategies they are already using, then presenting and explaining a new strategy, with rationale for using it. At this stage the teacher might model the strategy. This is followed by practising it, at first with substantial support or ‘scaffolding’ but gradually reducing this to encourage autonomous use. Finally, students are helped to evaluate their success. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>An important goal of reading instruction should be to help learners becomes strategic readers </li></ul><ul><li>Brown & Paliscar (1984, 1989) present 6 strategies that can affect comprehension that can form the basis for selection of strategies in instruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifying purpose of reading in order to determine the appropriate strategy use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activating relevant background knowledge and linking it to the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocating attentions to important pieces of information in the text </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>4. Evaluating content for internal consistency and compatibility with prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>5. Self-monitoring and self-regulation of comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>6. Drawing and testing inferences regarding the text message </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Instruction in strategies is most effective when instructor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully explains the nature and purpose of the strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models its use through reading and thinking aloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides ample practice and feedback for the students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remind students of the benefits of strategy use and encourages the independent transfer of these skills to new learning situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a content base so that strategy learning is embedded in authentic purposes. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Strategy training must be direct and not implicit to be effective </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to be taught must be determined through analyses of strategies needed </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies should be difficult for students to apply but not too difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Must be taught over sufficient time </li></ul><ul><li>Should be taught in a variety of context and text </li></ul><ul><li>Think-aloud procedures are recommended to assist with comprehension strategies </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>In groups of maximum 4 identify the strategies that you used when reading English texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Lists the strategies and present to the class. </li></ul>