Second Language Reading Issus


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Second Language Reading Issus

  1. 1. TSL 591 : MTR Hudson, Chapter 3
  2. 2. <ul><li>When talking about second language reading the main question that needs to be addressed is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it a reading problem or a language problem ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The question is central to sorting the causes and origins of 2nd language reading problem. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Hulstijn (1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions on whether good or poor readers read in the same way in their 1 st language need to be addressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in our understanding of 2 nd language reading proficiency when link to theories of 1 st language research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in our understanding of 2 nd language reading if the reading processes are similar </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Differences between 1 st and 2 nd language readers: </li></ul><ul><li>Since L2 readers are proficient in the 1 st language, they may transfer L1 skills to L2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May assist or interfere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reading in L1 normally begins after speaking in L1 is advanced, but L2 learners do not normally master spoken skills when reading instruction begins. </li></ul><ul><li>Great cognitive difference between child 1st language readers and adult 2 nd language readers </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Two contrasting views on second language learners’ success in foreign language reading </li></ul><ul><li>Success in reading a foreign language depends upon 1 st language reading ability rather than level of English </li></ul><ul><li>Reading problems of second or foreign language learners are the result of imperfect knowledge of the language </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Alderson’s hypotheses on 2 nd language reading performance: </li></ul><ul><li>Poor reading in FL is due to poor reading in L1 </li></ul><ul><li>Poor reading in FL is due to inadequate knowledge of TL </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications to the above hypotheses: </li></ul><ul><li>Poor FL reading is due incorrect strategies used, strategies not similar to L1 </li></ul><ul><li>Poor FL reading is due to strategies in L1 not being employed in FL due to inadequate knowledge in FL. Good L1 readers will read well in FL once passed a threshold of FL ability. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Studies tend to find: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong relationship between 2 nd language linguistic ability and 2 nd language reading ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate relationship between 1 st language reading ability and 2 nd language reading ability, depending upon level of language ability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studies by Perkins et al. (1989) & Carson et al . (1990): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate a moderate relationship between 1 st language and 2 nd language reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest that some transfer of reading ability is possible </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Studies by Carrell (1991) and Yamashita (2002) looked at L2 Reading = L1 Reading + L2 Language Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Findings of both studies suggest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong relationship between 1 st language and 2 nd language reading for higher-level students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once readers become more advanced 1 st language reading ability becomes increasingly important </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Bosser’s (1991) study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examined the relation between 1 st language reading, 2 nd language reading and 2 nd language ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd language ability and 1 st language reading play a substantial role in 2 nd language reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible existence of a threshold level before learners are limited in their ability to transfer 1 st language reading abilities to 2 nd language reading context </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Lee & Schallert (1997): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examined whether no or little effective transfer of L1 reading strategies until the learner reached a threshold level of L2 ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L1 reading ability contributed less to L2 reading ability than L2 proficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is a language threshold where L1 reading skills begin to contribute to L2 reading ability. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Fecteau (1999): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examined relationship between L1 and L2 reading of literature for more advanced-level FL learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects were able to transfer L1 language literature reading skills to reading L2 literature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Donin & Silva (1993): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted to differentiate aspects of L2 reading comprehension specific to reading in L2 from factors relevant to understanding text in any language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading time slower when reading in L2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Taillefer (1996): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examined the relationship between L1 reading and L2 reading across 2 different tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L1 reading ability and L2 proficiency to be significant predictors of FL reading depending upon the particular reading task. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More demanding reading tasks may call on greater need for L2 proficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The use L1 reading ability aids the L2 reader only after the reader has a threshold of L2 ability. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>There are interrelationships between L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and L2 reading performance </li></ul><ul><li>Results of research tend to show that L2 proficiency plays a greater role that L1 reading ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also it is dependent on the type of reading task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important at the lower level of L2 proficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactions between the 3 elements above is dependent on whether the learners are in foreign or 2 nd language context </li></ul>