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Abhishek K. Venkitaraman
Assistant Professor
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
LECTURE 2
Mesopotamian
Ea rl y H um a n Mi grati on out of A f ri ca
Earliest Homo Sapien
fossils have been
found in Ethiopia
Africa West Asia Eu...
natural determinants
topography (location)
climate
natural resources, building materials and technology
man-made determina...
EARLY CIVILIZATIONS
L ocati on of A nci e nt Me s opota m i a n Ci vi l i zati on
L ocati on of A nci e nt Me s opota m i a n Ci vi l i zati on
This civilization rose in the valleys
between the Tigris and...
Alluvial soil plain between 2 rivers
Mesopotamia – In Greek mesos = middle, potamos = rivers
Northern part is known as Akk...
ANCIENT
MESOPOTAMIA
Oldest known
civilization
Cradle of Human
Civilization
Ziggurat
Hanging gardens
FIRST SUMERIANS
Sumerians first arrived in region around 5000 BC
◦ Typical Paleolithic people motivated by search for
game...
SUMERIAN AGRICULTURE
Each was crisscrossed by irrigation
system of major canals and minor
channels
◦ Designed to bring wat...
SOCIAL CLASSES
Establishment of a social hierarchy where some
people had more power, wealth, and privileges than
others
Eq...
SLAVERY
Originated with practice of men selling
themselves and/or their families to pay
off debts
◦ Supplemented by using ...
Demand for slaves increased as
civilization progressed
◦ Advance of civilization did not bring
same benefits to everyone
◦...
The Beginnings of Writing
Farmers needed to keep records.
The Sumerians were very good farmers. They raised
animals such a...
Geography
This civilization rose in the
valleys between the Tigris
and Euphrates rivers.
Some say this Fertile Crescent
wa...
The layout of cities:
There is not enough at the lower levels of explored mounds to give us a total image of
the Mesopotam...
SUMERIAN
CITY-STATES
City-states gradually emerged over next
1000 years
◦ Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Nippur, Kish, Umma, etc.
◦ Lar...
Due to the fertile soil in Mesopotamia, farming was very successful.
In fact, people were able to grow a surplus of food.
...
Re l i gi ous Be l i efs - Z i g gurats
Through daily rituals, attention to the deities, proper funeral practices and simp...
Historical and Analytical account of cities in
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia means “land between rivers”.
Four broad segments of...
2-Early Dynastic Period:
When the role of these leaders was retained in times of peace as well, kingship,
first elective a...
This period saw the rise of
empire, the collective rule of
several city-states through
the might of a sovereign king.
The ...
Timeline in Mesopotamia 3500-2000
B.C. (5500-4000 B.P.)
3500 B.C. Cities growing across Mesopotamia
3200 B.C. Pictographic...
Cities 3000-2300 B.C.
Timeline
2200 B.C. Agade Empire expands and declines
2100 B.C. Ur becomes the capital of a new empire
2000 B.C. Ur destroy...
Agade Empire 2250 B.C.
Empire united by King Sargon of Agade (Akkad)
Kingdoms 1800 B.C.
1800 B.C. Hammurabi unites much of Mesopotamia
1500 B.C.
1500 B.C. Mitannian Empire controls north Mesopotamia
Kassites control south Mesopotamia
1200 B.C.
1300 B.C. Assyrians conquer much of Mesopotamia
1100 B.C. Aramaean and Chaldaean tribes become important
650 B.C.
1000 B.C. Assyrians begin reconquest of Mesopotamia
Babylon rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar II
550 B.C.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire
500 B.C.
Mesopotamia becomes part of the Achaemenid Persian empire
A Sumerian City
Sumerian city streets
were so narrow that you
could hardly get a cart
through them.
Sumerian houses faced
...
CITY CHARACTERISTICS
Each city surrounded by walls
◦ Permanent garrisons of soldiers
stationed in towers and at each gate
...
9000 BCE - Neolithic Agricultural Community
A nci e nt town of Je ri cho
• Basic building material – Mud and Timber
• Mud was mixed with reeds and laid in horizontal courses to make wall
• Houses...
• Complex social system – Existence of Social classes
• Kings and Priests were on top
• Earlier village- based civic loyal...
3 social classes – Nobility, Free Citizens and Slaves
Women enjoyed nearly equal rights – own land, own business &
trade...
City of Warka
Around 3000 B.C.E
•The city of Uruk (present day Warka in Iraq) was a large city with a
possible population of 50 thousand
•Dependent on a s...
•The temple of God Anu – White Temple
•It rested on top of a broad terrace on top of a tall
artificial mountain rising 13m...
Ci ty of Wa rka – T he Whi te Te m pl e
City of Ur
A millennium later… Around 2100 B.C.E
• Development of Urban Planning
• Courtyard houses
• Ziggurats
• Mud plaster, adobe construction (Earth, Water, Straw/dung...
•Ur, the capital city of ancient region of Sumer (now
south- eastern Iraq) stood on the Euphrates river near
the Persian g...
• The city of Ur was oval in shape, with Euphrates
flowing along its side
• Partly planned, partly organic
• Harbours on n...
Cities began to emerge in
Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) around
4500 years ago. Ur, the capital of
ancient Sumeria, was the wor...
• Hierarchy of Streets - Main wide boulevards ; narrow, twisting alleys
• Streets varied from narrow lanes to 2-3 m wide
•...
Re s i de ntial Q ua rte rs of U r - D om e sti c A rchi te cture
• House quality depended upon the wealth of the occupant...
Traffic along the twisted network of unpaved streets was mostly
pedestrian. At Ur, one sees on occasion a low flight of s...
Ur, residential area southeast
of the royal mausolea in the
twentieth century B.C.;Plan
The houses were , for the most pa...
Architects
designed perfect
house plan,
rectangles
divided neatly
into orthogonal
rooms around a
central living
space. But...
Re s i de ntial Q ua rte rs of U r - D om e sti c A rchi te cture
• Courtyard – Need for privacy, climate
• If there were ...
There were two
ways in which this
temple differed
from others in the
city. It stood on a
tremendous
platform called the
zi...
Uruk
For thousands of years,
Nippur was the
religious center of
Mesopotamia.
According to Sumerian
religion, it was at Nippur
w...
Z i g gurat of U r - Na m m u
• One of the most impressive structures of that time
• It was located in a Temple Complex of...
• Structure – Highly axial; Axis did not continue into surroundings
• Access to the court was diagonally from a gate at on...
Z i g gurat of U r - Na m m u
• The Ziggurat was a free standing structure
• Base – 100m X 65m; Height – 21m
• 3 terraces ...
Ci ty of U r – P re s e nt day re storati ons
Sumer, 3200-2350 B.C. Sargon’s Empire, 2350-
2320B.C.
The Dynasty of Ur, 2100-
2000B.C.
The Amorite invasions, 2100-1900 B...
Khorsabad:
The city was a royal Assyrian foundation, begun in 706 B.C., and
abandoned, unfinished, shortly afterward.
It c...
1. Citadel wall
2. Entrance court
3. Court of honor
4. Unexcavated
Khorsabad (the ancient Dur Sharrukin, Iraq),
Assyrian c...
Entrance
Court
Court Of
Honor
Temple
Un-
excavated
Citadel WallKhorsabad, citadel with royal palace
Khorsabad, citadel with royal palace
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture
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Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture

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Mesopotamian Civilization and Architecture

  1. 1. Abhishek K. Venkitaraman Assistant Professor HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE LECTURE 2 Mesopotamian
  2. 2. Ea rl y H um a n Mi grati on out of A f ri ca Earliest Homo Sapien fossils have been found in Ethiopia Africa West Asia Europe East & South Asia North America South America Australia
  3. 3. natural determinants topography (location) climate natural resources, building materials and technology man-made determinants trade political power religion defense mobility
  4. 4. EARLY CIVILIZATIONS
  5. 5. L ocati on of A nci e nt Me s opota m i a n Ci vi l i zati on
  6. 6. L ocati on of A nci e nt Me s opota m i a n Ci vi l i zati on This civilization rose in the valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (source in Turkey). Mostly dry desert climate, except in the region between 2 rivers The rivers flood every year and leave behind a thick bed of silt It is termed as the Fertile Crescent – dense network of cities and villages, grain- bearing valleys
  7. 7. Alluvial soil plain between 2 rivers Mesopotamia – In Greek mesos = middle, potamos = rivers Northern part is known as Akkad and south as Sumer South west – Arabian desert, South east – Persian gulf, North – Zagros mountains Natural defense boundaries were absent Arid landscape in which farming was impossible without irrigation A network of canals, irrigation channels and levees was developed Rivers caused floods seasonally – April and May Since 4000 BCE, the coastline has shifted outwards by 100 miles in the southern plain of Iraq Shi f ti ng of the Coa stl i ne
  8. 8. ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA Oldest known civilization Cradle of Human Civilization Ziggurat Hanging gardens
  9. 9. FIRST SUMERIANS Sumerians first arrived in region around 5000 BC ◦ Typical Paleolithic people motivated by search for game ◦ Settled in region and took up farming ◦ Built dams, dikes, and short canals to use water from the Euphrates ◦ Grew barley and dates and raised sheep and goats
  10. 10. SUMERIAN AGRICULTURE Each was crisscrossed by irrigation system of major canals and minor channels ◦ Designed to bring water from Euphrates to farmland Farmland divided into square and rectangle-shaped plots ◦ Farmers worked land with plows, seed-drills, and stone hoes and received yield of 40:1 Other areas set aside as gardens and fruit orchards Carts pulled by donkeys and boats on the canals took produce to the urban center itself
  11. 11. SOCIAL CLASSES Establishment of a social hierarchy where some people had more power, wealth, and privileges than others Equality originally prevailed in Sumerian city-states ◦ But divisions soon appeared ◦ First group to claim special privileges and status were priests ◦ Gave up working and began to live off work of others ◦ Temples given huge tracts of land which priests rented in small parcels to farmers The King The Governors The Aristocracy The Peasantry
  12. 12. SLAVERY Originated with practice of men selling themselves and/or their families to pay off debts ◦ Supplemented by using prisoners of war as slaves
  13. 13. Demand for slaves increased as civilization progressed ◦ Advance of civilization did not bring same benefits to everyone ◦ Some benefited a great deal ◦ Others saw a deterioration in their situation Civilization brought important benefits but it also introduced inequality, exploitation, taxes, and slavery
  14. 14. The Beginnings of Writing Farmers needed to keep records. The Sumerians were very good farmers. They raised animals such as goats and cows. Because they needed to keep records of their livestock, food, and other things, officials began using tokens. Tokens were used for trade. Clay tokens came in different shapes and sizes. These represented different objects. The number of tokens began to be pressed on the outside of the clay balls. Many experts believe that this is how writing on clay tablets began. A system of writing develops. The earliest form of writing dates back to 3300 B.C. People back then would draw "word-pictures" on clay tablets using a pointed instrument called a stylus. These "word-pictures" then developed into wedge-shaped signs. This type of script was called cuneiform (from the Latin word cuneus which means wedge). Who used cuneiform? Not everyone learned to read and write. The ones that were picked by the gods were called scribes. Boys that were chosen to become scribes (professional writers) began
  15. 15. Geography This civilization rose in the valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Some say this Fertile Crescent was the real Garden of Eden.
  16. 16. The layout of cities: There is not enough at the lower levels of explored mounds to give us a total image of the Mesopotamian city before the Early Dynastic Period. By then a dozen or so cities containing from 10,000 to 50,000 people prospered, both in lower Mesopotamia or Sumer and further north in Babylonia.
  17. 17. SUMERIAN CITY-STATES City-states gradually emerged over next 1000 years ◦ Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Nippur, Kish, Umma, etc. ◦ Larger than Neolithic settlements and displayed evidence of economic specialization and strong political organization Included the urban center plus surrounding countryside ◦ Each was also an independent political unit Lagash In the city-state (or state), kin and tribal loyalties are, by definition, subordinated and replaced by political ties.
  18. 18. Due to the fertile soil in Mesopotamia, farming was very successful. In fact, people were able to grow a surplus of food. This meant that some people could stop farming and begin doing other things As cities began to develop, people began to worry about others who might come and invade their city. They wanted to protect themselves from enemies, so people in Mesopotamia built walls around their cities Why di d the s e ci ti e s deve l op? Inventions - Writing Wagon wheel Potter’s wheel Number system, demarcation of time
  19. 19. Re l i gi ous Be l i efs - Z i g gurats Through daily rituals, attention to the deities, proper funeral practices and simple civic duty, the people of Mesopotamia felt they helped maintain balance in the world and kept the forces of chaos and destruction at bay •The Mesopotamian thinking - instruction for the layout and design of temple precincts came directly from the gods – in the form of a mysterious dream •Position of king was enhanced and supported by religion •Each god had control of certain things and each city was ruled by a different god •The belief that gods lived on the distant mountaintops gave rise to Ziggurats •The word ziggurat comes from the Assyrian for ‘raised up’ or ‘high’. Ziggurats were built in the centre of the city •Connection between heaven and earth •Stepped pyramid – Temple complex
  20. 20. Historical and Analytical account of cities in Mesopotamia Mesopotamia means “land between rivers”. Four broad segments of chronology Protoliterate Period, from ca.3500 to 3000 B.C. Early Dynastic Period, from 3000 to 2350 B.C. Sumerian Period, from 2350 to 1600 B.C. Assyrian Period, from 1350 to 612 B.C.
  21. 21. 2-Early Dynastic Period: When the role of these leaders was retained in times of peace as well, kingship, first elective and then hereditary, became established. With it raised the monumental palace, an administrative center which employed a large retinue of bureaucrats and entertainers & occupied itself with raising and supplying an army and maintaining the defensive system of the city. 1-Protoliterate Period: During this time , the towns, which had probably evolved from agricultural villages, acquired their battlements of ring walls; and the temple and the ziggurat began to gain architectural definition. Political authority resided in an assembly of male citizens that selected short-term war leaders. Uruk: a substantial ceremonial hub by 3500 B.C.
  22. 22. This period saw the rise of empire, the collective rule of several city-states through the might of a sovereign king. The first part of the period is dominated by the Third Dynasty of Ur whose prodigious building activity includes the Ziggurate of Ur- Nammu, the high point of that building type. 4-Assyrian Period: The northern region of the two rivers now flourishes at the expense of lower Mesopotamia. The Assyrian by their imposing state reliefs and their palaces, like the one at Khorsabad. Ziggurat of Ur Nammu
  23. 23. Timeline in Mesopotamia 3500-2000 B.C. (5500-4000 B.P.) 3500 B.C. Cities growing across Mesopotamia 3200 B.C. Pictographic record keeping 3000 B.C. Signs used to write Sumerian 2800 B.C. Legendary rulers like Gilgamesh 2600 B.C. Royal Tombs of Ur 2400 B.C. Signs become cuneiform 2300 B.C. Sumerian cities united by King Sargon of Agade (Akkad)
  24. 24. Cities 3000-2300 B.C.
  25. 25. Timeline 2200 B.C. Agade Empire expands and declines 2100 B.C. Ur becomes the capital of a new empire 2000 B.C. Ur destroyed by Elamites & Amorites
  26. 26. Agade Empire 2250 B.C. Empire united by King Sargon of Agade (Akkad)
  27. 27. Kingdoms 1800 B.C. 1800 B.C. Hammurabi unites much of Mesopotamia
  28. 28. 1500 B.C. 1500 B.C. Mitannian Empire controls north Mesopotamia Kassites control south Mesopotamia
  29. 29. 1200 B.C. 1300 B.C. Assyrians conquer much of Mesopotamia 1100 B.C. Aramaean and Chaldaean tribes become important
  30. 30. 650 B.C. 1000 B.C. Assyrians begin reconquest of Mesopotamia Babylon rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar II
  31. 31. 550 B.C. The Neo-Babylonian Empire
  32. 32. 500 B.C. Mesopotamia becomes part of the Achaemenid Persian empire
  33. 33. A Sumerian City Sumerian city streets were so narrow that you could hardly get a cart through them. Sumerian houses faced away from crowded streets. Instead, they faced onto courtyards where families ate and children played. Narrow Streets Courtyard Area On hot nights, people slept outdoors on the top of their house’s flat roof.
  34. 34. CITY CHARACTERISTICS Each city surrounded by walls ◦ Permanent garrisons of soldiers stationed in towers and at each gate Wide boulevards crossed city, lined by houses of the wealthy ◦ Rest of city made up of narrow, twisting alleys surrounded by small, flat-roofed huts ◦ Homes of farmers, and small craftsmen
  35. 35. 9000 BCE - Neolithic Agricultural Community A nci e nt town of Je ri cho
  36. 36. • Basic building material – Mud and Timber • Mud was mixed with reeds and laid in horizontal courses to make wall • Houses had rectilinear rooms – Each side measuring 1.5 to 2m. • Interior wall surfaces were decorated with gypsum plaster • Rock Gypsum was found in northern Iraq and Syria – Used locally and also exported as a trade commodity A nci e nt Me s opota m i a n H ous e s ( 3500 BCE )
  37. 37. • Complex social system – Existence of Social classes • Kings and Priests were on top • Earlier village- based civic loyalty to local chieftains • Akkadians came to dominate Mesopotamia- King Sargon brought the concept of Kingship – loyalty to a ruler • New idea of an administrative center • Vast Palace, offices, libraries, storage places • 2150 BCE – Akkadian dynasty was overthrown; Sumerian kingdom established • The realm of Kings of Ur was established Soci a l Syste m – A k ka di a n Pe ri od
  38. 38. 3 social classes – Nobility, Free Citizens and Slaves Women enjoyed nearly equal rights – own land, own business & trade Kings were stewards of God Priests- Managers of city’s economy and infrastructure, interpretation of omens for all activities A pantheon of Gods – Patron deities, smaller ones Life after death was portrayed as sad – Burial architecture was rare Wrote myths (Epic of Gilgamesh – 2100 BCE) Expanded trade with other cities City states which developed - Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Nippur, Kish, Umma Construction was done by slaves conquered from other lands Soci a l Syste m – Sum e ri a n Pe ri od
  39. 39. City of Warka Around 3000 B.C.E
  40. 40. •The city of Uruk (present day Warka in Iraq) was a large city with a possible population of 50 thousand •Dependent on a single economy of agriculture •Wheel was used and a system of weights was developed •Dedicated to God Anu – The God of sky Ci ty of Wa rka ( a nci ent U ruk ) • Surrounded by walls on all sides – 6 miles length and 50ft. high in places • At the centre of the city was a pyramid built of mud bricks with a platform on top for the temple of the City God • There are 17 layers of temples at Warka – constant elaboration • Earlies temples were simple boxes with an altar at the back and an oven at the front • Evolved an became larger – older temples were filled to create a mound on which new temples were built
  41. 41. •The temple of God Anu – White Temple •It rested on top of a broad terrace on top of a tall artificial mountain rising 13m above the plain •Access was by a stairway on the North Eastern face •It was a flight of narrow steps leading to the shrine •The shrine (18 m long) had an offering table and a hearth for fire Ci ty of Wa rka – T he Whi te Te m pl e
  42. 42. Ci ty of Wa rka – T he Whi te Te m pl e
  43. 43. City of Ur A millennium later… Around 2100 B.C.E
  44. 44. • Development of Urban Planning • Courtyard houses • Ziggurats • Mud plaster, adobe construction (Earth, Water, Straw/dung), glazed bricks, bitumen • Buildings were regularly destroyed, levelled and rebuilt on the same spot; level raised (Tel – Arabic word for hillock) Materials: • Earth plaster used to seal and finish exterior and interior spaces of common residences • Lime plaster used to seal and finish exterior and interior spaces of wealthy residences, places, and temples • A type of terrazzo used as flooring (Burnt lime + clay + natural colour pigment) • Terracotta panels used for decoration • Bitumen used to seal plumbing Fe ature s of Ci ty a nd Bui l ding Mate ri a l s
  45. 45. •Ur, the capital city of ancient region of Sumer (now south- eastern Iraq) stood on the Euphrates river near the Persian gulf. •It was the commercial centre and port, from about 3500- 1850 BCE •Between 3000- 2000 BCE, Ur served as the capital of the 3 major ruling families. •Third of these families, founded by King Ur-Nammu (2100 BCE) controlled a large empire that extended from Assyria in the north-west to the Elam in the south- east. Ci ty of U r SURROUNDING FIELDS AND VILLAGES
  46. 46. • The city of Ur was oval in shape, with Euphrates flowing along its side • Partly planned, partly organic • Harbours on north and west sides – Temple complex was between them and formed the focal point in the city • The sacred complex had a rectilinear layout and was in the north- west to catch the breeze • Surrounding walls to protect and impress • The city was surrounded by cultivated fields and villages outside the walls • Gates to enter within the city walls were had huge towers and decoration Ci ty of U r Late Babylonian Quarter
  47. 47. Cities began to emerge in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) around 4500 years ago. Ur, the capital of ancient Sumeria, was the world’s first city. It supported a complex and sophisticated society. Ur(Iraq): • The cities were closed by a wall and surrounded by suburban villages and hamlets. • The two monumental centers were the Ziggurat complex with its own defensive wall, overseen by a powerful priesthood, and Palace of the king. • Lesser temples were sprinkled here and there within the rest of the urban fabric, which was a promiscuous blend of residential and commercial architecture. • Small shops were at times incorporated into the houses. • In the later Sumerian period at Ur, an example of a bazaar was found. Ur, the capital city of Mesopotamia
  48. 48. • Hierarchy of Streets - Main wide boulevards ; narrow, twisting alleys • Streets varied from narrow lanes to 2-3 m wide • Streets were used as passageways and also to dump garbage Re s i de ntial Q ua rte rs of U r - D om e sti c A rchi te cture • Houses were built of sun-baked mud bricks • Windows were rare • Accumulation of garbage led to an increase in the elevation of the street – door threshold had to be raised • Roofs were made of mud layered on mats which were placed on wooden rafters • The processional road leading to the sacred temple precinct was the only planned passageway
  49. 49. Re s i de ntial Q ua rte rs of U r - D om e sti c A rchi te cture • House quality depended upon the wealth of the occupant • Houses had rooms organized around small courtyards • Better houses – baked brick foundation walls • The principal room was opposite to the entrance - used for meals and reception
  50. 50. Traffic along the twisted network of unpaved streets was mostly pedestrian. At Ur, one sees on occasion a low flight of steps against a building from which riders could mount, and the street corners were regularly rounded to facilitate passage. Street width at the very most , would be 3 meters (9 feet) or so, and that only for the few principal thoroughfares that led to the public buildings. These would be bordered with the houses of the rich. Poorer folk lived at the back ,along narrow lanes and alleys. Once walled the land became precious, and the high value of private property kept public space to a minimum. Ample squares or public gardens were very rare. The houses were grouped into congested blocks, where partition walls were common.
  51. 51. Ur, residential area southeast of the royal mausolea in the twentieth century B.C.;Plan The houses were , for the most part, one- storey structures of mud-brick, with several rooms wrapped around a central court. There were usually no outside windows, no attempt to contribute to a street architecture. The wealthier classes of Ur lived in ample hoses of dozen or so rooms, arranged on two storeys, and whitewashed inside and out.
  52. 52. Architects designed perfect house plan, rectangles divided neatly into orthogonal rooms around a central living space. But the reality of living town played havoc with the conceptual order of the architect. The building lots were not of uniform size. Each house was compelled to fit into a predetermined space. 1. Courtyard 2. Entry Vestibule 3. Reception Room (Liwan) 4. Private Chapel 5. Kitchen 6. Lavatory 7. Stair case 8. Drain 9.Shop Ur, Residential quarter between the Ziggurat precinct and the West Harbor , Plan 1. 1. 3. 8. 4. 2. 3. 1. 9. 1. 1. 4 . 5.6. 7.
  53. 53. Re s i de ntial Q ua rte rs of U r - D om e sti c A rchi te cture • Courtyard – Need for privacy, climate • If there were any windows facing the street, they were in the upper storey • There was a step sown from the vestibule to the central court • The central court was brick paved and slopes toward a central drain • The stairs and the lavatory were opposite to the guest room across the courtyard • The first flight of this stair leading to the second floor is very high to permit headroom in the lavatory • The family lived on the second level in a layout essentially duplicating the ground floor
  54. 54. There were two ways in which this temple differed from others in the city. It stood on a tremendous platform called the ziggurat, and being free of the pressures of density in its ample precinct, its form could afford to be both regular and open.
  55. 55. Uruk
  56. 56. For thousands of years, Nippur was the religious center of Mesopotamia. According to Sumerian religion, it was at Nippur where Enlil, the supreme god of the Sumerian pantheon, created mankind. Although never a capital city, Nippur had great political importance because royal rule over Mesopotamia was not considered legitimate without recognition in its temples. Thus, Nippur was the focus of pilgrimage and building programs by dozens of kings including Hammurabi of Babylon and Ashurbanipal of Assyria.
  57. 57. Z i g gurat of U r - Na m m u • One of the most impressive structures of that time • It was located in a Temple Complex of Nanna (the Moon God) • Innovative structure – For the first time the elements were united in a dramatic architectural design
  58. 58. • Structure – Highly axial; Axis did not continue into surroundings • Access to the court was diagonally from a gate at one of the corners Z i g gurat of U r - Na m m u
  59. 59. Z i g gurat of U r - Na m m u • The Ziggurat was a free standing structure • Base – 100m X 65m; Height – 21m • 3 terraces with the sacred shrine on the highest one • 3 monumental staircases on the North-East side, converging into a canopied vestibule at the top of the first platform • From there, a central stair continued to the second stage and the third. • Main lines were built with slight curves to correct optical illusion • Mud bricks reinforced with reeds
  60. 60. Ci ty of U r – P re s e nt day re storati ons
  61. 61. Sumer, 3200-2350 B.C. Sargon’s Empire, 2350- 2320B.C. The Dynasty of Ur, 2100- 2000B.C. The Amorite invasions, 2100-1900 B.C. Reign of Hammurapi of Babylon, 1792-1750 B.C.
  62. 62. Khorsabad: The city was a royal Assyrian foundation, begun in 706 B.C., and abandoned, unfinished, shortly afterward. It covered 2.5 Sq.Km. (almost 1 Sq.mile). There were two arched gates on each side of the square, guarded by stone demons in the form of human-headed bulls. On the North-West side one of the gates had been replaced by a bastion that served as a platform for the royal place. The Royal place: The administrative court of honor is at the top of the plan, with the great Throne Room on the left. The entrance court is associated with a number of temples grouped along the west side. They were all served by single ziggurat that was no other example of this Mesopotamian building type. KHORSABAD
  63. 63. 1. Citadel wall 2. Entrance court 3. Court of honor 4. Unexcavated Khorsabad (the ancient Dur Sharrukin, Iraq), Assyrian city founded by SargonII (721-705 B.C.), Plan 2. 3. 4.
  64. 64. Entrance Court Court Of Honor Temple Un- excavated Citadel WallKhorsabad, citadel with royal palace
  65. 65. Khorsabad, citadel with royal palace

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