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1. Introduction 2. Concept of vibration and waves 3. Queen Bee 4. The Hive
Vibration is the back
and forth motion of an
object in a certain time
interval through the
A wave is a disturbance that
propagates energy from one
point to another. Waves can
also be interpreted as the
propagation of vibrational
energy from one point to
he time it takes to make
the number of vibrations that
occur per unit of time..
Maximum deviation or the
farthest deviation from the
the distance between the
position of the vibrating object
and the equilibrium point..
According to M. Ali Yaz, a sound is a wave caused by the
vibration of an object and propagated through the medium from
one place to another.
Sound can also be interpreted as the result of vibrations of an
object that propagates in the form of waves. For this reason,
sounds are often referred to as sound waves.
This sound cannot be
heard by humans, and
hasa can be heard by
only a few animals
including dogs, spiders,
Audiosonic sound is sound
that can be heard by humans
and many other living things
This sound cannot be heard
by humans and can only be
heard by certain animals,
namely bats and dolphins
Consist of a hair with a base portion
containing a nerve supply
Consist a group of scolophores taht
atached at one end by a spinous process
to the tympanic membrane (eardrum).
In some species the development of
elaborate antennal plumes and brushlike
terminations has led the suggestion they
also serve for hearing
The electrode that placed on the nerve
trunk of the organ that rich nerve supply a
discharge of impulses can be detected
when the brush is exposed to sound
The reptilian auditory apparatus is typically
made up of a typanum, a thin membrane
located at the rearof the head; the stapes, a
small bone running between the typanum and
the skull in the tympanic cavity (the middle
ear); the inner ear; and a eustachian tube
connecting the middle ear with the mouth
Sonar or Sound Navigation and Ranging is a
method of using ultrasonic waves to estimate
the size, shape, and depth of objects.
The sonar system is a system that is used to
detect places in motion by detecting high-
frequency (ultrasonic) sounds.
-Bats very rarely crash into cave walls
or the walls in front of them.
-Bats emit high frequency sounds
(ultrasonic sound, f>20,000 Hz)
-Dolphins have a system that allows
them to communicate and receive
stimuli, namely the sonar system.
- This system is useful for sensing
objects in the ocean, foraging for food,
Dolphins breathe through holes in the
top of their heads. Just below this hole,
there are small pockets filled with air.
By passing air through these sacs,
dolphins produce high-frequency
sounds. These air sacs act as acoustic
mirrors that focus the sound produced
by tiny lumps of fatty tissue just below
the respiratory opening.
The sound of an elephant calling its group
is an example of infrasound sound. listening
to low frequencies and are most sensitive at
Elephants themselves are known to be able
to communicate among members of their
group through sounds like trumpets. In
motion communication, elephants also
communicate among group members by
wrapping and touching their trunks.
With large ears, elephants can hear the
sound of clouds gathering before the rain.
Elephants can pick up infrasound waves
They also hear with their feet, using nerve
endings that detect ground vibrations.
The process of producing the human
voice can be analogous to the sound
produced by a harmonica. The
harmonica player produces sounds in
his mouth with vibrations on his lips
that come from the air passing from
Sound is produced when an aerodynamic
phenomenon occurs that causes the vocal cords to
vibrate rapidly. The speed of the vibration cycle can
be distinguished by gender and age.
a man :110 vibration per second “low pitch”
•A womam : 220 vibration per second “ hight pitch”
•A kids: 300 vibration per second “ highest pitch”
The following briefly
describes the process of
1. The air pressure column
is moved towards the vocal
•2. The vocal cords vibrate
according to the vibration
•3. Voice channel–
In measuring the difference in sound, especially between one person and
another, two parameters are used, namely frequency and
amplitude. Loudness occurs when there is an increase in the amplitude of the
vocal cord vibrations. This increase is due to increased airflow, causing the
vocal cords to become wider. While pitch (sound height) occurs when there is
an increase in the frequency of vibrations in the vocal cords.
Frequency is the number of times the pendulum crosses its diameter per
second. Frequency measures the speed of vibration.
Amplitude is how far the pendulum swings away from its centerline, in any
direction. Amplitude measures the strength of the vibration. Amplitude is
measured in decibels (dB).
vocal folds (vocal fold)
Soft tissue in the form of folds
that are the main vibration
component of the larynx. It
consists of a cover (epithelium,
basement membrane, and
superficial lamina propria),
vocal ligaments (intermediate
and deep lamina propria), and a
muscle). These layers work
together to produce vocal cord