Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by
Adobe Systems. It was first released in 1990 for Macintosh exclusively.
Creating New File
When creating a new file, click File then New. Or you can simply hold Ctrl+N as the
Upon clicking New, a dialog box will appear. It has the name of the document,
image size, and its contents.
Resolution: Resolution refers to the number of pixels in a full size image. An
image with hi resolution contains more information than an image with lo
resolution, and therefore, one can always convert a hi-res image to a lo-res image.
However, because information is lost in the conversion, the reverse is not true. If
you were to increase the resolution of a lo-res image, the result would be fuzzy.
Screen resolution is close to 72 pixels per inch, so if you are working with graphics
to be viewed only on screen, 72 should be fine. Depending on the printer you are
using, you would want to increase this above 72 for graphics that will be printed.
300 is usually an acceptable resolution for images to be printed; 150 would be the
lowest acceptable resolution for printing.
Image Size: Resolution should not be confused with image size, which is also
expressed in pixels. Image size deals with the actual number of pixels tall and wide
an image is. For an idea of how the two differ, go to Image Size in the Image
menu, and plug in different numbers for image size and resolution.
Color mode: Color mode refers to the types of colors you will be using in your
image. CMYK and RGB are the most important of these modes to be familiar with.
CMYK is the setting for images that will be printed to paper. The letters refer
to the four channels of color used to create every color available: cyan,
magenta, yellow, and black.
RGB refers to the three channel color mode suitable for images to be viewed
on the web: red, green, and blue.
Now that we have an open Photoshop document, we can begin to use some of the
basic Photoshop tools.
NAVIGATING THE WORKSPACE
The Menu Bar
The menu bar consists of nine menus: File, Edit, Image, Layer, Select, Filter, View,
Window, and Help. Take a few moments now to look at each of the menus. You
may notice that some menu commands are followed by ellipses (...). This indicates
a command that is followed by a dialog box where you can enter additional
settings. Some menu commands are followed by a right pointing arrow. This
indicates a submenu of related commands. As you explore each menu, be sure to
take a look at the submenus as well. You'll also notice that many commands are
followed by keyboard shortcuts.
File menu contains all of the stuff you’d expect it to, with a few extras
including Import, which deals with scanning, and Save for Web, which allows
you to export a web-ready image from your Photoshop file.
Edit menu is another familiar menu. In Photoshop, edit houses all of the
expected options as well as Fill & Stroke, and other image-altering functions.
Items on the Image menu affect a whole image, for the most part. Here
you’ll find color adjustments, size adjustments, and any other changes you
need to make globally when working with a Photoshop file.
The layer menu is similar to the image menu, but it contains options that
effect only current or selected layers. I’ll explain layers a little later, but for
now, just understand that an image in Photoshop consists of stacked
transparent layers; options in the Layer menu affect these pieces of the
image rather than the complete image.
The select menu deals with selections you make. Selecting the specific parts
of an image you’d like to alter is a difficult part of working in Photoshop. This
menu gives you some options regarding selections, including the ability to
save selections, reverse them, or add to them. Learning the options on the
selection menu can really save you some time.
The filter menu is probably what most people think about when they think
about Photoshop. The filter menu allows you to apply filters to any part of
your image. These filters include ways to change the texture of the image,
with some potentially radical results.
The view menu is where you change the view settings. You can use this to
show and display guidelines on the image, and to zoom in and out, among
The window menu allows you to toggle back and forth between hide and
show for each interface element. This is the first place you should go if you
lose track of a particular window while you’re working.
Last and least, of course, is the help menu. The help documentation isn’t so
helpful, but for some reason, this menu contains two nice features: resize
image, and export transparent image, which I’ll get to later.
The Options Bar
The options bar, which is located directly underneath the menus, is a useful tool
when working with the different Photoshop tools. As you can see right now, when
the selection tool is in use, the options bar reflects the changes that can be made to
how that specific tool operates. Here, you have selection options, and style options,
which include the ability to make the selection tool a specific size in pixels. When
you switch tools, to the paintbrush tool for instance, these options change. When a
tool in Photoshop isn't behaving as you expect it to, the options bar should be the
first place you look to fix it.
The Status Bar
To the far left of the status bar you will see the magnification level of
the active document. You can swipe your cursor in this area and type in a
new number to change the magnification of your document.
To return your document to 100% magnification, locate the zoom tool in
the toolbox and double click the button. The keyboard equivalent to this
shortcut is Ctrl-Alt-0.
To the left of the magnification display on the
status bar, you will see a display of document sizes. The number on the left
displays the uncompressed size of the image if it were to have all layers
flattened. The number on the right displays the uncompressed size of the
document including all layers and channels. It's important to know that both
of these numbers will usually be larger than the final file size of the saved
Next to the Document sizes display there is
a small black arrow that pops up a menu.
You'll find this arrow other places in the
Photoshop workspace, so when you see it,
remember that there is a menu hiding
there. In this case, the menu allows you to change what is displayed in this
area of the status bar. In addition to Document Sizes, you can optionally
choose to display Scratch Sizes, Efficiency, Timing, or the current tool.
When you first open Photoshop, the palettes are stacked along the right edge of
your screen in palette groups. The first group contains the Navigator, Info, and
Options palettes. Next is the Color Swatches, and Brushes palettes. Below that are
the History and Actions Palettes. Finally, you have the Layers, Channels, and Paths
All sorts of information is displayed in these palletes, and therefore they can get a
little confusing. They display location information, tool options, and history, among
Palette groups can be moved around in the workspace by clicking on the title bar
and dragging. Each palette group has a collapse and a close button in the title bar
Color Palette Expanded
Color Palette Partially Collapsed
Color Palette Completely Collapsed
A small arrow next to a tool in the toolbox indicates that the tool also
has additional options available. In Photoshop, click and hold your mouse
on a tool to see its options. For example, if you click and hold on the select
tool, you'll see select options such as elliptical selection, single row
Now hold your cursor over one of the buttons and you should
see a tooltip appear that tells you the name of the tool and its
Moving down in the toolbox, we come to the color swatches.
This is where the foreground and background colors are
displayed. The tiny arrow to the top right allows you to swap
foreground and background colors. The tiny black and white
swatch symbol to the lower left allows you to reset the colors to the default
of black foreground and white background.
The next two buttons on the toolbox allow you to toggle between
quick mask and selection mode.
Below that you have a set of three buttons that allow you to change
the appearance of the workspace. Hold your cursor over each button to see
what it does. Notice the keyboard shortcut for all three is F. Hitting F
repeatedly toggles between all three modes.
You can toggle the menu bar on and off with the Shift-F key combination.
In any screen mode you can toggle the toolbox, status bar, and palettes on
and off with the Tab key. To hide only palettes and leave the toolbox visible,
Tools and its Functions
Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-
editing functions appears to the left of the screen. These tools typically fall under
the categories of selection, cropping, and slicing; drawing; painting;
measuring and navigation; typing; and retouching. Some tools contain a small
triangle in the bottom right of the toolbox icon. These can be expanded to reveal
similar tools. While newer versions of Photoshop are updated to include new tools
and features, several recurring tools that exist in most versions are discussed
Selection Tools Gallery
The marquee tool can make selections that are single row, single column,
rectangular and elliptical. Once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool
can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas.
The lasso tool is similar to the marquee tool; however, the user can make a custom
selection by drawing it freehand. In addition, the lasso tool can make magnetic and
The marquee tools
elliptical, single row,
and single column
The Move tool moves
The lasso tools make
The Quick Selection
tool lets you quickly
“paint” a selection
using an adjustable
round brush tip
The Magic Wand tool
Note: Selections refer to regions in an image that will be affected by the various tools. A
selection in Photoshop is similar to a selection that you highlight in a word processing
application. Once you have selected an area, you can apply a tool to it, such as paintbrush,
or perform an operation such as copy or crop. Selections can be any shape and size; the
shape depends on which selection tool you are working with.
Your selection will apply only to the current layer. If that layer is empty in the region
selected, you will get an error message. When this happens, go to the layers pane and
select the correct layer.
Crop and slice tools gallery
The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the
portions outside of the chosen section. This tool assists in creating a focus point on
an image and excluding unnecessary or excess space.
The "slice" and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of
images. The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and
these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and
CSS are applied. The slice select tool allows sliced sections of an image to be
adjusted and shifted.
The Crop tool trims images. The Slice tool creates slices. The Slice Select tool selects slices.
Healing Tools Gallery
With improvement retouching tools like the Clone Stamp tool and Healing Brush
tool, imperfections of an image can easily be removed. These tools essentially
function by locating a source point (or multiple source points) that can be scaled or
rotated in order to cover an imperfection or unwanted detail in a specific area of an
The Spot Healing
Brush tool removes
blemishes and objects
The Healing Brush
tool paints with a
sample or pattern to
repair imperfections in
The Patch tool repairs
imperfections in a
selected area of an
image using a sample
The Red Eye tool
removes the red
reflection caused by a
Retouching tools gallery
There are several tools that are used for retouching, manipulating and adjusting
photos, such as the clone stamp, eraser, burn, dodge, smudge and blur tools. The
clone stamp tool samples a selected portion of an image, and duplicates it over
another area using a brush that can be adjusted in size, flow and opacity. The
smudge tool, when dragged across part of an image, stretches and smudges pixels
as if they are real paint, and the blur tool softens portions of an image by lowering
the amount of detail within the adjusted area. The eraser tool removes pixels from
an image, and the magic eraser tool selects areas of solid color and erases them.
The burn and dodge tools, which are derived from traditional methods of adjusting
the exposure on printed photos, have opposite effects; the burn tool darkens
selected areas, and the dodge tool lightens them.
The Clone Stamp
tool paints with a
sample of an
Stamp tool paints
with part of an
image as a
The Eraser tool
erases pixels and
restores parts of
an image to a
Eraser tool erases
The Magic Eraser tool
areas to transparency
with a single click.
The Blur tool blurs
hard edges in an
The Sharpen tool
sharpens soft edges in
The Smudge tool
smudges data in an
The Dodge tool lightens
areas in an image.
The Burn tool
darkens areas in an
The Sponge tool
changes the color
saturation of an area.
Painting tools gallery
A few of the painting tools in Photoshop are the brush, pencil, gradient and paint
bucket tools. These can be used to retouch images by altering and adding colored
pixels. Original paintings can be created using the brush tool, since it has many
different default brush-tips, and brush strokes be easily adjusted in size, shape and
texture. There is an option to create custom brushes to suit the user's needs, and
original brushes and brush packages can be found on the web.
The pencil tool allows the user to paint rough strokes on the canvas, creating a
similar effect to a real pencil on paper. The gradient, fill and paint bucket tools are
similar to each other, as they each fill areas of the canvas with color.
The Brush tool paints
The Pencil tool paints
replaces a selected
color with a new
The Mixer Brush tool
such as blending
canvas colors and
varying paint wetness.
The History Brush
tool paints a copy of
the selected state or
snapshot into the
The Art History brush
tool paints with stylized
strokes that simulate
the look of different
paint styles, using a
selected state or
The gradient tools
The Paint Bucket tool
fills similarly colored
areas with the
Drawing and type tools gallery
Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool. The pen tool creates precise
paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The freeform pen tool allows
the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path
attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them
from a background.
Photoshop also provides tools for adding and editing text. The type tools create an
area where text can be entered, and the type mask tools create a selection area
that has the shape of text. The type tool creates vector-based text, so symbols,
letters and numbers in various fonts and colors can be re-sized while maintaining
the same resolution.
The path selection tools
make shape or segment
anchor points, direction
lines, and direction
The type tools create
type on an image.
The type mask tools
create a selection in
the shape of type.
The pen tools let you
The shape tools and
Line tool draw shapes
and lines in a normal
layer or a shape layer.
The Custom Shape
tool makes customized
shapes selected from a
custom shape list.
Note on Text Tool: When you engage the type tool, what you type automatically becomes
its own layer and is given what is typed as a layer name. This is a very helpful feature
when dealing with multiple text layers. Double click the T to easily edit the text.
If you want to merge a text layer with an image layer, the text layer must be rasterized, or
converted to an image first. Once this is done, you can no longer edit the text. Unless you
are using text in an illustration or altering letters, this may not even be necessary.
Navigation, notes, and measuring tools gallery
The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and
samples it for future use. The hand tool navigates an image by moving it in any
direction, and the zoom tool enlarges the part of an image that is clicked on,
allowing for a closer view.
The Hand tool moves
an image within its
The Rotate View tool
rotates the canvas.
The Zoom tool
magnifies and reduces
the view of an image.
The Note tool makes
notes that can be
attached to an image.
The Eyedropper tool
samples colors in an
The Color Sampler
tool displays color
values for up to four
The Ruler tool
locations, and angles.
The Count tool counts
objects in an image.
The Filter Gallery
To really get a feel for what Photoshop can do, PLAY WITH FILTERS! Just make a
selection and try something from the filters menu.
Because you have multiple levels of undo and step backward, you can try some
really elaborate combinations of effects without worrying that you'll ruin your file.
Filter Gallery will look like this:
Working with Layers
Photoshop documents are composed of layers, which can basically be described as
single transparent sheets which hold particular pieces of an image. These layers can
contain images, text, and vector graphics, and can be rearranged and grouped
according to user needs. Layers are controlled with the use of the Layers pane.
Often times, when you find yourself frustrated with Photoshop, it is because you are
trying to perform operations on a layer that is not currently selected. Simply click
on the name of a layer in order to designate it as the current layer. Whenever you
add text to an image in Photoshop, the text appears on a new layer. You can
"merge down" layers to consolidate them, and "flatten image" to force the entire
contents of the image onto one layer.
The easiest way to explain layers is with an example. The following image shows a
Photoshop document containing two layers, a background layer and a text layer:
Each layer can be manipulated, drawn on, and moved around independently of any
other layer. Imagine that each layer is actually a physical sheet of clear plastic, with
the graphic imprinted on the plastic:
The Layers Palette
When we open an existing file or create a brand new one,
the canvas in front of us lies on its own layer. Generally
this layer is already named background and we can see it
in the layers palette on the right hand side of the
The layers palette is the control panel for layers in
Photoshop. Layers can be placed one on top of another
and moved around by clicking on the layer name and
dragging the mouse up or down.
There are a number of ways to create a layer. The
simplest involves clicking on the "Create New Layer"
icon at the bottom right of the layers palette.
You can also use the "Layer"
menu located at the top of the
screen and select New->Layer.
Here you will also see the
keyboard shortcut command.
Additionally the keyboard shortcut of Ctrl+Shift+N. With the creation of a layer in
this way Photoshop will ask for a name for the layer. Name your layer or just ignore
the pop-up clicking "OK" and a new layer appears in the layer palette.
Layers can also be named by
double clicking on the name of
the layer (layer1) in the layers
Another advantage to layering your work is that at any time a layer can be
temporarily hidden from view by clicking on the "eye" icon next to the desired layer
in the layers palette. Hidden layers are not affected when
editing on the current layer. To show the layer again,
click again on the eye icon. The layer will reappear.
Layers can also be linked together. This is handy
when moving layers and things around with the
"Move Tool." Linking one layer to another holds them
relative to each other. If one moves, then the other
moves. Link layers together by clicking in the vacant
box that lies adjacent to the eye.
Just like a real sheet of plastic, you can "slide" your
layer around on the page. To do this, select the Move
tool (the arrow with the crosshair next to it, at the
top of the Tools palette), or press the V key. Select
the layer you want to work with in the Layers palette
(e.g. the "Stonehenge" layer in our example), then
you can move the layer around by clicking with the
mouse in the document window and dragging:
A nice shortcut is to just hold down the Control key
and drag to move your layer around. This has the
advantage that you don't have to switch to the Move tool and back again - the
current tool remains active while you move the layer.
You can also move layers above or below other layers in the document. To do this,
click on the layer in the Layers palette and drag it so that it's where you want it to
You'll often want to duplicate an existing layer so that you can work on a copy of it.
To make a copy of a layer, either drag the layer in the Layers palette to the New
icon at the bottom of the palette, or select the layer and then select Layer >
Duplicate Layer (this method allows you to name the new layer too).
If you get carried away with your layers and you want to delete one, find the layer
in the Layers palette and drag it down to the little trash can icon. Or select Delete
Layer from the Layer menu.
Saving Photoshop Document
After editing an image, you can save the current document as a photoshop
document or .psd. A .psd file is the file format in which Photoshop saves
documents by default. It is a multi-layer document that retains its full editing
options when saved. In many cases you will export webgraphics from a .psd
The edited image can also be saved as JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP, etc.
Agoot, Ma. Regel
Aquino, Maria Fatima
Cabual, Joana Ashley
Cemania, Mark John
Escalante, Queenie Mae
Jamero, Jose Carlos