COOP 4073 Cooperative Business Planning and
Judy Grace Barcarse
Ma. Joana Barrion
Adrian Paolo Ruiz
Prof. Al A. Fontamillas
Semester, SY 2013-2014
A budget (derived from old French word bougette, purse) is a quantified financial
plan for a forthcoming accounting period.
Budget is a detailed plan defining or outlining the sourcing and uses and
financial and other resources of the company in a given period of time. This is the plan
expressed in quantitative terms. Every organization or individual has to budget their
scarce resources to make the best use of resources (time, money, and energy.)
A budget is an important concept in microeconomics, which uses a budget line to
illustrate the trade-offs between two or more goods. In other terms, a budget is an
organizational plan stated in monetary terms.
Budgeting is a necessary exercise in a business firm that should be performed in
order to plan for the present and the future. Budgeting is the process of stating in
quantitative terms their operations, usually in units and pesos and planned their
organizational activities for a given period of time. Budgeting is the best approach to
planning, controlling as well as cost reduction program of the company.
ADVANTAGES OF BUDGETING
Budgeting forces managers to do better forecasting. Managers should be
constantly scanning the business environment to spot changes that will impact the
business. Vague generalizations about what the future may hold for the business are
not good enough for assembling a budget. Managers must put their predictions into
definite and concrete forecasts.
Budgeting motivates managers and employees by providing useful yardsticks
for evaluating performance. The budgeting process can have a good motivational
impact by involving managers in the budgeting process and by providing incentives
to managers to strive for and achieve the business’s goals and objectives.
Budgets provide useful information for superiors to evaluate the performance
of managers and can be used to reward good results. You can work with
employees to set up their goals for a budgeting period, and possibly also tie bonuses
or other incentives to how they perform. You can then create budget versus actual
reports to give employees feedback regarding how they are progressing toward their
goals. This approach is most common with financial goals, though operational goals
(such as reducing the product rework rate) can also be added to the budget for
performance appraisal purposes. This system of evaluation is called responsibility
accounting. For example, budgets supply baseline financial information for incentive
compensation plans. And the profit plan (budget) for the year can be used to award
year-end bonuses according to whether designated goals were achieved.
Budgeting can assist in the communication between different levels of
management. Putting plans and expectations in black and white in budgeted
financial statements — including definite numbers for forecasts and goals —
minimizes confusion and creates a kind of common language. Well-crafted budgets
can definitely help the communication process.
Budgeting is essential in writing a business plan. New and emerging businesses
need to present a convincing business plan when raising capital. Because these
businesses may have little or no history, the managers and owners must
demonstrate convincingly that the company has a clear strategy and a realistic plan
to make profit. A coherent, realistic budget forecast is an essential component of a
Planning orientation. The process of creating budget takes management away
from its short-term, day-to-day management of the business and forces it to think
longer-term. This is the chief goal of budgeting, even if management does not
succeed in meeting its goals as outlined in the budget - at least it is thinking about
the company's competitive and financial position and how to improve it.
Provide structure. A budget is especially useful for giving a company guidance
regarding the direction in which it is supposed to be going. Thus, it forms the basis
for planning what to do next. A CEO would be well advised to impose a budget on a
company that does not have a good sense of direction. Of course, a budget will not
provide much structure if the CEO promptly files away the budget and does not
review it again until the next year. A budget only provides a significant amount of
structure when management refers to it constantly, and judges employee
performance based on the expectations outlined within it.
Model scenarios. If a company is faced with a number of possible paths down
which it can travel, you can create a set of budgets, each based on different
scenarios, to estimate the financial results of each strategic direction.
Profitability review. It is easy to lose sight of where a company is making most of
its money, during the scramble of day-to-day management. A properly structured
budget points out what aspects of the business produce money and which ones use
it, which forces management to consider whether it should drop some parts of the
business, or expand in others. However, this advantage only applies to a budget
sufficiently detailed to describe profits at the product, product line, or business unit
Assumptions review. The budgeting process forces management to think about
why the company is in business, as well as its key assumptions about its business
environment. A periodic re-evaluation of these issues may result in altered
assumptions, which may in turn alter the way in which managements decides to
operate the business.
Funding planning. A properly structured budget should derive the amount of cash
that will be spun off or which will be needed to support operations. This information
is used by the treasurer to plan for the company's funding needs.
Predict cash flows. Companies that are growing rapidly, have seasonal sales, or
which have irregular sales patterns have a difficult time estimating how much cash
they are likely to require in the near term, which results in periodic cash-related
crises. A budget is useful for predicting cash flows in the short term, but yields
increasingly unreliable results further into the future.
Cash allocation. There is only a limited amount of cash available to invest in fixed
assets and working capital, and the budgeting process forces management to
decide which assets are most worth investing in.
Bottleneck analysis. Nearly every company has a bottleneck somewhere, and the
budgeting process can be used to concentrate on what can be done to either
expand the capacity of that bottleneck or to shift work around it.
Cost reduction analysis. A company that has a strong system in place for continual
cost reduction can use a budget to designate cost reduction targets that it wishes to
Shareholder communications. Large investors may want a benchmark against
which they can measure the company’s progress. Even if a company chooses not to
lend much credence to its own budget, it may still be valuable to construct a
conservative budget to share with investors. The same argument holds true for
lenders, who may want to see a budget versus actual results comparison from time
Price Setting. Market conditions such as your competitors’ prices aren’t the only
parameters you need to set your fees, rates and prices. You must know your
manufacturing and overhead costs before you set your prices. A budget lets you
project your utility, health care, marketing, rent, wages, debt service and other costs
so you can learn the true cost per unit of making your products or delivering your
service. Once you know this, you can set your prices to make the profit you want. If
this price is too high for you to be competitive in your marketplace, you can use your
budget to identify areas where you can reduce your costs.
Capital and Credit Procurement. Few venture capitalists, banks, suppliers or other
lenders will give you money or credit unless you have financial data to demonstrate
you are a going concern. Unless you have assets you can use as collateral, you’ll
need to show financial statements that prove you are stable. If you are a new
business, or are expanding, a budget will show potential partners how their
participation will affect your sales and profits.
Flexibility. A budget lets you track your business’ performance throughout the year,
allowing you to make necessary changes to rein in costs or increase spending to
take advantage of growth opportunities. If your marketing is effective, a budget will
let you know if you have funds available to increase your advertising to grow your
sales. If your sales are slow, a budget identifies areas where you can cut
discretionary costs to make you more competitive or tide you through slow periods.
PURPOSE OF BUDGETING
First and foremost, a business budget is a planning tool. It allows businesses
to attain their goals through planning how to use revenue and expenses. Businesses
should use budgeting to look back at previous time periods and to look forward at
future time periods. A business’s master budget is a plan of financial activities
involving assets, liabilities, equity, revenue, expenses, and costs for a given time
Owners first develop a master or static budget with the numbers based on the
planned inputs (sales revenue) and outputs (expenses) for the firm. Think of this in
very simple terms. The owner is looking at what the firm will take in from sales
revenue and what the firm will pay out in expenses. The budget is done for a specific
period of time, perhaps a month, a quarter, or a year.
Businesses also use budgets for the purpose of control. If owners have a
master budget to follow, then they can carefully control expenditures during the time
period of the budget by comparing them to the master budget. Budgets help prevent
overspending. The budget also gives the company a benchmark to use by which to
evaluate the firm. Not only can expenditures be monitored, but so can revenue
Budgets cannot always stay static or the same. There are times when
expenditures must change from the budgeted amount and revenues will change
from that which is forecasted. Budgets are not designed to stay the same. Business
owners know when they are developed that there will be changes in just about every
line item by the end of the time period. Budgets, however, give some guidelines to
the firm and prescribe some sort of limits.
Budgeting helps to motivate managers and employees to strive to achieve
Evaluation of Performance
Budgets are a valuable tool for owners to use to evaluate the performance of
their firm at the end of the time period that the budget covers. Owners should look at
actual expenses, for example, as compared to budgeted, or planned, expenditures.
By doing this, the owner can see how much actual expenses varied from planned
expenses in order to improve the budgeting process in the next time period.
The same is true for the revenue side of the equation. Owners want to see if
planned revenue equaled actual revenue as this will help them plan revenue inputs
for the future.
It also helps co-ordinate the activities of the organization by compelling
managers to examine relationships between their own operation and those of other
In summary, the purpose of budgeting is tools:
1. Tools provide a forecast of revenues and expenditures, that is, construct a model
of how a business might perform financially if certain strategies, events and
plans are carried out.
2. Tools enable the actual financial operation of the business to be measured
against the forecast.
3. Lastly, tools establish the cost constraint for a project, program, or operation.
CLASSIFICATION AND SCOPE OF BUDGET
The master budget is also known as the financial plan. Master budgets form the
basis of the control systems in organizations. The master budget may take the form of a
profit and loss account and a balance sheet at the end of the budget period. It shows
the gross and the net profits and the important accounting ratios. It has three
A. Capital budget. Capital budgeting is budgeting for the large expenses in a
business firm. This is used to determine whether an organization's long term
investments such as new machinery, replacement machinery, new plants, new
products, and research development projects are worth pursuing. It is the
process of budgeting for obtaining, expanding, and replacing fixed assets. Doing
a good job budgeting for fixed assets like buildings, equipment, tools, and other
fixed assets that last more than one year is important simply because they last a
B. Cash Flow/ Cash Budget. This is a prediction of future cash receipts and
expenditures for a particular time period. It usually covers a period in the short
term future. The cash flow budget helps the business determine when income
will be sufficient to cover expenses and when the company will need to seek
outside financing. The cash flow budget is incredibly important for the business
firm. It is a budget showing expected cash inflows (receipts) and cash outflows
(expenses). The cash flow budget shows whether or not enough cash will be
available to meet monthly expenses. If not, the cash flow budget shows how you
can borrow if you don't have enough money to meet expenses and how you can
invest if you have more money than you need in a given month.
C. Operating Budget – This is the detailed schedule for each item in the operation
of business (sales, production, purchases and operating expenses). A business's
forecasted revenues along with forecasted expenses, usually for a period of one
year or less. The operating budget is based primarily on the firm's sales forecast.
It is a budget of sales revenue minus expenses and essentially ends up with
gross profit. In the operating budget, you have to determine what you need in
sales revenue to meet your expenses and achieve your profit goal.
Sales budget – or Sales Forecast, is the starting point of all operating
budget. It is a detailed schedule showing the expected sales for the
coming year. It shows both peso sales and units of products or level of
services. It is used to create company sales goals.
Revenue budget – consists of revenue receipts of government and the
expenditure met from these revenues. Tax revenues are made up of taxes
and other duties that the government levies.
Expenditure budget – includes spending data items; an estimate
prepared for travel, utilities, office supplies, telephone, and many other
common business expenses for a given period.
Production budget – starts with the sales budget's estimates of the total
number of units projected to be sold to meet the sales goals, then
translates this information into estimates of the cost of labor, material, and
other expenses required to produce them. Production budget involves
planning the level of production which in turn involves the answer to the
What is to be produced?
When is it to be produced?
How is it to be produced?
Where is it to be produced?
Marketing budget – an estimate of the funds needed for promotion,
advertising, and public relations in order to market the product or service.
Project budget – a prediction of the costs associated with a particular
company project. These costs include labor, materials, and other related
expenses. The project budget is often broken down into specific tasks,
with task budgets assigned to each. A cost estimate is used to establish a
Cost of Goods Sold budget – shows the total number of units sold and
its average unit prices; includes direct labor and manufacturing overhead
budgets for a manufacturing firm which are related to production budget.
Budgeted Income Statement – is prepared based on the detailed
operating budgets and will show how profitable operations in the period.
This will be used as the basis for evaluating the performance of the
company by comparing the budget and the actual results at the end of
Cost of Goods Sold
Even though yearly budgets are the most commonly used, the length of time of a
budget depends on its purpose and nature. A capital budget may extend for a couple of
years if, for example, it entails building a warehouse. But, whether a budget is a capital
or operating budget, they are usually broken down into smaller periods of time to better
control their activities. Budget periods are usually years, quarters or months and directly
link to the completion of specific portions of a project or activity.
Activity-based budget is the budget for the costs of individual activities. In
activity-based budgeting, all costs are allocated to cost centers and then are
assigned to activities. Products or customers are allocated the costs based on
the amount of activity they consume. Activity-based budgets ensure cost
reduction and performance improvement. As activity-based budgeting requires a
new budgeting model, it requires careful planning and implementation.
Add-on budget is the budget based on the previous years’ budgets adjusted for
current information. For example, add-on budgets can be adjusted for new levels
of inflation, employee wage rates, or new requirements.
Bracket budget is the budget at higher and lower levels than the base estimate.
Essentially bracket budgets are contingency expense plans for downside risks.
For example, such budgets allow management to estimate an impact of
decreased sales on earnings. In bracket budgeting, management identifies
potential problems and acceptable profit. In this way, management can test
different alternatives and improve planning process.
Continuous (rolling) budget is the budget revised on a regular basis. As the
period ends, a new budget period is added. For example, the budget can be
regularly extended for another month (or quarter) at the end of each month (or
quarter). As the result, continuous budgets are based on the most recent
information and ensure proper planning and performance. The drawback of
continuous budgets is that they require continuous planning. Computer
technology permits companies to employ continuous or perpetual budgets.
These budgets may be constantly updated to relate to the next 12 months or next
4 quarters, etc. as one period is completed, another is added to the forward
looking budgetary information. This approach provides for continuous monitoring
and planning and allows managers more insight and reaction time to adapt to
changing conditions. An analogy might be made to driving. A bad driver might
focus only on getting from one intersection to the next. A good driver will
constantly monitor conditions well beyond the upcoming intersection, anticipating
the need to change lanes as soon as distant events first cone into view.
Encumbrances. In working with budgets, especially budgets of governmental
units, you may encounter an “encumbrance”. An encumbrance is a budgetary
restriction occurring in advance of a related expenditure. The purpose of an
encumbrance is to embark funds for a designated future purpose. For instance, a
department may have $100,000 budgeted for office supplies for the upcoming
year. However, the department may have already entered into a $500 per month
contract for copy machine repair service. Although $100,000 is budgeted, the
remaining free balance is only $94,000 because $6,000 has already been
committed for the repair service. At any point in time, the total budget, minus
actual expenditures, minus remaining encumbrances, would result in the residual
free budget balance for the period.
Flexible Budgets. Flexible budgets relate anticipated expenses to observed
revenue. To illustrate, if a business greatly exceeded the sales goal, it is
reasonable to expect costs to also exceed planned levels. After all, some items
like cost of sales, sales commissions, and shipping costs are directly related to
volume. Failing to meet sales goals should be accompanied by a reduction in
variable costs. A flexible budget is one that reflects expected costs as a function
of business volume; when sales rise so do certain budgeted costs, and vice
Incremental budget is the budget adjusted for incremental increases in terms of
dollars or percentages. Historically incremental budgeting has been the most
common budgeting method. It is based on the prior’s year expenditures. In
incremental budgeting, each budget line receives the same increment (e.g., 10%
percent) increase or decrease for the next budget cycle. Projects can also be
segregated in multiple increments, and each increment is then allocated labor
and other resources to complete the project. Incremental budget are easy to
prepare. However, they have multiple drawbacks. Incremental budgets are based
on aggregate data. They might not match company’s targets. Incremental
budgets can potentially cause over- or underfunding of certain areas.
Strategic budget is the budget adjusted for strategic planning. Strategic budgets
are used under conditions of uncertainty or instability. Strategic budgeting is the
mixture between the top-down approach – when top management allocates
resources – and the bottom-up approach – when lower management participates
in resource allocation.
Stretch budget is the budget based on sales and marketing forecasts that are
higher than estimates. Stretch budgets are not used for estimating expenditures;
expenses are estimated at the budget target. Stretch budgets can be too
subjective or complex.
Supplemental budget is the budget for an area that is not included in the main
Target budget is the budget that matches major expenditures to company’s
RESPONSIBILITY FOR BUDGETING
Operations and responsibilities are normally divided among different segments
and managers. This introduces the concept of “responsibility accounting.” Under this
concept, units and their managers are held accountable for transactions and events
under their direct influence and control. Budgets should provide sufficient detail to
reflect anticipated revenues and costs for each unit. This philosophy pushes the budget
down to a personal level, and mitigates attempts to pass blame to others. Without the
harsh reality of an enforced system of responsibility, an organization will quickly become
less efficient. Deviations do not always suggest the need for imposition of penalties.
Poor management and bad execution are not the only reasons things don’t always go
according to plan. But, deviations should be examined and unit managers need to
The budget committee is responsible for the over-all policy matters related to
budgeting process. It is responsible in making the budget program and in coordinating
with the preparation of the budget itself. It is usually composed of the president, vice
presidents in charge of various functions. It resolves any difficulties or conflicts between
the departments or segments of the organization. The budget committee approves the
final budget and receives periodic reports on the progress of the company in attaining
budgeted goals. Further, the budget committee is tasked to prepare the budget manual.
Budget manual is the handbook where all rules, procedures, and policies are outlined.
Contents of Budget Manual:
Objectives and policies of the enterprise
Definition of line of authority and responsibility
Functions and responsibilities of the budget committee and the budget
Time schedules for budget preparation
Instructions and forms to be used
Program for preparation of budgets
Procedures for obtaining approval
Forms, nature and responsibility for the preparation of the budget
Procedures for budgetary control and account codes in use
Some Basic Factors to Consider in Preparing the Budget
Nature of demand for the product
Length of trade cycle
Length of production cycle
Functional area covered
Need for control of operations
Time interval necessary for financing production well in advance of actual results
The accounting period
Some Limitations of Budgeting
Accuracy of estimates. As budgets are prepared for the future, data are purely
based on estimates and those estimates are the product of different bases on
hand at present which may lead to some errors.
Adverse reactions from employees. People preparing the budget must consider
the reasonable degree at achievability; otherwise, it may demoralize the
Amount of work used in developing good budget. As the budget has to be
completed at a specified period, the time used may not be enough to come up
with good estimates.
The best kind of budget is the one that works. You can choose from three key
approaches to developing a budget. Each has its advantages and disadvantages, and
each approach can work well, although the pendulum is clearly swinging in favor of the
bottom up approach.
Top down (or mandated budgets): Budgets are prepared by top management
and imposed on the lower layers of the organization. They can cover sales goals,
expenditure levels, guidelines for compensation, and more. Top down budgets
clearly express the performance goals and expectations of top management, but
can be unrealistic because they do not incorporate the input of the very people
who implement them.
Bottom up (or participative budgets): Supervisors and middle managers
prepare the budget for their units. These individual budgets are then grouped and
regrouped to form a divisional budget with mid-level executives adding their input
along the way and then forward them up the chain of command for review and
approval. These budgets tend to be more accurate and can have a positive
impact on employee morale because employees assume an active role in
providing financial input to the budgeting process.
Zero-based budgeting: Each manager prepares estimates of his or her
proposed expenses for a specific period of time as though they were being
performed for the first time. Zero is taken as the base and a budget is developed
on the basis of likely activities for the future period. In other words, each activity
starts from a budget base of zero. By starting from scratch at each budget cycle,
managers are required to take a close look at all their expenses and justify them
to top management, thereby minimizing waste.
Walther, L. M. & Skousen, C. J. (2009). Budgeting and decision making. USA: Ventus