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Session 2 ppt fg

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Session 2 ppt fg

  1. 1. Foundations of Individual Behavior Chapter 2
  2. 2. Learning Objectives • Contrast two types of ability • Define intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance to OB • Identify the key biographical characteristics and describe how they are relevant • Define learning and outline the principles of three major theories of learning • Define shaping and show how it can be used in OB • Show how culture affects our understanding of intellectual abilities, biographical characteristics and learning
  3. 3. ABILITY • Ability is an individual’s current capacity to perform various tasks in a job. • Current assessment of what one can do • Made up of two sets of factors: Intellectual Abilities Physical Abilities
  4. 4. Intellectual Abilities • The abilities needed to perform mental activities.  Thinking  Reasoning  Problem solving • General Mental Ability (GMA) is a measure of overall intelligence. • Wonderlic Personnel Test: a quick measure of intelligence for recruitment screening • No correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction.
  5. 5. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability Number Aptitude Verbal Comprehension Memory Spatial Visualization Intellectual Ability Deductive Reasoning 2-5 Inductive Reasoning Perceptual Speed
  6. 6. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability Dimensions Descriptions Job Example Number aptitude Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic Accountant5 computing the sales tax on a set of items Verbal Comprehension Ability to understand what is read or heard Plant manager: following corporate policies on hiring Perceptual speed Ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately Fire investigator: identifying clues to support a charge of arson Inductive reasoning Ability to identify a logical sequence in Market researcher: forecasting demand a problem and then solve the problem for a product in the next time period Deductive reasoning Ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument Supervisor: choosing between two different suggestions Spatial Visualization Ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed Interior decorator: redecorating an office Memory Ability to retain and recall past experience Salesperson: remembering the names of customers
  7. 7. Physical Abilities • The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics • Physical abilities have been and will remain important for successfully doing certain jobs • Research has identified nine basic abilities involved in the performance of physical task • Individuals differ in the extent to which they have each of these abilities • There is little relationship among them • A high score on one is no assurance of high score others
  8. 8. Physical Abilities • High employee performance is likely to be achieved when management has ascertained the extent to which job requires each of the nine abilities and ensures that the employee in that job have those abilities • Nine Basic Physical Abilities A. Strength Factors 1. Dynamic Strength:  Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time 2. Trunk Strength:  Ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk(abdominal) muscles 3. Static strength:  ability to exert force against external objects 4. Explosive strength:  ability to expend a maximum energy in one or series of explosive acts
  9. 9. Physical Abilities • Nine Basic Physical Abilities (contd.) B. Flexibility Factors 5. Extent flexibility:  Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible 6. Dynamic flexibility:  Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements C. Other Factors 7. Body coordination:  ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body 8. Balance:  ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces putting off balance 9. Stamina:  Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time
  10. 10. BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS • There is a sizable amount of research on biographical factors (age, gender, length of service) and their relationship with productivity, absence, turnover citizenship, and satisfaction
  11. 11. BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS •         •    Age: Evidence indicate that employers hold mixed feelings about older workers Positive Qualities Experience, judgment A strong work ethic Commitment to quality Negative Aspects Lacking flexibility Resistant to new technology Age and turnover relationship The older you get the less likely you are to quit the job As workers get older they have fewer alternative job opportunities Older workers are less likely to resign because their long tenure tends to provide them with higher wages, and more attractive retirement benefits
  12. 12. BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS • Age and absenteeism relationship  Age – absence relationship is partially a function of whether absence is avoidable or unavoidable  In general, older workers have lower rates avoidable absence than younger workers  They have higher rates of unavoidable absence, probably due to poorer health associated with age • Age and Productivity Relationship  Age and job performance are unrelated
  13. 13. BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS  The finding seems to be true for almost all types of jobs professionals and nonprofessionals  The natural conclusion is that the demands of most jobs even those with heavy manual labor requirements are not extreme enough for any declines in physical skills attributable to age to have an impact on productivity; or if there is some decay due to age, it is offset by gains due to experience • Age and job satisfaction  The evidence is mixed  Most studies indicate a positive relationship between age and satisfaction at least up to age 60  Other studies have found U shaped relationship  The most plausible explanation being that these studies are intermixing professional and non professional employees  When two types are separated , satisfaction continually increase among professionals as they age, whereas it falls among non professionals during middle ages and then rises again in the latter years
  14. 14. BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS • Gender • There are few, if any, important differences between men and women that will affect their job performance, including the areas of:  No consistent male-female differences in problem-solving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning motive  Psychological studies have found that women are more willing to conform to authority  Men are more aggressive and more likely than women have expectation of success  There is a difference between men and women in terms of preference for work schedules  Working mothers are more likely to prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules, and telecommuting  No significant difference than men in turnover rates  Women have higher absence rate than men
  15. 15. BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS • Race and Ethnicity Controversial Issue Employees tend to favor colleagues from their own race in performance evaluations, promotion decisions, pay raises.
  16. 16. BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS • Tenure  Extensive reviews have been conducted of the seniority –productivity relationship  If seniority is defined as time on particular job most recent evidence demonstrate a positive relationship between seniority and job productivity  Seniority to be negatively related to absenteeism  The longer is a person on the job, the less likely he/she is to quit  Tenure and job satisfaction are positively related
  17. 17. Learning • Learning is relative change in behavior that is brought about by experience 1. Learning involves changes  Change may be good or bad from organizational point of view  People can learn unfavorable behaviors 2. The change must become ingrained  one must distinguish short-term changes in behavior that are due to factors other than learning  Example: decline in performance due to fatigue, sickness, and under the influence of alcohol or drugs 3. Some form of experience is necessary for learning  Experienced may be acquired directly through observation, or practice, or it may be acquired indirectly as through reading  Some changes in behavior or performance comes about through maturation; inherited, genetic factors representing the nature part. THESE CHANGES ARE NOT THE RESULT OF EXPERIENCE
  18. 18. Classical Conditioning • A type of learning in which neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is shared with a stimulus that naturally bring about that response  Neutral stimulus: a stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response  Unconditioned stimulus (US) : a stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned (Reflexive Response)  Unconditioned Response (UCR) : a response that is natural and needs no training Examples of Unconditioned stimulus and response • Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Unconditioned Response ( UR)  Individual is stuck by a pin and  Individual is shocked by a electric pin and flinches jumps and screams  Conditioned Stimulus ( CS): A once neutral stimulus that has been paired with conditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus  Conditioned Response (CR): A response that after conditioning follows a previously neutral stimulus
  19. 19. Classical Conditioning Meat Powder (Unconditioned Stimulus) Bell (Conditioned Stimulus) Bell (Conditioned Stimulus) Saliva (Unconditioned response) Meat Powder (Unconditioned Stimulus) Saliva (Unconditioned Response) Saliva (Conditioned response)
  20. 20. Steps in Classical Conditioning Professor gives surprise Quiz (UCS) Professor Wears black suit Professor wears black suit Students feel anxiety ( UCR) + Professor gives surprise quiz Students feel anxiety Students feel anxiety
  21. 21. Classical Conditioning • Stimulus Generalization  Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response • Example if you get sick after eating clams, the chances are that you will avoid eating oysters as well • If you had a bad experience in the dentist chair, the sound of neighbor high speed drill may make you uncomfortable • Generalization makes adaptive sense • Things that look, sound, or feel similar often share similar properties • It really does not matter if it is loin, tiger, or panther leaping at you --- you should run
  22. 22. Classical Conditioning • Stimulus Discrimination • Occurs when you respond to a new stimulus in a way that is different from your response to the original conditioned stimulus • Through stimulus discrimination you reveal that you can distinguish between stimuli, even when those stimuli are quite similar • When stimuli do share properties – for example two tones of similar pitch – people often need to experience to learn to discriminate
  23. 23. Classical Conditioning • In management the best example to demonstrate the principle of generalization is the principle of “ Management by exception”. • For example a sales supervisor may set performance benchmark for his salesmen as minimum of 22 units per month • As long as the salesmen are selling 22 units he is quite satisfied with the performance of his team • As soon as it goes below this number he starts investigating the reasons for low performance • In the above example when the salespersons are achieving their targeted sales he is using principle of stimulus generalization • He is also using principle of stimulus discrimination by identifying sales persons whose performance is below 22 units per month
  24. 24. Classical Conditioning • • • • • Classical Conditioning is passive Something happens and we react in a specific way It is elicited in response to specific , identifiable event It can only explain simple reflexive behaviors Most behaviors of individuals in organizations are emitted rather than elicited (voluntary rather reflexive) • Examples: employee choose to arrive at work on time • Ask their bosses for help with their problems • The learning of those behaviors is better understood by looking at operant conditioning
  25. 25. Instrumental / Operant Conditioning • Thorndike’s Law of Effect • “ Of several responses made to the same situation, those that accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction will more likely to recur, those which are accompanied or closely followed by discomfort will less likely to occur. • This definition suggests the following: 1. Several responses or behaviors can occur in a given situation 2. Not all behaviors, however, will be associated with that situation in the future 3. Only positive reinforced (rewarded) behaviors will most likely to occur 4. Behaviors associated with punishment or other aversive stimuli will diminish 5. Behaviors not reinforced are not likely to occur in future
  26. 26. The Nature of Reinforcers • A reinforcer is a stimulus that occurs a after a response and increases the likelihood that the response (behavior) will be repeated • Primary Versus Secondary Reinforcers:  Primary reinforcers are those that are necessary for survival i.e., satisfy biological needs.  Secondary Reinforcers do not directly satisfy biological needs  Examples ; a compliment, A grade in an exam, money, etc.  These reinforcers are established through classical conditioning  We learn to associate a neutral stimulus, such as money (CS) with rewards such as food, security, and power (US
  27. 27. Increasing The Probability Of Behavior • Positive Reinforcement:  Through the administration of a stimulus (Rewards) increases the probability that a behavior will be repeated  Rewarded behaviors will increases in frequency, as when people work harder in response to praise, or increased pay • Negative Reinforcement  Increases behavior through removal of a stimulus  When one is trying to avoid or escape an unwanted stimulus  The seven absence rule in I. U., is an example of negative reinforcement • The key point is that reinforcement - positive or negative , increases the likelihood of a behavior
  28. 28. Reducing the Probability Of Behavior • Punishment : Involves following an unwanted behavior with some unpleasant, aversive stimulus In theory, this should reduce the probability of the response when the organism learns that the behavior leads to unwanted consequences • Extinction/ withdrawal: Terminating the reinforcement that is maintaining some unwanted behavior
  29. 29. The Practice of reinforcing consequence of Contingent Reward ( something desirable) Noxious Stimuli (Something aversive or undesirable) Application Positive Reinforcement Behavior Increase Punishment Behavior Decrease Withdrawal Punishment/ extinction Behavior Decrease Negative Reinforcement Behavior increase
  30. 30. The Use Of Punishment • Meaning Of Punishment  Punishment results in a decrease in the frequency of an undesired behavior  Unless the punishment is severe the behavior will reappear again, but the bigger the punishment the greater the negative side effect  To minimize the problems, the person administering it should always provide an acceptable alternate behavior • Administering Punishment 1. It should be immediate 2. It should be in private 3. It should have advance warning 4. It should be consistent 5. It should be impersonal 6. It should provide an acceptable alternative behavior
  31. 31. Continuous and Partial Reinforcement Schedules • Continuous Reinforcement :  A type of learning in which the desired behavior is influenced each time it occurs • Partial Reinforcement Schedule:  A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently • The partial-reinforcement extinction effect:  Refers to greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement  During continuous reinforcement the learner easily can detect when reinforcement has stopped  When the behavior is reinforced only some of the times to detect , the learner has to repeat the behavior comparatively more times to detect the absence of reinforcement  Thus the less frequent the reinforcement during training , the greater the resistance to extinction  Conditioning a behavior so that it persists involves reinforcing continuously during early acquisition and then slowly changing to partial reinforcement
  32. 32. Types of Partial Reinforcement Schedule • Ratio and Interval Schedules • Ratio Schedule:  Is based on the number of times a behavior , occurs, as when behavior is reinforced every 3rd or 10th time behavior occurs  Example : factory workers are paid on piece rate • Interval Schedules:  Is based on specific unit of time, as when behavior is reinforced when it is performed every minute or hour  Example: a factory worker is paid by the hour (passage of time)  Ratio Reinforcement generally leads to a greater responding than does interval ratio  Example: Factory workers paid by piece rate are usually more productive than those paid by the hour, especially if the workers receive incentives for higher productivity
  33. 33. Types of Partial Reinforcement Schedule • Fixed and Variable Schedules: • Fixed Schedule: it can be both interval or ratio schedules • Fixed interval Schedule:  The reinforcer consistently is given after fixed time  Examples: Workers are paid a hourly wage  When quizzes are scheduled at fixed intervals students study only when the quiz is to be administered (the grade is the reinforcer) • Fixed Ratio  When the reinforcer is consistently given after a specific number of occurrences  Examples : When a worker is paid by the piece rate they are paid according to a fix rate , earning the same for each piece
  34. 34. Types of Partial Reinforcement Schedule  • •    •   When you are paid each time you complete some work Variable Schedule Variable Interval: Reinforcer is given at different times The responder does not know how much time needs to pass before reinforcement will occur Example: you listen to the radio to hear your favorite song. You don’t know when you will hear it Variable ratio: The respondent does not know how many behaviors need to be performed before reinforcement to occur A slot machine pays off on average every few pulls , but you never know when the pull will pay
  35. 35. Principles of learning in Operant conditioning Fixed Monthly salary Interval Intermittent reinforcement Variable Ratio Fixed promotion Piece rate Interval Praise Bonus
  36. 36. Schedules of reinforcement Schedule of reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcer Applied Quickest approach to establish a new motivated behavior Reinforcer Removed Quickest approach to extinguish a new motivated behavior Partial Reinforcement a. Variable interval b. Variable Ratio Frequencies of motivated behavior slow but more consistent Slower Extinction rate of motivated behavior c. Fixed Interval Frequencies of motivated behavior are less consistent than variable schedule Faster Extinction rate of motivated behavior than variable schedule d. Fixed Ratio
  37. 37. Behavior Modification • Is the use of operant conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones • The general rationale is behind behavior modification is that most unwanted behaviors are learned and there fore can be eliminated • People can be taught , for example to be more productive at work, to save energy, drive more safely
  38. 38. Behavioral Performance Management or O.B. MOD. Major Steps Step 1. Identify: Performance related Behavioral events. These have to do with quality and quantity of work. These should be observable, measurable, and critical to the task Step 2. Measure: How often are the performance behavior identified in step I occurring under existing conditions. This called base line data Step3. Analyze: What are the antecedent (A) cues of the performance behavior (B) and what are the contingent consequences (C). ABC analysis is necessary prerequisite for developing an effective strategy Step 4: Goal is to accelerate functional performance behaviors and de-accelerate dysfunctional ones. Positive reinforcement strategies of social recognition and feedback are mostly used Step 5. Evaluate: To make sure that intervention lead to performance, if not than another analysis and intervention made
  39. 39. Example of steps in O.B. MOD Step 1: Identify. Coming to work on time Step 2; Measure. Each member of the work group is late at-least three times a week Step 3: Analysis. Workers know that they should come to work on time but receive no positive reinforcement for doing so or punishment for coming late Step 4: intervention. Positively reinforce workers for coming on time as follows: A worker is allowed one Friday afternoon off each month he/she is never late Step 5. Evaluate. Workers always come on time
  40. 40. OB Modification Steps for Self Improvement 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify a target behavior, such as losing 25 pounds, jogging 2 miles, or controlling your temper Establish a baseline. Record your present status. This means you must write your present weight, the distance you can jog, or the number of times you lose temper each day Identify a suitable reinforcer. Find a reward that will motivate you. Make a list of your favorite thing and then find the one that will be most appropriate for you Set sub-goals, or steps toward the target. Your sub-goal might be losing 2 pounds each week, or jogging ¼ mile, then ½ mile, then 1 mile, and finally 2 miles Write down achievement of sub-goals as planned and reward yourself with a suitable reinforcer identified in step 3
  41. 41. Social Learning/ Observational learning • Individuals can learn by observing what happens to others, and just by being told about something as well as through direct experience • This view that we can learn through both observation and experience is calle3d social-learning theory • Although social learning theory is an extension of operant conditioning – that is it assumes that behavior is a function of consequences • It also acknowledges the existence of observational learning and importance of perceptions • People respond to how they perceive and define consequences , not to objective consequences themselves • The influence of models is central to the social-learning • Four processes have been found to determine the influence that model will have on an individual
  42. 42. Social Learning/ Observational learning 1.   2.  3.   4.   Attentional processes People learn from model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features Most influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, important and similar Retention Process How well the individual remembers model’s action after the model is no longer available Motor Reproduction process: Observed model behavior must be converted to doing This process then demonstrates that individual can perform modeled activities Reinforcement Process: Individuals are motivated to exhibit behavior if proper incentives are provided Behaviors that are positively reinforced are given more attention, learned better, and performed more often

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