IPE 331: Production Process 3.00 Credit Hours
Prof. Dr. Shamsuddin Ahmed
Room 210, GR Campus
Where to Start?
Humour without Malice
1. Ahmad was speaking to his friend and shared his happiness with him. So he
said that he is fortunate to have been given two very special gifts in life. The
friend was listening – there was a pause. He then asked: what are they Ahmad?
Ahmad replied: one is a very good memory that God has given me. Ahmad
paused again, and when his friend asked: what is the second one? Ahmad
replied: Oh, wait a minute, I am trying to remember!
2. A man fell on the ground and soon after fell down again. He said to himself:
“Had I known I was going to fall a second time, I would have not gotten up so
“The goal of education is the advancement of knowledge and the dissemination of
truth.” John F Kennedy
“The function of Education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically.
Intelligence plus Character that is the goal of true Education. - Dr. Martin Luther
“Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.” - Aristotle
“Education is not the learning of facts, but the training of the mind to think.” - Alber
“There are two educations. One should teach us how to make a living and the other
how to live.” - John Adams
“You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time,
but you cannot fool all the people all the time” - Abraham Lincoln
Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave. He who leaves home in search
of knowledge, walks in the path of God. -Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
“Who am I?”, “why am I here?”, “what is the purpose of existence?” What is my
So, Let’s work for the welfare of mankind.
Let’s collectively SAVE
ENERGY (ELECTRICITY etc.)
ANY OTHER RESOURCES
WASTE NOT ANYTHING
THE WELFARE OF SU, BANGLADESH AND MANKIND
What is Engineering? Or, Who is an Engineer?
Engineering is a profession in which the knowledge of mathematics and natural
sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgment to
develop ways and means to utilize, economically, the material and forces of nature for
the benefit of mankind (ABET).
Engineering and Science
Science is concerned with quest of basic knowledge. Engineering is concerned with
the application of scientific knowledge to the solutions of problems and to the quest
for better life.
Basic science is known as “knowing science”, whereas engineering is known as “doing
science”. However, the development of science and engineering often occur hand-in-
hand. In some cases, a scientist and an engineer might be the same person.
Engineers and other professionals
Engineers solve problems and use mathematics
Engineers analyze data
Engineer design systems. Design = analysis + synthesis
Engineers use resources (materials, machines, men, money). They need to analyze
lots of data and come up with (mostly) tangible solutions.
Engineer comes from old French word in the form of verb (’ingenier)
An engineer is one who seeks in his mind, who sets his mental power in action, in
order to discover or devise some means of succeeding in a difficult task he may have
to perform. To be human is to be an engineer.
Engineer => Art + Artifacts => Design + how it goes about
Key words for an engineer: change, resources, best, and uncertainty.
Strategy for causing the best change in a poorly understood situation within the
The basic steps are as below:
1) Problem symptom (need expression)
2) Problem definition
3) Statement of the desired outcome
5) Synthesis of alternative solution
6) Decision (one alternative solution)
7) Solution (system or method)
What is Mechanical Engineering?
Mechanical Engineering is -
If it needs engineering but it doesn’t involve electrons, chemical reactions,
arrangement of molecules, life forms, isn’t a structure (building/bridge/dam) and
doesn’t fly, a mechanical engineer will take care of it… but if it does involve electrons,
chemical reactions, arrangement of molecules, life forms, is a structure or does fly,
mechanical engineers may handle it anyway Although every engineering faculty
member in every engineering department will claim that his/her field is the broadest
engineering discipline, in the case of Mechanical Engineering that’s actually true
because the core material permeates all engineering systems (fluid mechanics, solid
mechanics, heat transfer, control systems, etc.) Mechanical engineering is one of the
oldest engineering fields but in the past 20 years has undergone a rather remarkable
transformation as a result of a number of new technological developments.
Define manufacturing engineering. Why is it important today?
Manufacturing Engineering is the process of designing a product(s) and production
process(es) to produce the product(s). Manufacturing is an industrial activity to
transform (raw) materials and information into goods/products, mainly by machinery,
normally on large scale and with division of labor, for the welfare and satisfaction of
Manufacturing is now the primary wealth-generating activity for a nation. It is the
backbone of an industrial nation. Level of manufacturing is related to economic health
and standard of living of the people. It has significant role in national development –
economic development and employment. Service sector is enhanced by increasing
IPE 331: Production Process 3.00 Credit Hours
Syllabus: Selection of machining. Casting: sand, die, centrifugal and other types of
casting, casting design and casting defects Chip less metal forming process: different
types of hot and cold working processes. Welding arc, gas, TIG, MIG, resistance,
thermite, and special types, Brazing and soldering. Tool geometry and chip formation
processes. Metal removing processes: turning, drilling, shaping, planning, milling,
broaching, grinding, precision and non-precision finishing processes. Plastic, ceramic
and glass product manufacturing processes.
Manufacturing vs production
Manufacturing is a process of converting raw material in to finished product by using
various processes, machines and energy. It is a narrow term. Production is a process
of converting inputs in to outputs. It is a broader term. Every type of
manufacturing can be production, but every production is not a manufacturing.
Manufacturing encompasses –
Design of the product
Selection of raw materials
Sequence of processes to produce/manufacture the product.
Basic manufacturing processes
– Casting: expandable molding and permanent molding
– Deformation - Forming and shaping: rolling, forging, extrusion, drawing, sheet
forming, powder metallurgy molding
– Machining: turning, boring, drilling, milling, planing, shaping, broaching, grinding,
ultrasonic machining; chemical, electrical, and electrochemical machining and high
energy electron beam machining
– Joining: welding, brazing, soldering, diffusion bonding, adhesive bonding and
– Micro and nano manufacturing: surface micromachining, dry and wet etching, and
– Finishing: honing, lapping, polishing, burnishing, deburring, surface treating,
coating and plating
Factors affecting process selection
• Component/part shape
• Materials characteristics – castability, formability, machinability, weldability, etc.
• Part size and dimensional accuracy
• Volume of production
Manufacturing and operational cost
Process manufacturing is the production of goods that are typically produced in bulk
quantities, as opposed to discrete and countable units. Process
manufacturing industries include chemicals, food and beverage, gasoline, paint and
Fabrication is an industrial term that refers to the manipulation of raw materials (such
as steel) for the making of machines and structures. Steel and other metals are cut
and shaped during the fabrication process. Fabrication is a very hands-on part of
the manufacturing process.
Sheet metal fabrication is using sheet metal to build metal machines and structures.
It can be a complex process involving many different professionals. Businesses that
specialize in sheet metal fabrication are commonly referred to as fabrication shops,
or fab shops for short.
Materials used in today’s manufacturing
Ferrous metals: carbon steels, alloy steels, stainless steels, and tool and die
Nonferrous metals and alloys: Al, Mg, Cu, Ni, superalloys, Ti, refractory
metals (Mb, Nb, W, beryllium, Zr, low melting alloys (lead, zinc and tin), and
Plastics: Thermosets, thermoplastics, and elastomers
Glass and Ceramics: Glass ceramics, glasses, graphite, and diamond
Composites: Reinforced plastics, metal-matrix and ceramics-matrix
composites, and honeycomb structures
Nanomaterials, shape-memory alloys, metal foams, amorphous alloys, super
conductors and Semiconductors
Material properties: mechanical, physical, chemical, manufacturing
Manufacturing System Designs
Job Shop Production
Small quantities of products
Large variety of products
Products move through the shop to various machines
o Larger quantities of products
o Production line
o Special purpose machines
o Manufacturing and subassembly cells connected to final assembly
o Lean production system
o One piece flow system
o Product being manufactured cannot be easily moved during production.
o Production processes are brought to the product.
o Examples: Bridges, ships, large airplanes, locomotives, large machinery.
o Large plants
o Utilized in the manufacture of liquids, oils, gases, and powders
Casting and Foundry Processes
In a step, raw materials are transformed into a desirable shape
Parts require finishing processes
Excess material is recyclable
Basic Casting Process
A mold is created – A cavity that holds the molten material in a desired shape
until it is solidified
o Multiple-use mold
o Single-use molds
Material is heated to a specified temperature
Molten material is poured into a mold cavity
Molten material solidifies into the shape of the cavity
Casting or mold is removed
Casting is cleaned, finished, and inspected
Utilizing property of metals, that is ability to flow plastically in the solid state without
deteriorating their properties. Application of high pressure to move material to desired
shape with negligible wastage. Expensive tools and machines are needed, so large
production volume is important.
Forming and Metalworking Processes
Utilizes material that has been cast
Modify the shape, size, and physical properties of the material
Hot and cold forming
Rolling – Material passes through a series of rollers, reducing its thickness with each
Forging – Material is shaped by the controlled application of force (blacksmith)
Extrusion – Material is compressed and forced through a die to produce a uniformed
Wire, rod, and tube drawing – Material is pulled through a die to produce a uniformed
Cold forming and forging – Slugs of material are squeezed into dies
Controlled removal of material from a part to create a specific shape or surface finish
Cutting element is used
Movement must exist between the part and cutting element
Operations that create cylindrical parts
Work piece rotates as cutting tool is fed into the work
Lathes and turning centers
Processes include: Straight, taper, contour turning, facing, forming, necking, parting,
boring, threading, and knurling
Operations that create flat or curved surfaces by progressively removing
Cutting tools rotate as the work piece is secured and fed into the tool
Mills – Vertical and horizontal
Processes include: Surfacing, shaping, forming, slotting, T-slotting, angle, straddle,
dovetailing, and slab milling
Operations that create holes
Cutting tools rotate and are fed into nonmoving secured work pieces
Drilling and boring machines
Processes include: Drilling, counter drilling, step drilling, boring, counter boring,
countersinking, reaming, spot facing, and tapping
Operations that break unwanted material away from the part
A material is placed between a stationary and movable surface. The movable
surface (blade, die, or punch) applies a force to the part that shears away the
Automated hole punch, squaring shear, and rotary cutter
Processes include: Shearing, blanking, cutoff, and parting; punching,
perforating, and slotting; notching, lacing, and trimming
Abrasive machining processes
Operations in which small particles of materials (abrasives) remove small chips
of material upon contact
Drum, disc, and belt sanders; surface, vertical and horizontal spindle; disc
grinders; media blaster; tumblers
Thermal and Chemical Processes
Operations that cut and shape materials through chemical means
No mechanical force is used
Electrical discharge, electrochemical, chemical, laser, electron beam, flame
cutting, and plasma-arc cutting
Processes include: Grinding, sawing, cutting, machining, milling, blanking, and
Heat Treating Processes
Controlled heating and cooling of a material to alter its properties while
maintaining its shape
Properties include: Strength, toughness, machinability, wear resistance, and
90% of heat treating is preformed on steel and other ferrous metals
To aid in the manufacturing process, materials can be treated to be weak and
ductile and then can be re-treated to provide high strength.
Can also occur incidentally during the manufacturing process
Joining and Assembly Processes
Can you think of a product with only one part?
Most products consist of multiple parts that are assembled to form a finished
Typical assembly processes include: Mechanical fastening; soldering and
brazing, welding; adhesive bonding
Use physical force to hold parts together
Mechanical fasteners or part design
Screws, bolts, nails, rivets, cotter pins, retaining clips, and edge design
Operations that use heat, pressure, or both to permanently join parts
Gas, arc, stud, spot, forge, roll laminating, resistance, and induction welding
Bonding of adjoining surfaces by filling the gap between each surface with a bonding
Glue, cement, thermoplastic, thermosetting, and elastomers
Soldering and Brazing
Operation in which metal surfaces are bonded together by an alloy
Heated molten alloy flows between the adjoining surfaces
When the heat is removed, the molten metal solidifies and the metal surfaces are
Parts are produced directly from software applications
Common rapid prototyping systems include: stereolithography (SLA), selective
laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling (FDM), laminated object
manufacturing (LOM), digital light processing (DLP).
Finished parts can be field tested depending upon building material
Created parts can be used to create a mold
Modifications to design can be implemented quickly.
Plastics Manufacturing Processes
A rotating screw forces plastic through a heating chamber and then through a
Produces long plastic parts with uniform cross sections.
Injection Molding on Plastic Mfg process
Heated plastic is forced by a movable plunger through a nozzle and then into a
mold. The material fills the mold and then is cooled.
Most widely used high-volume production process.
Casting (Plastics Manufacturing Processes)
Plastic is melted and poured into a mold – No pressure or fillers are required.
A closed mold is filled with a predetermined amount of plastic. The mold is heated,
rotated, and then cooled to create a hollow plastic object with uniform wall thickness.
A solid bottom hollow tube is placed between two mold halves and heated. The heated
tube is then expanded into the sides of the mold with compressed air.
Plastic sheets are heated over an open mold to a working temperature. Once
workable, a vacuum is applied to the mold, forcing the plastic sheet to take the shape
of the mold.
Liquid reactants are mixed and then pressurized into a mold.
No heat is needed. Curing time is typically less than 1 minute.
Ceramic Manufacturing Processes
Two distinct classes of materials and processes exist.
Glass is heated to a molten state, shaped by viscous flow, and then cooled to produce
Material is shaped and then heated to produce a permanent solid.
Manufacturing Importance - Typical product cost breakdown